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Metamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamaterial Inspired ImprovedMetamateri

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  • UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DO RIO GRANDE DO NORTE TELECOM PARISTECH

    METAMATERIAL INSPIRED IMPROVED

    ANTENNAS AND CIRCUITS

    DAVI BIBIANO BRITO

    NATAL, RN - BRAZIL NOVEMBER 2010

  • i

    UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DO RIO GRANDE DO NORTE TELECOM PARISTECH

    Metamaterial Inspired Improved Antennas and

    Circuits.

    Davi Bibiano Brito

    Natal, RN - Brazil November 2010

    D.Sc. Dissertation presented to the Program of Post-Graduation in Electrical Engineering of UFRN (Area of Concentration: Telecommunications) as part of the requirements to obtain the title of Doctor of Science.

  • ii

    Table of Contents

    Chapter 1 Introduction ..................................................................................................... 10

    Chapter 2 Metamaterials .................................................................................................. 12 2.1 Metamaterials Overview ........................................................................................................... 12 2.2 Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in a Metamaterial Media ................................................. 17 2.3 Artificial Materials .................................................................................................................... 18 2.4 Bianisotropic Media .................................................................................................................. 23

    2.4.1 Double-Negative and Indefinite Media ............................................................................... 24 2.4.2 Photonic and Electromagnetic Criystal ................................................................................ 25

    2.5 Summary ................................................................................................................................... 27

    Chapter 3 Frenquency Selective Surfaces ....................................................................... 28 3.1 FSS Element Types ................................................................................................................... 30 3.2 Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in a Metamaterial Media ................................................. 31

    2.2.1 Infinite FSS Arrays .............................................................................................................. 32 2.2.2 Fnfinite FSS Arrays ............................................................................................................. 32

    3.3 Metamaterial FSSs .................................................................................................................... 33 3.4 Bandwidth augmentation .......................................................................................................... 35 3.5 Summary ................................................................................................................................... 35

    Chapter 4 Microstrip Antennas and Filters with CSRR Parasitic Structures ............ 36 4.1 Ultra Wideband Monopole Antenna with Split Ring Resonator as Filter ................................ 37

    4.1.1 Complementary Split Ring Resonator ................................................................................. 42 4.1.2 Simulation and Experimental Results .................................................................................. 44

    4.2 CSRR Stop Band Filter ............................................................................................................. 54 4.3 Summary ................................................................................................................................... 58

    Chapter 5 Microstrip Antenas with HIS Ground Plane ................................................ 59 5.1 High Impedance Surfaces ......................................................................................................... 60 5.2 Microstrip Patch Antenna with HIS Ground Plane ................................................................... 62 5.3 Suspended U-Slot antenna on HIS Substrate ............................................................................ 67 5.4 Summary ................................................................................................................................... 71

    Chapter 6 Fabry-Prot Antennas ..................................................................................... 74 6.1 Fabry-Prot Interferometer ........................................................................................................ 74 6.2 The Fabry-Prot Antenna .......................................................................................................... 76

    6.2.1 Fabry-Prot Patch Antenna .................................................................................................. 77 6.2.2 Fabry-Prot Suspended U-Slot Antenna .............................................................................. 81

    6.3 Summary ................................................................................................................................... 84

    Chapter 7 Conclusions ...................................................................................................... 85

    Referencies ............................................................................................................................... 88

  • iii

    List of Acronyms and Symbols

    Divergence Operator B Magnetic Field

    BW Backwards Moving Wave. c Velocity of Light CSRR Complementary Split Ring Resonator D Electric Displacement Field DNG Double-Negative DPS Double-positive E Electric Field EBG Electromagnetic Band Gap ENG Epsilon-Negative 0 Free Space Permittivity eff Effective Permittivity r Relative Permittivity FSS Frequency Selective Surfaces H Magnetizing Field HIS High Impedance Surface k Wave Vector

    LHM Left-Handed Metamaterial Wavelength 0 Free Space Wavelength g Guided Wavelength MNG Mu-Negative 0 Free Space permeability eff Effective permeability r Relative permeability ! Index of Refraction PEC Perfectly Electrically Conducting S Poynting vector SNG Single-Negative SRR Split Ring Resonator Conductivity of the metal TW Thin-Wire

    Angular Frequency

  • iv

    List of Figures

    Figure. 2.1 Diagram showing the pointing vectors of an electromagnetic wave, left normal materials and on the right metamaterials ........................................................... 13

    Figure. 2.2 Ray diagram of interface between n>0 and n

  • v

    Figure 3.7 Superior view of a high impedance surface, patches connected to the ground plane with metal cylinders [32] ......................................................................... 34

    Figure 3.8 Origin of the equivalent circuit elements left and equivalent circuit model for the high-impedance surface right ...................................................................... 34

    Figure 4.1 Ultra wideband and UN-II spectrum ................................................................. 36

    Figure 4.2 Circular microstrip monopole antenna, the gray region denotes a conductor material .............................................................................................................. 39

    Figure. 4.3 (a) Return loss and (b) Smith chart for the microstrip circular monopole antenna ............................................................................................................. 40

    Figure 4.4 Circular microstrip monopole antenna with improved ground plane, the gray region denotes a conductor material .................................................................. 41

    Figure 4.5 Return loss for the improved microstrip circular monopole antenna ................ 41

    Figure 4.6 Geometries and equivalent circuit of a SRR and a CSRR, the gray region denotes a conductor material ............................................................................. 43

    Figure 4.7 UWB antenna with CSRR top view and the CRSS structure bottom view; the gray region denotes a conductor material ......................................................... 44

    Figure 4.8 Monopole antenna with different CSRR configurations ................................... 45

    Figure 4.9 Return loss for different CSRR configurations, red microstip line top center, green patchs center and blue patchs right center ............................................ 45

    Figure 4.10 Constructed antenna .......................................................................................... 46

    Figure 4.11 Return loss for the microstrip circular monopole antenna, red measured ......... 47

    Figure 4.12 Realized gain 3D pattern at (a) 4GHz, (b) 5.9GHZ and 6.5 GHz ..................... 48

    Figure 4.13 Anechoic chamber utilized in the measurements .............................................. 49

    Figure 4.14 Measurement schema for determine the radiation pattern ................................ 49

    Figure 4.15 Farfield radiation patterns E-plane on left and H-plane on the right (a) 4GHz, (b) 5.9 GHZ and 6.5GHz, blue simulated and red measured ............................ 51

    Figure 4.16 FCC Mask ......................................................................................................... 52

    Figure 4.17 FCC Pulse .......................................................................................................... 52

    Figure 4.18 Return loss for the microstrip monopole antenna with CSRR filter inserted in the conductor patch, green curve antenna exited with UWB pulse and red curve Gaussian pulse .............................

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