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  • 8/6/2019 Metternich%80%A0%A0%92%B2s Era


  • 8/6/2019 Metternich%80%A0%A0%92%B2s Era


    Metternichs Era

    1814 - 1848yAustrian envoy to the Elector of Saxony (January 1801 )

    y Established contact with Russian and Polish families

    Appointed ambassador to Berlin (November 1803)y On Napoleon request appointed Ambassador in Paris

    (August 1806)

    y Got arrested during war , released in exchange (1809)

    y Became Foreign Minister (October 1809)

    y Maintaining neutrality with France & Russia

    y Creation of the German States

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    Metternichs Era1814 1848

    Congress of ViennaSeptember, 1814 to June, 1815


    Napoleonic France's defeat and surrender in May 1814yA conference of ambassadors of European states

    y The Great Powers of France, United Kingdom, Austria,Russia, and Prussia participated


    The first of a series of international meetings thatcame to be known as the Concert of Europe

    y Congress was the first occasion in history where on acontinental scale people came together to formulatetreaties

  • 8/6/2019 Metternich%80%A0%A0%92%B2s Era


    Metternichs Era1814 1848

    Congress of ViennaSeptember, 1814 to June, 1815


    y To forge a peaceful balance of power in Europe

    y Issues include:

    y French Revolution,

    y Napoleonic Wars,

    y Dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire

    y Redrawing of the European Map

    y Establishing the boundaries of France

    y Negotiations continued despite Napoleon's resumption of power

    in France during the Hundred Days of MarchJuly, 1815.

  • 8/6/2019 Metternich%80%A0%A0%92%B2s Era


    Metternichs Era1814 1848

    Congress of ViennaSeptember, 1814 to June, 1815


    The Congress's "Final Act" was signed nine days beforeNapoleons final defeat at Waterloo on June 18, 1815.

    y Comments:

    y Congress of Vienna served as a model for later

    organizations such as the League of Nations and UnitedNations.

    y The Congress of Vienna settlement, formed theframework for European international politics until theoutbreak of the First World War in 1914.

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    Metternichs Era1814 1848

    Congress of ViennaSeptember, 1814 to June, 1815


    Partial settlements had already occurred at the Treaty ofParis between France and the Sixth Coalition

    y The Treaty of Paris had determined that a "generalcongress" should be held in Vienna, "all the Powers

    engaged on either side in the present war would beinvited. The opening was scheduled for July 1814.

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  • 8/6/2019 Metternich%80%A0%A0%92%B2s Era


    Metternichs Era

    1814 1848

    Congress of ViennaSeptember, 1814 to June, 1815

    y Charles Maurice de Talleyrand- proved an able negotiator for the

    defeated Frenchy He managed to skillfully insert himself into inner councils" in

    the first weeks of negotiations.

    y He allied himself to a Committee of Eight lesser powers(including Spain, Sweden, and Portugal) to control the

    negotiations.y The major Allies' indecision on how to conduct their affairs

    without provoking a united protest from the lesser powers led tothe calling of a preliminary conference on protocol, to whichTalleyrand and the Spain's representative, were invited

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    Congress of ViennaSeptember, 1814 to June, 1815

    Map of Europe, after the Congress of Vienna, 1815Map of Europe, after the Congress of Vienna, 1815

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  • 8/6/2019 Metternich%80%A0%A0%92%B2s Era


  • 8/6/2019 Metternich%80%A0%A0%92%B2s Era


    Metternichs Era

    1814 1848

    Congress of ViennaSeptember, 1814 to June, 1815

    Provisions:7. Hanover gave up the Duchy of Lauenburg toDenmark,

    8.Austria regained control of the Tirol and Salzburgreceived Lombardy-Venetia in Italy

    9. The Papal States were under the rule of the pope andrestored to their former extent.

    10. The United Kingdom was confirmed in control of thevarious other colonies in Africa and Asia.

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    Metternichs Era

    1814 1848

    Congress of ViennaSeptember, 1814 to June, 1815

    Provisions:11. The King of Sardinia was restored in Piedmont, Nice,

    and Savoy, and was given control of Genoa

    12. The slave trade was condemned.

    13. Freedom of navigation was guaranteed for manyrivers, notably the Rhine and the Danube.

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    Congress of ViennaSeptember, 1814 to June, 1815

    y Other changesy The Congress's principal results,

    y 1. Confirmation of France's loss of the territories annexed in17951810, Treaty of Paris,

    y 2. Enlargement of Russia, (which gained most of the Duchyof Warsaw) and Prussia, which acquired Westphalia and the

    northern Rhineland.y 3. The consolidation of Germany from the nearly 300 states

    of the Holy Roman Empire (dissolved in 1806) into a muchmore manageable thirty-eight states (These states wereformed into a loose German Confederation under the

    leadership of Prussia and Austria.

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    Congress of ViennaSeptember, 1814 to June, 1815y 4. By the Treaty of Kiel, Norway had been ceded by the

    king of Denmark-Norway to the king of Sweden.

    y 5. Austria gained Lombardy-Venetia in Northern Italy.

    y 6. The Papal States were restored to the Pope.

    y 7. The Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia was restored, andalso gained control of the Republic of Genoa.

    y 8. The Duchy of Lauenburg was transferred from Hanover

    to Denmark.y 9. Swedish Pomerania was annexed by Prussia.

    y 10. Switzerland was enlarged, and Swiss neutrality wasestablished.

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    Congress of ViennaSeptember, 1814 to June, 1815y Comments

    y Five main principles of the balance of power in 1814-15:y 1. Not to make a separate peace with Napoleon (Treaty of

    Chaumont March 1814 Austria, Great Britain, Prussia, and Russia)y 2. Restore the Bourbon monarchy in France and territorial

    integrity of France should not violated.y 3. Legitimate rights of the monarch were to be restored, not the

    rights of nations. To self determination.y 4. Gains of one ally had to be compensated by the gain of another

    (Poland)y 5. The hegemony of the great powers had to be balanced against

    the right of small states (Bavaria, Hanover, Saxony- 39 Germanstates were invited to send their representatives to a Diet atFrankfurt)

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    Congress of ViennaSeptember, 1814 to June, 1815y The Congress of Vienna was frequently criticized by

    nineteenth-century and more recent historians for:


    ignoring national and liberal impulsesy imposing a stifling reaction on the Continent

    y the liberties and civil rights associated with theAmerican and French Revolutions were de-

    emphasizedy It was termed as the Conservative Order.


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    Congress of ViennaSeptember, 1814 to June, 1815y Main decisions of the Congress were made by the Four

    Great Powers (Austria, Prussia, Russia and the UnitedKingdom), and not all the countries of Europe.

    y Italy became a mere "geographical expression" as dividedinto eight parts (Parma, Modena, Tuscany, Lombardy,Venetia, Piedmont-Sardinia, the Papal States, Naples-Sicily) under the control of different powers.

    y Poland was under the influence of Russia after theCongress.

    y The Congress of Vienna preserved the balance of power inEurope, but it could not check the spread of revolutionarymovements on the continent.

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    Congress of ViennaSeptember, 1814 to June, 1815y In the 20th century, many historians admire the

    statesmen at the Congress, whose work preventedanother widespread European war for nearly ahundred years (18151914).

    yAmong these is Henry Kissinger, who wrote hisdoctoral dissertation,A World Restored (1957), on it.

    y Prior to the opening of the Paris peace conference of

    1918, the British Foreign Office commissioned a historyof the Congress of Vienna to serve as an example to itsown delegates of how to achieve an equally successfulpeace.