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MOISTURIZING LOTION

Author: malla-reddy-college-of-pharmacy

Post on 16-Jul-2015

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  • MOISTURIZING LOTION

  • DEFINITIONMoisturizersoremollients are complex mixtures of chemical agents specially designed to make the external layers of the skin softer and more liable.

  • They increase the skin's hydration (watercontent) by reducing evaporation. Naturally occurring skinlipidsandsterols, as well as artificial or naturaloils,humictants, emollients, lubricants, etc., may be part of the composition of commercial skin moisturizers.

    They usually are available as commercial products forcosmeticand therapeutic uses, but can also be made at home using commonpharmacyingredients.

  • Benefits Of Moisturizing Lotion

    These available homemade non greasy lotions are best for moisturizing skin on daily basis as almond or grape seed oil are readily absorbed by the skin, without letting it feel oily. They help in keeping the skin soft and supple.

  • Lotions made using aloe vera gel are not alone perfect for winter months, but can continue moisturizing the skin through summer season as well without being greasy.Moreover, these nourishing lotions are free from any chemicals and purely healthy for the skin. One would love applying it over skin again and again, without having any fear of damaging the skin. It comes at a fractional cost compared to commercially available chemically treated moisturizing lotions

  • TYPES OF SKINSNormal SkinDry SkinOily skinAging SkinSensitive Skin

  • PRESERVATIVE METHODS

  • Normal skinMoisturizers can be used to prevent the skin from becoming too dry or oily, such as with light, non-greasy water-based moisturizers. Such moisturizers often contain lightweight oils, such ascetyl alcohol, or silicone-derived ingredientsEg- cyclomethicone.

  • Dry skinFor treatingskin dryness, the most appropriate moisturizers are heavier, oil-based moisturizers that contain ingredients such asantioxidants,grape seed oilordimethicone.For very dry,cracked skin,petrolatum-based products are preferable, as they are more lasting than creams and are more effective in preventing water evaporation.

  • Oily skinFor oily skin, moisturizers can still be useful after activities causing skin dryness, such as other skin care products and washing.[1]For oily skin, water-based moisturizers that are specifically non-comedogenic are preferable, as there is less risk ofcomedo formation.Aging skinAppropriate moisturizers to keep aging skin soft and well hydrated are oil-based ones that containpetrolatumas the base, along withantioxidantsoralpha hydrox acidsagainstwrinkles.

  • Sensitive skinOnsensitive skin(which otherwise is susceptible to skin irritations, redness, itching or rashes), it is preferable to use moisturizers which contain soothing ingredients such aschamomileoraloe, and that minimize potentialallergenssuch as fragrancesordyes, as well asirritantssuch as acids.

  • FORMULATONS

  • ALOEVERA AND ALMOND OIL LOTIONalmond oil cupBeeswax ouncealoe vera gel 1 cup essential oils (lime) 10 drops vitamin E oil 1 tsp

  • ALOEVERA AND ALMOND OIL LOTIONUse a double boiler to melt half a cup of almond oil or grape seed oil and ounce of beeswax (shredded into small pieces). Now mix 1 cup of aloe vera gel, 10 drops of any essential oils (like geranium and lime) and 1 teaspoon of vitamin E oil in a medium sized bowl. Pour the melted oils into blender, allowing them to cool down and to avoid oil separation.

  • After oils get cooled, blend them on low speed, while pouring aloe vera mixture slowly into it in a continuous fashion.Run the rubber spatula to mix all ingredients properly and blend till mixture attains a feel and look of a lotion. Alternatively, this mixing and blending step can be performed in a mixing bowl, using a handheld electric mixer. Pour the prepared non greasy lotion in sterilized jars and store them in refrigerator, which can then stay fine for period of 6 weeks.

  • OATMEAL LOTIONGround oatmeal CupWater5tb. Sp.

  • OAT MEAL LOTIONUse ground oatmeal and grind it properly in a food processor. Just by mixing it with minimal amount of water will give it a slippery touch that can then be used directly as an effective lotion. It not alone moisturizes the face, but also serves as a good exfoliating agent (removes the dead skin cells) when scrubbed gently over the skin surface.

  • This non greasy lotion is equally useful as primer, for putting make up every morning and also for removing stubborn eye makeup at end of the day.Just put a little amount of the lotion on to the cotton ball and clean off the face. The same oatmeal lotion can serve more beneficial, if coconut and grapefruit essential oil are also added to it.

  • Coconut oil aids in fighting off bacterial infection of the skin and grapefruit essential oil improves the skin clarity. Additionally, it adds on to the fragrance and still remains non greasy and light weight lotion, safe and healthy for daily usage without making hands buttery or greasy.

  • The effluence of structure of moisturizing lotion (texture parameter) on its use properties, and control of its physical properties1. Factors influencing the lotion physical parameter 2. The effects on the behavior of lotion during lotion processing

  • Table 1. Texture profile

  • Table 2. texture profile parameter used in the skin care product evaluation

  • 1. Factors influencing the lotion physical parameter (1). THE EMULSIFIER The emulsifier frequently is the most important role in the emulsion in producing the characteristic flow properties. In dilute emulsions this is more evident because when the concentration of emulsifier is varied, the effects of change in particle size and particle size distribution of the disperse phase on the viscosity of the emulsion are not as big as the change in the viscosity of the continuous phase brought about by the emulsifier. Mixed emulsifiers can provide desirable flow properties (used to thicken lotion, see also table 2) and to reduce cream of lotion.

  • (2) THE DISPERSE PHASE There are many parameters related to the disperse phase or internal phase that exert rheological changes in emulsions, including: nature of the oil; viscosity of the oil; particle size; particle size distribution; and particle shape. Particle size and particle size distribution also depend on the emulsifier concentration.The nature of the oil in O/W emulsion exerts its effect on the emulsion via its interaction with the emulsifier. The viscosity of the aqueous medium and the particle size distribution are related to differences in the state of aggregation of the globules.

  • (2) THE DISPERSE PHASE The mean particle size and particle size distribution can exert profound effects on the rheological parameters of an emulsion. The viscosity of dilute O/W emulsions are influenced by mean particle size variation of 3 to0.7 microns, but in concentrated emulsions the product of relative viscosity and mean particle size did not change if the distribution of particle size about the mean value was not very wide.

  • (3) THE CONTINUOUS PHASE

    The rheological behavior of a lotion is most often determined by the rheology of the continuous phase. The rheological behavior of the continuous phase of O/W emulsions is frequently controlled by the use of hydrocolloids, which have been already been discussed. The rheological behavior properties of the emulsion, in turn, are dependent on the stability of the hydrocolloidal system

  • (4) PHASE VOLUME RATIO

    The rheological patterns of dilute emulsions are often markedly different than those for concentrated emulsions. Therefore, it is useful to have information concerning the viscosity dependence on the phase volume ratio in both areas. Generally, it has been found that the rheological parameters of an emulsion increase with crease in the phase volume ratio. It is expected that the limit of before inversion occurs will vary depending on the characteristics of the system and, in particular, the nature of the emulsifying agent and its solubility in the continuous phase of the emulsion

  • 2. The effects on the behavior of lotion during lotion processing

    (1) Mixing(2) Heating and cooling(3) Shearing(4) Homogenizing

  • (1) Mixing

    Mixing is a basic step to the compounding and processing of lotion in the cosmetic industry. Mixing is necessary to blend a water phase and oil phase into an emulsion, but consider the potential effect of the degree of mixing on the product viscosity. First of all, a minimum of energy must be used to evenly mix the two phases and other additives. A high amount of mixing energy, however, can decrease the particle size of the dispersed phase and hence affecting the emulsion viscosity.

  • In case of heat transfer, viscous lotions are usually handled with a contrarotating agitator.Mixing is so basic to the formation of the lotion and can have such an important effect on product rheology that the smart formulator will learn to work with it in achieving the desired end properties instead of fighting against it in a dogmatic scaleup from benchtop to plant. Cosmetic lotion may be shear sensitive to some degree and mixing can be used as a tool in achieving the desired product viscosity by properly manipulating the mixing variables.

  • (2) Heating and cooling

    Heating is generally less of a problem in cosmetic processing because the product or phase is usually fluid at elevated temperatures (viscosity being inversely proportional to temperature for emulsions commonly encountered in the cosmetic industry). The rate of heating is not usually considered an important parameter, assuming that the desired end point is not overshot.

  • Cooling is more commonly a problem with cosmetic emulsion because it generally increases product viscosity greatly.In summary, a lotion is usually heated after it has been formed to reduce its viscosity for filling. Cooling has a more important relationship to final product viscosity because of its effect on crystallite size and dispersion, and because of the interrelationship of work input and product viscosity.

  • (3) ShearingMany lotions are shear-thining. In a typical operation, a finished lotion is cooled to room temperature in a compounding vessel, and then pumped through a filter to a storage tank where it is held for filling. The viscosity of lotion will have been reduced by this step. Then the product may be pumped to the filling line. The product usually has a chance to build a network of bonds. A portion of these bonds, if broken, are sometimes permanently destroyed

  • (4) HomogenizingHomogenization, or the reduction of particles to a small and uniform size and their even distribution in a medium, is related to shearing in that frequently used to create the particle breakdown. The cosmetic industry usually resorts to homogenization for dispersing solids and insoluble liquids in a liquid phase and reducing the dispersed particles to a minimum size.

  • The reasons for doing this are numerous and include the desire to increase stability by minimizing globule size and hence decrease the chances of coalescence, to reduce particle size of the disperse phase so as to inhibit settling, and to increase viscosity by forming a finer emulsion.

    If while the emulsion is hot and both phases still liquid, homogenization will tend to reduce the disperse phase to a minimum size distribution which will impart certain properties (such as increased stability) to the final product when it is cooled down and packaged.

  • If the product is homogenized after some cooling has taken place and viscosity has already started to build, however, the viscosity of the finished product may be permanently reduced. Timing and process step must be considered in developing a process to make a product with the desired end properties.

  • THANK YOU