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  • News, Photography, AdvertisingMIT2000

  • *MIT2000Newspapers*Yellow Press/Mass/Entertainment NewspaperJoseph Pulitzer (World), 1883-Advertising over subscriptionSensationalismLocal news, crime, scandalEntertainmentSelf-AdvertisingIllustrationsLarge HeadlinesUse-paperCommuter FriendlyLead/Inverted Pyramid

  • *MIT2000Newspapers*Mass/Entertainment Newspaper (CDA)Hugh Graham Montreal Star 1880sJohn R. Robertson Toronto TelegramAdvertisingHigher CostsLocal news (crime, scandal)Entertainment over information function

  • *MIT2000Newspapers*From Civic to Mass NewspaperCivic Newspaper (1820-1890) (Democratic Sociability)Political advocatePublic defenderPublic responsibilityCivic educationEditor-publisher, small shopOpinion-makingEditorial pagesPublic record of legislative proceedingspublic utilityMass Newspaper (1890-)Commercial EnterpriseAdvertising reliant Corporations & Chains (Southam, Sifton, Thomson)Heavily capitalizedDecline of editorial pagesLess partisanhigher circulation, fewer newspapersREADERSHIP OVER PARTISANSHIP

  • *MIT2000Newspapers*Space-Biased Media (Innis)Dialecticliberty & monopolies of knowledgePrinting Press Balance: time/space centrifugal/centripetaldemocratic society

  • *MIT2000Newspapers*Newspaper: SummaryCorantosPress FreedomDemocracy/Responsible GovernmentPostal SystemPolite Sociability/Democratic SociabilityCivic Newspaper/Mass NewspaperPublic Opinion/Commercial ProfitCirculation/Subscription/AdvertisingNews as Commodity

  • MIT202-Magazines**Early PhotographyDaguerreotype, 1839unique imagewet plate process, 1850smultiple prints from single glass negativedry plate process, 1870sno more portable darkroomsGeorge Dawson

  • Photographic PortraitureMathew Brady1840s -1870sNationalismCitizenshipCharacter

  • Democratic PortraitureMiddle Class and Working-class ReachIndividual as Coherent SelfSymbol of Inner SelfKeepsake of deceased

  • The Living Dead

  • Seeing, Believing: War DocumentaryBurden of TruthCivil War, 1861-65M. BradyA. Gardner/T. OSullivanOrchestrated Realism

  • Social DocumentaryJacob RiisHow the Other Half Lives, 1890Affect Social ChangeReform MovementCultural Other

  • MIT202-Magazines**Kodak Camera, 1888George Eastmanhand-held, point-and-shoot box cameraPortability/Affordabilityamateur usersautobiographical recordTime Machine/Time Bias?Nostalgia

  • Early Photojournalism, Technological changes, 1880s/90sEngraved to Half-tone reproductionreality/authenticity

    *MIT202-Magazines*

  • MIT202-Magazines**Photo-JournalismFlash photographyCamera improvements (Kodak); snap-shot camera, fast drying gelatin plate, Movement/action photographyPhoto-journalist: wars, disasters, public events

  • MIT202-Magazines**Photo-JournalismWirephoto, 1921Flash bulbs, late 1920sPhoto AgenciesBains News Picture ServiceVeracity/immediacy

  • Photographys Rapid UptakeMechanical ProcessSelf-RepresentationIndividual/familialRealism/Objectivity

  • *MIT3214*Advertising// Patent MedicinesHerbal compounds, tonics, liniment oilsDr. Duponcos Golden Periodical PillsHamlins Wizard Oil

    1804: 80; 1860: 1,500 +

    Gout, fallen arches, liver disease, etc.

  • *MIT3214*Advertising Orientedad-to-sales ratios: 40%+ national advertiserspioneer brands/ trademarks1/2 newspaper ads1860; 1/3 -1890 red clause contracts

  • *MIT3214*Patent Medicine OpponentsProfessional Medicine (AMA/CMA)Magazine PublishersCorporate Mass AdvertisersReasons:Consumer FraudPublic Health Public Decency

  • *MIT3214*Modern Corporate Advertisers Campbells Soup (1869) Procter & GambleIvory Soap (1879)Coca Cola (1886)KodakGilletteSocial Legitimacy

  • *MIT3214*Corporate Advertising, 1880-1920Rising Population (US)1880: 50 mil; 1920 106 mil.Urbanization (2,500+)1880: 28%; 1920; 51%Higher Per Capita Income:1880: $147; 1920: $639discretionary spending

  • *MIT3214*Second Industrial Revolution, post- 1860sLarge-scale factory system Coal replaces wood/waterIron/steel industriesEconomies-of-scale productionCapital-intensive/high fixed costs

  • *MIT3214*Retailer-Advertiser Power StruggleManufacturer wrest power from retailer via branding/advertisingProduct SubstitutionIvory Soap Manufacturer PowerSunshine Biscuits

  • *MIT3214*Advertising Spending (US)1880: $104 million; 1919: $1.4 billionAd share of newspaper-mag revenue 1880: 44% ; 1920: 66%Number of US Daily Newspapers:1854: 254 1900: 2,226How advertise in so many local papers?

  • *MIT3214*Advertising AgentsGeorge P. RowellNew England, 1865- line rateswholesaler of white space space jobberbulk buy for lowest price

  • *MIT3214*Space JobbersLord & Thomas religious publicationsJ. Walter Thompson magazinesexclusive access dealsclosed contractsAligned with newspapers Rebates, etc., if sell space full price Buy space only w/ affiliated papers

  • *MIT3214*A.J. Ayer (N.W. Ayer & Son)modern agencyopen contract (1875)advertiser-oriented service commission systemFull Service AgencyMedia buyingCopywritingMarket Research

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