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BSBA 3 - HRM 1

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  • 1.Aizell A. Bernal Ms. L. PlacidoBSBA 3 HRM 1

2. INTRODUCTION The office should be established at such a place where customers can reachwithout any inconvenience. As far as possible, the central part of the city is an idealplace for office location. As the success of any business concern depends upon thelocation of its office, the Office Manger is required to study the following: 1. Location of an office 2. Office Building 3. Office Layout 4. Office Environment 5. Office Furniture I. LOCATION OF AN OFFICE Where to Locate Office a. Urban Location includes towns, cities of a region. Even areas oftaluks and municipalities can be termed as urban location. Advantages of Urban Location1. Easy contact with others offices - It easy to contact government and other offices in the same area and therein developing business is possible. The important offices include Income Tax Offices, Sales Tax Office, and Corporation Office Registrar of companies.2. Increased image The office can enhance its image because it is in central area.3. Easy access It will be more convenient for the customers to approach office without any difficulty.4. Transport facilities The office can avail of transport facilities very easily. Loading, unloading of luggages and dispatch of goods to various places becomes easy at a comparatively cheaper rate.5. Banking, post office and other facilities Normally, Banks, Postal and Telegraph department, Insurance companies choose urban area for providing letter services to customers. Hence these facilities can be easily availed by offices located in urban areas.6. Recreational facilities Recreational facilities are mostly available in urban areas only.7. Other amenities Amenities like water supply, prompt communication, electricity, power, skilled labourers are available more in urban area.8. Employees preference There is a general tendency among the staff to prefer to work in a city. 3. Disadvantages of Urban Location1. Overcrowding and congestion Urban centres are over crowded and congested with all their bad consequences.2. Difficulty to expand business Expansion facilities are limited on account of increased rent, unavailability of building in the nearby office.3. Higher cost Not only square feet rate is high in cities, but also they have to pay more rent and more taxes to corporations.4. Demand for more pay With higher cost of living, the staff may demand higher wages resulting in increased expenditure to the office.5. Polluted atmosphere Urban centres are always known for their pollution and unhygienic environment which would affect the health of employees in the long run. b. Sub-urban Location Advantages of Sub-urban Location 1. Payment of lower rent for the office occupied 2. Payment of lower HRA/CCA/DA to employees 3. Further expansion and modernization of office possible 4. Less traffic and less over crowding 5. Proximity to transport routes Disadvantages of Sub-urban Location1. Inadequate service facilities such as banks, post and telegraph offices, railway stations, markets2. Inadequate transport facilities airport/port/railways3. Lack of communication facilitiesFACTORS INFLUENCING LOCATION1. Convenience to customers The office should be located near roadside, station and bus stand.2. Transportation facilities Office should be located at place where customers can easily commute.3. Safety and climate Office should be located at a place which is quite safe, in other words, there should not be any fear of theft, etc.4. Postal, telegraphic and banking facilities Office should be located in a place where postal, telegraphic and banking facilities are available.5. Availability of sufficient space The place selected for locating office should have sufficient accommodation not only for the present needs but also for future expansion also. 4. 6. Need of the business The place selected for locating officeshould be according to the need of business.II. OFFICE BUILDINGStructure of Office BuildingThe structure of office building also affects the office environment.If the office building restricts the entrance of light, air, etc. then the officeenvironment will not be healthy. Advantages of own building 1. It represents a wise investment decision, especially, where part ofthe building is rented on good terms. 2. It lends prestige to the organization and enhances its creditworthiness besides improving its image in the eyes of the customers. 3. As permanency is assured, the address need not be changed againand again due to growing needs of the business, since the design ofown building takes care of the future needs. 4. The building can be planned on the basis of present and possiblefuture needs. Drawbacks of own building 1. Ownership of building also presents other problems to themanagement, like payment of taxes and settlement of disputes withtenants, if part of it is rented. 2. Own building may require huge investment which may not be withinthe easy reach of small or medium-sized business. 3. High costs of maintenance may also prove too much for a small ormedium-sized business. Advantages of leased bulding 1. Maintenance responsibility The management is not burdenedwith the responsibility of its maintenance. It also becomes free fromproblems like payment of taxes and settlement of disputes withtenants. 2. No investment decision responsibility The managerialdecision about investment in building and its benefit and monetaryreturn has not to be taken. This saves the management from possiblebad judgement and its consequences. 3. Ease in location change Change in location of the office can beaffected with great ease. Whenever the office location needs achange, another building in some other better location can be takenon lease. 5. Limitations of leased building 1. High rents Rents are generally very high for urban locations 2. Wastage of space Since the building is not constructed on thebasis of the layout plan of the organization, some area may go wastein the process of layout. 3. Not need-based Leased building is normally not constructed onthe basis of the needs of the lessee. 4. Frequent shift Leased building does not lead to permanence ofaddress.III. OFFICE LAYOUT Checklist for accommodation requirements1. Location Proximity to bus/railway station. Proximity to car park. Convenience for customers/clients. Convenience for staff. Proximity to banks/post office.2. Site Size Grounds/gardens Space for car park Access for goods delivery Availability of services3. Building Size Number of staff to be accommodated. Likely expansion of staff over the next three/five years. Ground floor space required for heavy machinery, computers etc. Weight carrying; capacity of the floors if large quantities of records are to be kept or if it is necessary to have machinery upstairs.4. Physical factors Natural lighting required Heating Ventilation Decoration Noise 6. Principles of Layout 1. Work should flow continuously forward, as nearly as possible in a straight line. 2. Departments that have similar functions or frequent contact with each other should be located near one another to reduce travel time. 3. Central service groups, such as stenographic pools, should be conveniently located near the employees and departments who use them. 4. Furniture and equipment should be arranged in a straight line, with any angular placement of desks and chairs reserved for supervisory personnel. 5. Space allowances should be adequate for work needs and employee comfort. 6. Furniture and equipment of uniform size make for greater flexibility and more uniform appearance. 7. All employees should face in the same direction, with supervisors placed to the rear of work groups. 8. Desks should be arranged so that no employee is compelled to face an objectionable light source. Illumination should strike the employees work area from above and slightly behind the employee. 9. Units that utilize noisy equipment, such as data processing or telex machines should be located in separate rooms to avoid disturbing other work groups. 10. Work groups that have frequent contact with the public should be located in an easily accessible place. 11. Large, Rectangular blocks of space facilitate work flow and provide greater flexibility. 12. Departments in which work is necessarily untidy should be kept away from public view. 13. Suitable light and air conditioning for all employees should be provided. 14. Necessary private offices should be located where they are least interfered. 15. Personnel and equipment needs, both present and future, should be considered when determining space requirements and layout. 16. Water fountains, bulletin boards, and vending machines should be placed where they will cause the least congestion or distraction. 17. Rest rooms and lounge areas should be conveniently located.Procedure for effective layout for the office1. Office Manager should become familiar with general organizational arrangements. This involves study of the organization chart to determine reporting relationships and it involves study of existing layout arrangements.2. He should analyze the principal procedures and work flows. 7. 3. He should discuss with each supervisor or department head theirneeds for space, the direction and plan of work flow for alloperations in the office. 4. The blue print referred should be prepared and a scale drawing ofthe space under consideration should be prepared, showing thelocation of such items as windows, doors and columns. 5. A tentative plan of office layout should be presented by arranging cutouts or models on the scale drawing or by penciling in with atemplate the location of various items of furniture and equipment. Itmay take a considerable amount of ingenuity and time to arrangeand rearrange the layout till the best plan is found. 6. The proposed plan should be presented to those supervisors anddepartment heads concerned and solicit their opinions andsuggestions for improvements. The pl

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