organizational behaviour lecture summary

Download Organizational Behaviour Lecture Summary

Post on 03-Jun-2018

217 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • 8/11/2019 Organizational Behaviour Lecture Summary

    1/58

    L E C T U R E 4

    T H E O R I E S O F W O R K M O T I V A T I O N

    M O T I V A T I O N I N P R A C T I C E

    ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOURMOS 2181B

  • 8/11/2019 Organizational Behaviour Lecture Summary

    2/58

    Overview

    Introduction to motivation

    Theories of work motivation Need theories of motivation

    Process theories of motivation

    Motivation in practice Money

    Job design

    Management by objectives

    Alternative work schedules

    Exam review

    Activity

  • 8/11/2019 Organizational Behaviour Lecture Summary

    3/58

    INTRODUCTION TO

    MOTIVATION

  • 8/11/2019 Organizational Behaviour Lecture Summary

    4/58

    Motivation

    Extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal

  • 8/11/2019 Organizational Behaviour Lecture Summary

    5/58

    Motivation

    Extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal

    Highest monthly sales inthe company

  • 8/11/2019 Organizational Behaviour Lecture Summary

    6/58

    Motivation

    Extent to which persistent effort is directed towarda goal

    Sales as opposed torelationships with

    coworkers

  • 8/11/2019 Organizational Behaviour Lecture Summary

    7/58

    Motivation

    Extent to which persistent effortis directed toward a goal

    Work hard to achieve thehighest sales possible

  • 8/11/2019 Organizational Behaviour Lecture Summary

    8/58

    Motivation

    Extent to which persistenteffort is directed toward a goal

    Work hard the entireshift, every day, to

    achieve the highest salespossible

  • 8/11/2019 Organizational Behaviour Lecture Summary

    9/58

    Extrinsic vs. intrinsic motivation

    Intrinsicmotivation

    Extrinsicmotivation

    Motivation to perform a behaviour due

    to interest or enjoyment

    E.g., playing soccer because you enjoythe sport

    E.g., working overtime on a project

    because of interest in the project

    E.g., KPMG has an employee loungewith fireplace, videogames, pool table,

    and reflection rooms

    Motivation to perform a behaviour to

    obtain external rewards

    E.g., cutting the grass so your wifestops nagging

    E.g., working overtime on a project

    because your supervisor requires it

    E.g., KPMG has a profit-sharingprogram

    Passer (2003); www.canadastop100.com/national/

  • 8/11/2019 Organizational Behaviour Lecture Summary

    10/58

    Extrinsic vs. intrinsic motivation

    Some motivators are not clearly extrinsic or clearlyintrinsic. Consider the following:

    EllisDon provides employees paid time off to volunteer with

    charitable organizations

    The National Ballet offers a variety of training programs andfinancial bonuses for some course completion

    www.canadastop100.com/national/

  • 8/11/2019 Organizational Behaviour Lecture Summary

    11/58

    The motivation-performance relationship

    Motivation Performance

    Intelligence

    Emotional intelligence

    Task understanding

    Luck

    Education

    Personality

  • 8/11/2019 Organizational Behaviour Lecture Summary

    12/58

    Theories of motivation

    Need theories Maslows hierarchy of needs

    AlderfersERG theory

    McClellands theory of needs

    Process theories

    Expectancy theory

    Equity theory Goal-setting theory

    Explain whatmotivates

    Explain howmotivation

    occurs

  • 8/11/2019 Organizational Behaviour Lecture Summary

    13/58

    Motivation in practice

    Money Using pay to motivate workers

    Using pay to motivate teamwork

    Job design

    Job scope Job characteristics model

    Job enrichment

    Management by objectives

    Alternative working schedules Flextime

    Compressed workweek

    Job and work sharing

    Telecommuting

  • 8/11/2019 Organizational Behaviour Lecture Summary

    14/58

    NEED THEORIES OF

    MOTIVATION

  • 8/11/2019 Organizational Behaviour Lecture Summary

    15/58

    Maslows hierarchy of needs

    The lowest level unsatisfied need category has thegreatest motivating potential

    A satisfied need is no longer an effective motivator

    Self-actualization

    Self-esteem

    Belongingness

    Safety

    Physiological

  • 8/11/2019 Organizational Behaviour Lecture Summary

    16/58

    AlderfersERG theory

    The more lower-level needs are gratified...

    The more higher-level need satisfaction is desired

    The less higher-level needs are gratified...

    The more lower-level need satisfaction is desired

    Growth

    Relatedness

    Existence

  • 8/11/2019 Organizational Behaviour Lecture Summary

    17/58

    McClellands theory of needs

    Needs reflect relatively stable personality characteristicsacquired through early life experiences and exposure tosociety

    People will be motivated to seek out and perform well in

    jobs that match their needs

    Need forachievement

    Need foraffiliation

    Need forpower

    Desire to performchallenging tasks

    well

    Desire to establishfriendly,

    compatiblerelationships

    Desire to haveinfluence over andimpact on others

  • 8/11/2019 Organizational Behaviour Lecture Summary

    18/58

    Research support

    Maslows hierarchy of needs

    Little support for the idea that satisfied needs become lessimportant

    Little support for the idea that needs are hierarchical

    AlderfersERG theory

    Good support for the idea that frustration of relatednessneeds increases the strength of existence needs

    McClellands theory of needs Good support for the idea that particular needs are

    motivational when the work environment permits

  • 8/11/2019 Organizational Behaviour Lecture Summary

    19/58

    Managerial implications

    Appreciate diversity

    Offer incentives or goals that correspond to individualemployee needs

    Appreciate intrinsic motivation Meet basic needs, then make jobs more stimulating and

    challenging

  • 8/11/2019 Organizational Behaviour Lecture Summary

    20/58

    PROCESS THEORIES OF

    MOTIVATION

  • 8/11/2019 Organizational Behaviour Lecture Summary

    21/58

    Expectancy theory

    Motivation is determined by the outcomes that peopleexpect to occur as a result of their actions on the job

    Components:

    Outcomes (first-level and second-level)

    Instrumentality

    Valence

    Expectancy

    ForceRelative degree ofeffort directedtoward outcomes

  • 8/11/2019 Organizational Behaviour Lecture Summary

    22/58

    Expectancy theory

    First-level outcomes:

    Outcomes of interest to the organization (performance)

    E.g., a good quality paper

    E.g., high productivity vs. average productivity

    Second-level outcomes:

    Outcomes of interest to the worker (outcomes)

    Consequences that follow the attainment of a particular first-

    level outcome

    E.g., a good grade on a paper

    E.g., pay, sense of accomplishment, fatigue

  • 8/11/2019 Organizational Behaviour Lecture Summary

    23/58

    Expectancy theory

    Force = Expectancy x ( instrumentalities x second-level valences)

  • 8/11/2019 Organizational Behaviour Lecture Summary

    24/58

    Expectancy theory

    Force= Expectancy x ( instrumentalities x second-level valences)

    Degree of effort directed toward

    various first-level outcomes

  • 8/11/2019 Organizational Behaviour Lecture Summary

    25/58

    Expectancy theory

    Force = Expectancyx ( instrumentalities x second-level valences)

    Link between effort and performance

    E.g., I am fairly confident that I can put in sufficienteffort to produce a good quality paper

  • 8/11/2019 Organizational Behaviour Lecture Summary

    26/58

    Expectancy theory

    Force = Expectancy x ( instrumentalitiesx second-level valences)

    Link between performance and outcome

    E.g., The odds are decent that my good quality paper willget me an A+

  • 8/11/2019 Organizational Behaviour Lecture Summary

    27/58

  • 8/11/2019 Organizational Behaviour Lecture Summary

    28/58

    Expectancy theory

    Force = Expectancy x ( instrumentalities x second-level valences)

    Aamodt (2013)

    Expectancy theory applied in a Virginia bank

  • 8/11/2019 Organizational Behaviour Lecture Summary

    29/58

    Expectancy theory

    Force= Expectancy x ( instrumentalities x second-level valences)

    I am not motivated to increase my

    customer recruitment

    Expectancy theory applied in a Virginia bank

    Aamodt (2013)

  • 8/11/2019 Organizational Behaviour Lecture Summary

    30/58

    Expectancy theory

    Force = Expectancyx ( instrumentalities x second-level valences)

    No matter how hard I work, I

    cant generate 25 newcustomers

    Aamodt (2013)

    Expectancy theory applied in a Virginia bank

  • 8/11/2019 Organizational Behaviour Lecture Summary

    31/58

    Expectancy theory

    Force = Expectancy x ( instrumentalitiesx second-level valences)

    I know that I will receive $5 extra per

    month if I recruit 25 new customers

    Aamodt (2013)

    Expectancy theory applied in a Virginia bank

  • 8/11/2019 Organizational Behaviour Lecture Summary

    32/58

    Expectancy theory

    Force = Expectancy x ( instrumentalities x second-level valences)