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  • 1

    Oscillator Circuits

  • 2

    II. Oscillator OperationFor self-sustaining oscillations:

    the feedback signal must positive the overall gain must be equal to one (unity gain)

  • 3

    If the feedback signal is not positive or the gain is less than one, then the oscillations will dampen out.

    If the overall gain is greater than one, then the oscillator will eventually saturate.

  • 4

    Types of Oscillator Circuits

    A. Phase-Shift OscillatorB. Wien Bridge OscillatorC. Tuned Oscillator CircuitsD. Crystal OscillatorsE. Unijunction Oscillator

  • 5

    A. Phase-Shift Oscillator

    Frequency of the oscillator: (the frequency where the phase shift is 180)

    Feedback gain = 1/[1 52 j (6 3) ] where = 1 / (2fRC)Feedback gain at the frequency of the oscillator = 1 / 29

    The amplifier must supply enough gain to compensate for losses. The overall gain must be unity. Thus the gain of the amplifier stage must be greater than 1/, i.e. A > 29

    The RC networks provide the necessary phase shift for a positive feedback. They also determine the frequency of oscillation.

    621

    0 RCf =

  • 6

    Example of a Phase-Shift Oscillator

    FET Phase-Shift Oscillator

  • 7

    Example 1

  • 8

    BJT Phase-Shift Oscillator

    C

    Cfe R

    RR

    Rh 42923 ++>

    iehRR =

  • 9

    Phase-shift oscillator using op-amp

  • 10

    B. Wien Bridge Oscillator

    So frequency of oscillation is ( )22110 21

    CRCRf =

    1

    1

    1

    1

    4

    3

    2

    143

    4

    21

    2

    +

    +=

    +

    +=

    ==

    RR

    ZZRR

    RZZ

    ZV

    VVVV

    a

    bd

    o

    i

    2 and ,2

    1

    then and When

    4

    30

    2121

    =

    ====

    RR

    RC f

    CCCRRRfrequency noscillatio theat phase zero have should i.e., ,2

    1

    21

    2

    ZZ

    ZZZ+

    1

    2

    2

    1

    4

    3 0CC

    RR

    RR

    +==

  • 11

    Calculate the resonant frequency of the Wien bridge oscillator shown aboveHz7.3120

    )101)(1051(21

    21

    930 === RC

    f

    Example 2

  • 12

    C. Tuned Oscillator Circuits

    Tuned Oscillators use a parallel LC resonant circuit (LC tank) to provide the oscillations.

    There are two common types:

    Colpitts The resonant circuit is an inductor and two capacitors. Hartley The resonant circuit is a tapped inductor or two inductors and one

    capacitor.

  • 13

    Colpitts Tuned Oscillator Circuit

    FET based Colpitts Oscillator

    21

    21 where ,2

    10 CC

    CCCLC

    f eqeq +

    ==Frequency of oscillations:

  • 14

    Transistor Colpitts oscillator.

  • 15

    Op-amp Colpitts oscillator.

  • 16

    Hartley Tuned Oscillator Circuit

    FET Hartley Oscillator

    1221 2 where ,21

    0 LLLLCLf eq

    eq++==Frequency of oscillations:

  • 17

    BJT based Hartley Oscillator

  • 18

    D. Crystal Oscillators

    The crystal appears to the rest of the circuit as a resonant circuit.

  • 19

    Crystal Resonant Frequencies

    The crystal has two resonant frequencies:

    Series resonant: RLC determine the resonant frequency. The crystal has a low impedance.Parallel resonant: RL and CM determine the resonant frequency. The crystal has a high impedance.

    The series and parallel resonant frequencies are very close, within 1% of each other.

  • 20

    Series Resonant Crystal Oscillator

    FET Crystal Oscillator

  • 21

    Parallel Resonant Crystal Oscillator

    BJT Crystal Oscillator

  • 22

    Crystal Oscillator using Op-amp

  • 23

    E. Unijunction Oscillator

    Frequency of oscillations:

    where = 0.4 to 0.6 is a rating of the unijunction transistor.

    [ ])(CRf T T =

    11ln1

    0

  • 24

    Unijunction Oscillator Waveforms

    The unijunction oscillator (or relaxation oscillator) produces a sawtooth waveform.

    DBBBP

    BBBB

    VVVVVVV

    ++==

    1

    12

  • 25

  • 26

    Unijunction transistor (UJT): basic construction.

  • 27

    UJT Unijunction Transistor

    The UJT is also basically a switching device.

    Schematic Symbol:

  • 28

    UJT Basic OperationEven though the UJT is a switching device it works very differently from the SCR variety of devices.

    The equivalent circuit indicates that the UJT is like a diode and a resistive voltage divider circuit. The resistance exhibited by RB1 is variable; it is dependent on the value of current IE.

  • 29

    UJT Characteristic Curve

    A voltage is applied across the UJT (VBB) and to the Emitter input (VE). Once VE reaches a peak value (Vp) the UJT begins to conduct. At the point where VE = Vp, the current IE is at minimum. This is the threshold value of VE that puts the UJT into conduction. Once conducting, IE increases and VE decreases. This phenomenon occurs because the internal resistance labeled RB1 in the equivalent circuit decreases as the UJT conducts more and more. This is called negative resistance.