outfitting mooring modifed pdf

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  • 8/2/2019 Outfitting Mooring Modifed PDF





    Presented By: Karim Moustafa Mohamed Ali

    Table of contents:

    1) Mooring :1.1Purpose of mooring

    1.2 Types of mooring systems

    1.2.1 Fixed mooring system1.2.2 Fleet mooring system

    1.3 Mooring equipment

    1.3.1 Fenders

    1.3.2 Pier fitting

    1.3.3 Deck fitting

    1.3.4 Ropes

    1.4Automated mooring systems

    1.5Static environmental forces

    2)Anchors:2.1 Purpose of anchoring

    2.2Type of anchoring

    2.3 Chains

    2.4 Mechanism


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    3 )Cranes :

    3.1 Types of cranes

    3.1.1 Marine cranes

    3.1.2 Offshore cranes

    3.1.3 Mobile cranes

    3.1.4 Shipyard cranes

    3.1.5 Floating cranes

    3.2Types of operation systems

    3.2.1 Manuel

    3.2.2 Mechanical

    3.2.3 Hydraulic

    3.2.4 Electrical


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    1) Mooring1.1 Propose of mooring: is to safely hold a unit in a certain position

    to accomplish a specific mission or purpose. Mooring is needed to safely

    protect the unit and life and public interests and to preserve the capabilities

    of the vessel and surrounding facilities.Ships mooring provide:i) Loading and unloading of cargo like bulk, oil, personnel, vessels andetc.ii) Maintenance and repairiii) Mission like floating dry-dock , towing , surveillance and etc

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    1.2 Types of mooring system:1.2.1 fixedmooring systems Single Vessel Secured at Multiple Points: it

    consist of two types tension lines are used to secure avessel next to a pier/wharf and compliant fenders tokeep the ships safe from the structure in case of highwinds or waves. Spud mooring: Multiple vertical structural steelbeams are used to secure the vessel, such as afloating dry-dock. This type of mooring isespecially effective for construction bargestemporarily working in shallow water. Spudmoorings can be especially susceptible todynamic processes.

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    5 Multiple Vessel Moorings : Opposite Sides of a Pier: Vessels can be placed

    adjacent to one another on opposite sides of apier to provide some blockage of theenvironmental forces/moments on the

    downstream vessel. Multiple Vessels Next to One Another : Vesselscan be placed adjacent to one another to

    provide significant blockage of the

    environmental forces/ moments on the

    downstream vessel

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    1.2.2 Fleet mooring systema. Vessel Secured at a Single Point

    i. By anchor

    ii. Single Mooring Buoy

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    b. Vessel Secured at Two Points

    i. Bow Stern Mooring

    c. Vessel Secured at Multiple Points

    i. Med Mooring

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    ii.Spread Mooring

    d. Multiple Vessel Mooringsi. Nest

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    1.3 Mooring equipment: size and type of mooring equipmentaredetermined by size of vessel and type of operation required to be done

    1.3.1 Fenders purpose of fender : to protect the pier structure from thestresses forces and to protect it and to decrease the maintains

    required for the pier type of fenders :i. rubber fender used for harbours, piers , wharfs and quays

    ii.Ships fenders used for working boats, tugs and small ships

    and may also be used for small wharfs

    1.3.2 pier fitting

    1.Single Bollard

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    2.Double Bollard ( double bitt )

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    1.3.3 Deck fitting

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    i. Deck Machinery: its function is to handle and secure mooring

    lines .It consist of capstan head, related machinery and constant

    tension winches. In the marine field it is usually uses the hydraulic

    system and/or two speed electrical systems (full and quarter).

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    Capstan head: is a warping head with a vertical axis used forhandling mooring and other lines ( it is generally rotate in both

    direction )

    Related machinery: it consist of winch motor with a horizontal

    capstan which can handle the whole mooring lines and operation


    Constant tension: which mange the tension while loading /

    unloading of cargo due to the change ofdraft and the effect oftidal rise and fall


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    ii. Fairlead: are used to lead mooring lines around obstructions andprovide proper alignment with the gypsy heads.


    Many types like:

    1.Panama fairlead

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    2.Multi-angle fairlead

    3.Two-roller fairlead

    4.Pedestal fairlead

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    1.3.4 Mooring lines ( Ropes ) :

    The size of mooring lines depends on size of ship,

    operation required to be done and size of equipment are

    used on board.

    Types of lines (ropes) used on board are :

    1) Nature fiberrope

    2) Synthetic fiber ropes

    1.4 Automated Mooring Systems (AMS):By using vacuumand hydraulic instead of ropes the whole operation of mooring a ship is

    reduced to a simple press of a button.

    Advantages of AMS :

    1)Risk of injury to shore and personnel by mooring

    ropes eliminated.

    2)Multiple redundancies of vacuum pads and inherent

    fail safe features ensure a secure mooring even

    during power cuts or loss of control signals.

    3)Fast attachment (typically > 12 sec) and quick


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    4)Avoids delays while waiting for mooring teams to

    become available.

    5)Only one operator required, based ashore or

    onboard, to activate and remotely monitor (ifnecessary) the mooring system.

    6)Offers measurable reduction in rope costs, less

    abrasion to hull paintwork and reduces mechanical

    wear on shore fenders.

    1.5 Static Environmental Forces (like winds, current

    and tide):The principal forces acting on a moored vessel aregenerally caused by wind and current. However the mooring system

    has to be capable of withstanding any combination of forces

    resulting from the following :

    a) Wind

    b) Current

    c) off-quay hydrodynamic force and hydrodynamic

    interference from passing ships

    d) Ocean or long swell waves

    e) Waves caused by passing ships in narrow channels

    f) Tidal rise and fall, and change in draught or trim due to

    cargo operations

    Normally, if the mooring system is designed to

    accommodate the maximum wind and current forces, the

    reserve strength will be sufficient to resist other forcesthat may arise

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    1.5.1 Forces due to wind:wind forces acting on a ship can be dividedinto two components longitudinal force acting parallel to the longitudinal

    axis of the ship and a transvers forces acting on the longitudinal axis and

    tis will leads yawing moments.Wind forces on ship also varies depending

    on the exposed area of ship , if there is a head wind so it will only stick a

    small portion of the total exposed area of the ship so longitudinal forces

    are relatively small , if there is a beam wind so it will exposed to large

    area which leads to large transverse forces .

    By compering these two forces we will find that the transverse

    forces equal five times the longitudinal forces.

    When the wind hits the ship from an angle between a head and

    beam so there will be a combination between transverse and

    longitudinal forces since that the exposed area is between bow( or

    stern ) and side of ship.

    And as shown in figure the combined force is smaller

    than the transverse forces.

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    1.5.2 Current Force: the change in the current force depended on changes

    in the current velocity and direction of flow (like wind force), current

    forces also complicated by significant effect of clearance beneath the keel

    as shown in figure