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Pollution and Overview of Land Pollution

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An OVERVIEW on Land Pollution

Wastes are a reality but can be recycled by nature when the ecosystems are in balance.

POPULATION

CARRYING CAPACITYWASTES

POLLUTION

Quantity Quality/kind

POLLUTER advantage

Careless disposal

Others bear the costs Public health Property Aesthetics

To introduce students to the types, sources and effects of environmental pollution and some of the key strategies used in combating pollution. Topics include water and air quality management, solid waste management and noise pollution control. Aspects of pollution control legislation and its enforcement, environmental education and conservation will also be covered.

Understand the major causes of environmental pollution and its impacts. Appreciate the range of pollution abatement strategies. Know something of the legislation designed to protect the environment, economic aspects of pollution and its control and the role of environmental education in pollution control.

Types and sources of pollution Effects of pollution Pollution monitoring and assessment (environmental quality indices) Pollution abatement strategies and technologies Other environmental issues such as urban redevelopment, global climate change etc.

Introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to the ecosystem i.e. physical systems or living organisms. Changes in the physical, biological and chemical conditions in the environment which harmfully affects the quality of life of plants and animals.

WASTE

OTHERS

AIR

NOISE

WATER

Pollution of the environment due to the release (into any environmental medium) from any process or substances which are capable of causing harm to man or any other living organisms supported by the environment.UK Environmental Act 1990

A substance or effect which adversely alters the environment by changing the

growth rate of species, interferes with the food chain; is toxic or interferes with health, comfort,

amenities, (aesthetic) or property values of people.Porteous (2000) Dictionary of Environmental Science and Technology. John Wiley & Sons

Introduced into the environment in significant amounts in the form of sewage, waste, effluent, accidental discharge, or as a by-product of a manufacturing process or other human activity. Substances: solid, semi-solid, liquid, gas or sub-molecular particle; waste energy: heat, noise , or vibration.

Natural or synthetic e.g. CO2 and H2S vs. DDT and PCB

Effect Different levels of biological organizations

Properties Toxicity, persistence, mobility, biological or physical

properties

Controllability

Primary pollutant: A pollutant emitted directly into the

environment such as SO2 and CO

Secondary pollutant: Formed from a primary pollutant as a

results of chemical changes such as photochemical and other reactions, e.g. ozone and NOx

Point sources: Sources of pollution such as smokestacks, pipes, or accidental spills that are readily identified and stationary. Relatively easy to monitor and control

Non-point sources: Sources of pollutants such as surface runoff that are diffused and intermittent and are influenced by factors such as land use, climate, hydrology, topography, native vegetation, and geology. Runoff from streets or fields in urban areas; rural

sources associated with agriculture and mining Difficult to monitor and control

Manmade sources Sources such as globally manmade pollutants from combustion, construction, mining, agriculture and warfare. Vehicles, chemicals, and sewages or wastes.

For example, Acid rain; Ozone depletion & Greenhouse effects Eutrophication & red tide (harmful algal bloom) Ecotoxicology, carcinogenic & teratogenic* impacts Interference with recreational activities; and Reduction of drinking water quality

* teratogenic = malformations of an embryo or fetus.

Land/ Solid Wastes Pollution Water Pollution Air Pollution Noise Pollution

degradation of earth's land surfaces often caused by human activities and their misuse of land resources. Haphazard disposal of urban and industrial wastes, exploitation of minerals, and improper use of soil by inadequate agricultural practices are a few factors. Urbanization and industrialization are major causes of land pollution.

Sources of Land Pollution

Wastes from Agriculture - waste matter produced by crop, animal manure, and farm residues. Wastes from Mining - piles of coal refuse and heaps of slag. Wastes from Industries - Industrial waste matter that can cause land pollution can include paints, chemicals, and so on.

Solids from Sewage Treatment - Wastes that are left over after sewage has been treated, biomass sludge, and settled solids. Ashes - The residual matter that remains after solid fuels are burned. Garbage - waste matter from food that are decomposable and other waste matter that are not decomposable such as glass, metal, cloth, plastic, wood, paper, and so on.

Erosion major cause of soil damage Removal of vegetation that holds the soil in place Careless farming methods Construction and land clearing projects Road development Real estate Mining Regular farming

Effects of Land PollutionRespiratory diseases Skin diseases Lead to birth defects Various kinds of cancers

Most visible formSources of photos: EPD

SOLID WASTES

Most visible form heavy populated urban areas Refuse, trash or garbage Junk, cans,packaging materials, scrap metals,

papers Road litter, river, dumps unaesthetic

Most serious problems facing populated cities

Waste collection (public and private) Landfills Out of sight out of mind NIMBY not in my backyard Tragedy of the commons What s in it for me? Natural resources have to be dug from the ground Wastes have to be buried in the ground

Unavoidable or is it? Know how to reduce and dispose Objective is for a clean and suitable environment

Biodegradable wastes that can be acted upon by decomposers Food wastes, left-over vegetables, peelings Fish or fowl entrails, seeds, soft shells, garden litter Animal manure, human wastes

Non-biodegradable products of modern technology that cannot be decomposed. Metals, cans, glass, plastics, bottles, styrofoam Feathers, leather, hard shell and bones

According to the MMDA (Metro Manila Development Authority) 6,000 to 8,000 metric tons per day Dumpsites Payatas, San Mateo, Bulacan, etc.

Bodies of water Pasig river, San Juan river, creeks, canals, etc.

Segregation of biodegradable and non biodegradable wastes To phase out or not? That is the question!

Source: EPD

Landfill a pit or hole where wastes are safely disposed of using soil to cover the waste material Incineration process of burning wastes Ocean dumping oldest method of wastes disposal. Water is moving and everything would be washed away.

Cheapest method Sanitary landfill designed to contain refuse without creating nuisance or hazard to public health and safety Covering waste with soil is what makes it sanitary Minimize entry of surface water Minimize gas escape

352 sanitary landfills is the solution to the garbage crisis Responsibility of local government to regulate, control and monitor proper disposal of wastes Sites have been identified and assessed to be morphologically ideal to health safety, drainage, soil and proximity to groundwater and surface water. Open dumps are unacceptable

Types of Solid Waste Disposed of at Landfills in 2004

The major categories are C&D waste and Domestic waste

Source: EPD 2004

Pressing Issues and solutionsThe current landfills have 5-10 years life. It will take 10 years to develop and build new ones. Urgently need to identify new landfill sites, reduce waste loads and find new places to put construction waste. Household and other municipal waste loads have risen steadily, in line with the growth in population and wealth of the community. More people are expected to arrive in the cities in the coming decade.

Source: EPD

Soil covering controls flies and moisture, reduces odor, fires and combustions, discourages scavenging and maintains esthetics.

Trench landfill artificially excavated, low water table, adequate soil depth Area landfill natural depressions

Good compaction Low permeability Resistant to wind Resistant to cracking when dry Support increasing land mass

Benefit solves the garbage problem for the time being. Costs hazards Methane , mercury, hydrogen sulfide, nitrates and

other toxins, etc. Systemic diseases and disorders, birth defects Air and water pollution Loss of land breeding ground for pests

Explosives Hazardous wastes Biological and pathological wastes Sewage sludge Animal remains Syringes, needles Liquid wastes Oil containers, drums and barrels Telephone poles and railroad ties Radioactive substances

One of the solutions to the garbage problem but no better than landfills No suitable areas for disposal sites Absence of air pollution and control devices Reduces volume by 50% but produces toxic gases Emission of more than 200 kinds of toxins Furans and dioxins deadliest compounds and persistent in living tissues 200,oooX more toxic than DDT

Nationwide ban Medical wastes incinerators French proposal to set up the world s largest municipal waste incinerator rejected South Korea, Taiwan and Japan shifted from traditional burn and bury to active pollution prevention and disposal reduction

Japan has the highest rate of cancer, infant mortality, birth defects compared to countries which are incinerator-free Cover-up t