population distribution & environmental issues. middle east environmental concerns

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Middle East Human-Environment interaction

Middle East Human-Environment interactionPopulation Distribution & Environmental Issues

Graphic Organizer (Right Side)Middle East Environmental ConcernsMajor Environmental IssuesWater SupplyVery limited in Middle East

Many countries must use desalination to get drinking waterProcess of removing salt from salt water to make it okay for drinking and farming

Jordan,Tigris, Euphrates and Nile rivers Used for drinking water and generate powerIf you dont have a river in your region, you must find alternate methods for drinking water and power.

N - JETThe Mighty Nile River:Longest River in the World

Egypt: The Gift of the Nile

Annual Nile FloodingNile Delta95% of the Egyptian people live on 5% of the land!Few rivers in the areaJordan River: Originating in the mountains of Israel, Lebanon, and Syria, the Jordan flows into the Dead Sea. The river is the key water source for Israel, Lebanon, and Syria. It is only 20 feet wide in some parts and only 17 feet deep at its deepest point!

Few rivers in the areaTigris River: The Tigris and Euphrates Rivers are like twins, starting in the mountains of Turkey and running parallel to each other in some places. The Tigris was part of the cradle of the ancient Middle Eastern civilizations.

Few rivers in the areaEuphrates River: Runs parallel to the Tigris

The Tigris & EuphratesRiver System

Mesopotamia: Land Between the Two Rivers

Marsh Arabs, Southern IraqSuez Canal: the Suez Canal connects the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea. It is called the crossroads of Europe, Africa, and Asia because it allows trade between all three continents.

Suez Canal

Completed by the British in 1869Persian Gulf: This shallow arm of the Arabian Sea between Iran and the Arabian Peninsula holds some of the most important oil fields in the world. Western countries call it the Persian Gulf but most Arab countries call it the Arabian Gulf.

Strait of Hormuz: This narrow waterway between the gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf is a critically important shipping channel. Much of the worlds oil supply passes through this strait.

Dead Sea: Lowest Point on Earth

HighestSaltContent(33%)2,300 below sea levelGaza Strip: This area of 146 square miles is bordered on the south by Egypt, on the west by the Mediterranean Sea, and on the north and east by Israel. Disputes over this territory continue between Israel and the Palestinians.

Graphic Organizer (Right Side)Middle East Environmental ConcernsWater SupplyFew Rivers

Literacy Rate-the ability to read and write, or the ability to use language to read, write, listen, and speakDeforestation- forested areas converted into non-forest land for use such as arable land.

Major Environmental IssuesDesertification- land converted into desert due to various climatic variations, but primarily from human activities. Soil Degradation- removal of fertilizer, nitrogen, and other substances need to grow crops.

Major Environmental IssuesOvergrazing- occurs when plants are exposed to livestock grazing for extended periods of time. It reduces the usefulness of the land and is one cause of desertification and erosion.

Major Environmental IssuesMajor Environmental IssuesRights to Water SupplyDisputes over rights to water supply and other natural resources in the regionWater rightsAgreements about how countries can use the water in a region.

Turkey: Snow melts in the highlands of Turkey and forms the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. This gives Turkey more water resources than most of its neighbors. However, pollution from agriculture, industries, and oil spills on the Black Sea is a problem.Turkey, Syria, and Iraq: Turkey built dams along the Euphrates to use the water for hydroelectric power and irrigation. This reduced the amount of water reaching Syria. Syria in turn built a dam and reduced the rivers flow into Iraq. In 1975, Syria and iraq came close to fighting a war over the water issue.Israel: Water consumption is up however rainfall is down. More and more water is pulled from the Aquifer however very little is returned.Iran: Similarly, Iran is using water from its Aquifer faster than it can be replenished.Afghanistan: Poor infrastructure means open sewers, failed septic systems, fertilizers, and pesticides are contaminating their shrinking water supply.Saudi Arabia: Located in the middle of the Arabian Pennisula and within a desert, water for the Kingdom is very scarce. Most of the Kingdoms water supply comes from desalination.

WHAT IS DESALINATION?DesalinizationPlants

Major Environmental IssuesIsrael, Jordan and PalestiniansRely on the same scarce water supply on the West BankIsrael has the most power so they have the ability to claim more water.What happens if they build a dam?

Recycle the water so many people have access to water without a major shortage

Many areas in the Middle East lack basic sewage systems

The lines coming from the tank are called the Leach Field; this is where excess water is drained away from the home.

Municipal Sewage Systems: Water Treatment Plan

Major Environmental issuesWater PollutionPort citiesPorts make it easier to ship things Water is often polluted by the shipping industry

Oil is the main exportOil spills are one of the main causes for water pollution in the Persian Gulf

Graphic Organizer (Right Side)Middle East Environmental ConcernsPollutionWater SupplyFew Rivers34Oil Distribution

Oil DistributionWorlds largest source of oil - Persian GulfPollution issues air and waterDamage to refineries during war Not repairing damagesOil Distribution is not even.A few countries have most of the oil reserves.Others, sometimes right next door, have no oil.

Pollution was a strategy used during warDumped oil into Persian GulfBurned oil wells to prevent USA from gaining control

Lack of water supply makes the pollution issue even bigger.Standard of Living Average Income

Literacy RatePopulation DistributionHow do rivers and deserts impact where people live, where they work and how they travel?

People settle around the limited fresh water supply.Civilizations concentrate around fertile soil. People arent going to settle in a hot desert . . . . Why?

Crops are grown within these areas. Subsistence Farming Grow enough only for their families.

Most people within the Middle East were nomads (wander) within the desert regions. However, that changed in the 1950s and 1960s with the discovery of oil.Now less than 1% of Saudi Arabians are nomads

Graphic Organizer (Right Side)Middle East Environmental ConcernsPopulation DistributionWater SupplyFew RiversPopulation Distribution

Natural ResourcesMost economies in the Middle East were once based on farming.

Discovery oil main source of incomeGovernments with large oil deposits stopped investing in other parts of their economies.Countries without oil are poorer.Graphic Organizer (Right Side)Middle East Environmental ConcernsPopulation DistributionTransportationWater SupplyFew Rivers