prithwiraj purkait-electrical and electronics measurements and instrumentation (2013)

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  • ElectricalandElectronicsMeasurementsandInstrumentation

  • AbouttheAuthors

    PrithwirajPurkaitobtainedhisBEE,MEEandPhDdegreesfromJadavpurUniversity,Kolkata.HeworkedwithM/sCromptonGreavesLtd,Mumbai,asaDesignEngineerforone year. He was involved in post-doctoral research in the University of Queensland,Australia,during2002-2003,andasVisitingAcademicResearchFellowduring2005and2007.Presently,heisProfessor,DepartmentofElectricalEngineeringandDean,SchoolofEngineering,atHaldiaInstituteofTechnology,Haldia,WestBengal.Hiscurrentareasof interest include PC/DSP based instruments, motion and industrial process control,insulation-condition assessment techniques and advanced signal-processing applications.DrPurkaithaspublishedextensivelyininternationaljournalsandconferenceproceedingsonvarioustopicsrelatedtohisresearchparadigm.

    BudhadityaBiswasobtainedhisBEEandMEEfromUniversityofKalyani,NadiaandBengalEngineeringandScienceUniversity(BESU),Shibpur,intheyears2002and2006respectively.HestartedhiscareerasalecturerinHaldiaInstituteofTechnology,Haldia,in2006.Atpresent,heisworkingasAssistantProfessorattheDepartmentofElectricalEngineeringinRCCInstituteofInformationTechnology,Kolkata.Hehasbeenteachingforover6yearsandhisareasofinterestincludepowersystems,especiallythedesignofmicrocontroller-based numerical adaptive relay, digital instrumentation, and dataacquisition. He has to his credit publications in international and national conferenceproceedingsonvarioustopicsrelatedtohisresearchdomain.

    Santanu Das obtained his BEE and MEE from Bengal Engineering and ScienceUniversity, Howrah, West Bengal. He has submitted his PhD thesis (in electricalengineering)toJadavpurUniversity,Kolkata,forevaluation.Earlier,Prof.Dasworkedat

  • Asansol Engineering College, Asansol, as Lecturer. Presently, he holds the post ofAssociate Professor andHead,Department ofElectricalEngineeringHaldia Institute ofTechnology, Haldia. He has published more than 20 research papers in internationaljournalsandconferenceproceedingsontopicsrelatedtohisresearchdomains.Hiscurrentfields of research interest include fault diagnosis and condition monitoring of electricmotors,PLCandmicrocontroller-basedmotioncontrol,powerelectronicsanddrives.

    ChiranjibKoleyobtainedhisB.TechfromHIT,Haldia,M.TechfromIITDelhiandPhDfrom JadavpurUniversity,Kolkata.He received theEFIPScholarship in 2001 from theGovernment of India. Presently, he is Associate Professor in Department of ElectricalEngineering,NationalInstituteofTechnology,Durgapur,WestBengal.Hiscurrentareasof interest include signal processing, machine learning, and measurement andinstrumentation.Hehaspublishedextensively innationalandinternational journals,andconferenceproceedingsonvarioustopicsrelatedtohisresearchareas.

  • ElectricalandElectronicsMeasurementsandInstrumentation

    PrithwirajPurkaitProfessor

    DepartmentofElectricalEngineeringand

    Dean,SchoolofEngineering

    HaldiaInstituteofTechnology

    Haldia,WestBengal

    BudhadityaBiswasAssistantProfessor

    DepartmentofElectricalEngineering

    RCCInstituteofInformationTechnology

    Kolkata,WestBengal

    SantanuDasAssociateProfessor

    DepartmentofElectricalEngineering

    HaldiaInstituteofTechnology

    Haldia,WestBengal

    ChiranjibKoleyAssociateProfessor

    ElectricalEngineeringDepartment

    NationalInstituteofTechnology(NIT)Durgapur

    Durgapur,WestBengal

  • McGrawHillEducation(India)PrivateLimited

    PublishedbyMcGrawHillEducation(India)PrivateLimited

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    ElectricalandElectronicsMeasurementsandInstrumentation

    Copyright2013,byMcGrawHillEducation(India)PrivateLimited.

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  • ContentsPreface

    GuidedTour

    1.ConceptofMeasurementSystems1.1Introduction

    1.2FundamentalandDerivedUnits

    1.3StandardsandtheirClassifications

    1.4MethodsofMeasurement

    1.5MeasurementSystemanditsElements

    1.6ClassificationofInstruments

    1.7DefinitionsofSomeStaticCharacteristics

    1.8MeasurementofErrors

    1.9LoadingEffects

    Exercise

    2.AnalogMeters2.1Introduction

    2.2ClassificationofAnalogInstruments

    2.3PrincipleofOperation

    2.4OperatingTorques

    2.5ConstructionalDetails

    2.6PermanentMagnetMovingCoilInstrument

    2.7ExtensionofRangeofPMMCInstruments

    2.8Moving-IronInstruments

    2.9Electrodynamometer-TypeInstruments

    2.10ElectrostaticInstruments

    2.11Induction-typeInstruments

    2.12ElectrothermalInstruments

    2.13Rectifier-typeInstruments

    2.14TruermsVoltmeter

    2.15ComparisonbetweenDifferentTypesofInstruments

    Exercise

  • 3.InstrumentTransformers3.1Introduction

    3.2AdvantagesofInstrumentTransformers

    3.3CurrentTransformers(CT)

    3.4TheoryofCurrentTransformers

    3.5ErrorsIntroducedbyCurrentTransformers

    3.6OperationalCharacteristicsofCurrentTransformers

    3.7DesignandConstructionalFeaturesofCurrentTransformers

    3.8PrecautionsinUseofCurrentTransformer

    3.9PotentialTransformers(PT)

    3.10TheoryofPotentialTransformers

    3.11ErrorsIntroducedbyPotentialTransformers

    3.12OperationalCharacteristicsofPotentialTransformers

    3.13DesignandConstructionalFeaturesofPotentialTransformers

    3.14DifferencesbetweenCTandPT

    Exercise

    4.MeasurementofResistance4.1Introduction

    4.2MeasurementofMediumResistances

    4.3MeasurementofLowResistances

    4.4MeasurementofHighResistances

    4.5LocalisationofCableFaults

    Exercise

    5.Potentiometers5.1Introduction

    5.2ABasicdcPotentiometer

    5.3CromptonsdcPotentiometers

    5.4ApplicationsofdcPotentiometers

    5.5ACPotentiometers

    5.6ClassificationofACPotentiometers

    5.7AdvantagesandDisadvantagesofACPotentiometers

    5.8ApplicationsofACPotentiometer

  • Exercise

    6.ACBridges6.1Introduction

    6.2SourcesandDetectorsinACBridges

    6.3GeneralBalanceEquationforFour-ArmBridge

    6.4MeasurementofSelf-Inductance

    6.5MeasurementofCapacitance

    6.6MeasurementofFrequency

    6.7WagnerEarthingDevice

    Exercise

    7.PowerMeasurement7.1Introduction

    7.2PowerMeasurementindcCircuits

    7.3PowerMeasurementinacCircuits

    7.4ElectrodynamometerTypeWattmeter

    7.5Induction-typeWattmeter

    7.6PowerMeasurementinPolyphaseSystems

    7.7PowerMeasurementinThree-PhaseSystems

    7.8ReactivePowerMeasurements

    7.9PowerMeasurementwithInstrumentTransformers

    Exercise

    8.MeasurementofEnergy8.1Introduction

    8.2Single-PhaseInduction-typeEnergyMeter

    8.3ErrorsinInduction-typeEnergyMetersandTheirCompensation

    8.4TestingofEnergyMeters

    Exercise

    9.CathodeRayOscilloscope9.1Introduction

    9.2BlockDiagramofaCathodeRayTube(CRT)

    9.3ElectrostaticDeflection

  • 9.4TimeBaseGenerator

    9.5VerticalInputandSweepGeneratorSignalSynchronisation

    9.6MeasurementofElectricalQuantitieswithCRO

    9.7MeasurementofVoltageandCurrent

    9.8MeasurementofFrequency

    9.9MeasurementofPhaseDifference

    9.10SamplingOscilloscope

    9.11StorageOscilloscope

    9.12Multi-InputOscilloscopes

    9.13FrequencyLimitationofCRO

    Exercise

    10.ElectronicInstruments10.1Introduction

    10.2MeritsandDemeritsofDigitalInstrumentsoverAnalogOnes

    10.3PerformanceCharacteristicsofDigitalMeters

    10.4DigitalMultimeter

    10.5DigitalFrequencyMeter

    10.6DigitalVoltmeters(DVMs)

    10.7SignalGenerators

    Exercise

    11.SensorsandTransducers11.1Introduction

    11.2ElectricalTransducers

    11.3LinearVariabledifferentialTransformer(LVDT)

    11.4StrainGauges

    11.5ElectromagneticFlowMeter

    11.6TemperatureTransducers

    11.7PressureMeasurement

    Exercise

    12.MagneticMeasurements12.1Introduction

    12.2TypesofMagneticMeasurements

  • 12.3TheBallisticGalvanometer

    12.4Fluxmeter

    12.5UsesofBallisticGalvanometerandFluxmeter

    12.6MeasurementofFluxDensity

    12.7MeasurementofMagnetisingForce(H)

    12.

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