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  • Public-Transport Automated Timetables Using

    Even Headways and Even Loads Concepts

    32nd ATRF 2009, Auckland, NZ, 1st October 2009

    Avishai (Avi ) Ceder

    University of Auckland, NZ

    Email:

    a.ceder@auckland.ac.nz

  • Time = $

    Great moments in science:

    Einstein discovers that time is actually money

    Outline

    Current Practice

    Alternative Timetables

    Evenly Spaced Headway

    Even Loads at Max-Load Stop

    Even Load at Individual Max-Load Stop

    Example from L.A

  • Land use characteristics

    Authority Constraints

    Passenger demand by time of day, day-of-week

    Service standards

    Comparison Measures

    Interlining, Dead-Heading and Shifting Departure Times Criteria

    Crew List

    Cost elements and Operators constraints

    Crew Work and Rotation Rules and Constraints

    Relief Points

    Determination of Interchanges and

    Terminals

    Design of Network of Routes and Stops

    Settings Frequencies and Timetables

    Interchanges and

    Terminals

    Vehicles Scheduling

    Fixed Routes and

    Stops

    Trip Departure Times

    and Public

    Timetables

    Vehicle Schedules

    Crew Schedules and

    Duty Rosters

    Crew Scheduling and Rosters

    Travel Times (service and deadheading)

    1

    2

    3

    4

    INPUT

    INPUT COMPONENT OUTPUT

  • 1. Running times are established for each route

    2. The calculated bus speeds are examined (to

    correct special cases of speeding-up and slowing-

    down)

    3. Headways are determined at the peak point

    4. Initial departure times are set at the peak point

    5. Departure times are set at all route time points

    6. The departure times are adjusted at the peak

    point (to include practical elements)

    7. The final route Timetable is completed

    8. Updating and transfer to marketing

    Current Practice

  • LA Metro files include 40,000 trips. The data

    is collected manually and then key punched

    About 40% of the schedulers time is devoted

    to data entry and proofreading generated

    reports

    Current Practice Example:

  • A stitch in time would have confused Einstein.

    many stitches in public-transport (PT) timetables

    would confuse the passengers.

    PT timetable is one of the predominant bridges

    between the operator (and/or the community) and the

    passengers.

    More attention should be provided for the

    construction of PT timetable in order to improve its

    correspondence with the fluctuated passenger

    demand.

    Importance of PT Timetables

  • Public-Transport (PT) timetable is perhaps the main

    reference for defining unreliable transit service.

    The assumption that passengers will adjust

    themselves to given timetables (with headways of, say,

    longer that 10 minutes) instead of adjusting the

    timetables to the passenger demand is one of the

    largest sources of unreliable service.

    When passenger demand is not met, the PT vehicles

    are slowing down (increased dwell time), behind the

    schedule and entering the inevitable process of further

    slow down.

    Scope

  • 1. Evaluate alternative timetables in terms of required resources

    2. Improve the correspondence of vehicle departure time with passenger demand while minimizing resources

    3. Improve timetables for synchronization

    4. To permit in timetable construction procedure, direct bus frequency changes for possible exceptions (known to the scheduler) which do not rely on passenger demand data

    5. To allow the construction of timetables with headway smoothing techniques (similar to that performed manually) in the transition segments between adjacent time periods

    6. Integrate different headway setting and different timetables construction methods

    Objectives

    Wish to

    attain

  • Alternative Timetables

    Even headway

    Max load (point

    check) methods

    Load profile (ride

    check) methods

    Intuitive or experience-

    based determination

    Daily Max load

    (Method 1)Hourly Max Load

    (Method 2)

    With level-of-service

    criterion (Method 4)

    Predetermined number of departuresClock headways

    Without level-of-service

    criterion (Method 3)

    Even average load

    Method for

    Setting

    Frequencies

    Special Requests

    At individual vehicle

    Max load point

    At hourly Max load

    point

    Type of

    Timetable

    Public Timetable(list of departure times per timepoint)

  • Three Procedures

  • Example for the Three Procedures

    Two basic assumptions: (a) the average load observed is a representative

    value of the actual demand and it is independent of the exact setting of

    departure times; (b) the passengers observed on-board are accumulated

    at a uniform rate.

  • Evenly Spaced Headways with

    a Smoothing Technique

  • Even Average Load at the Max Load Stop

    How to

    fix the

    uneven

    loads ?

    Data given on

    individual vehicles

    average loads (at

    Max-Load stop)

  • Even Average Load on Individual Veh Max-Load Stops

  • Comparing the Three Procedures

  • Parameter file

    Headway switch 1 = Even headways

    2 = Even-load headways

    Frequency Method

    (for Each operating

    option) first period in which

    the option is operated

    last period

    method used to determine

    frequency

    Clock headway switch 1 = clock headways

    0 = otherwise

    Specified departures specified number of daily trips

    0 if not specified

  • SCRTD line 217

    Real-Life Example (bus line 217 in LA)

  • Load(# of

    Passengers)

    Distance

    (km)

    Line 217 Morning-Peak Load Profile

  • Line 217 Afternoon-Peak Load Profile

    Load(# of

    Passengers)

    Distance

    (km)

  • Line 217 (South)

    0

    2

    4

    6

    8

    10

    12

    5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23

    Time of day

    Fre

    qu

    ency

    (#

    of

    veh

    icle

    s) Observed Method 2

    Method 3 Method 4 (20%)

  • Line 217 (North)

    0

    2

    4

    6

    8

    10

    12

    5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23

    Time of day

    Fre

    qu

    en

    cy (

    # o

    f v

    ehic

    les) Observed Method 2

    Method 3 Method 4 (20%)

  • Computer Generated Timetable of line 217 at the Fairfax/Rosewood Stop

    Min single

    route

    required

    fleet size=15

    Min fleet size =

    largest number

    of buses

    departing in any

    time interval

    of length T

    T= round trip

    time including

    layover and

    turn around

    time

  • Computer Generated Timetable of Line 217at the Fairfax/Rosewood Stop

  • Computer Generated Timetable of Line 217at the Fairfax/Rosewood Stop

  • Computer Generated Timetable of Line 217

    at the Fairfax/Rosewood Stop

  • Computer Generated Timetable of Line 217across all Stops

    Nine-tenth of

    wisdom

    is being wise

    in time

    (Roosevelt)

  • End of Presentation

    Thank You!

    Public-Transport Automated Timetables Using

    Even Headways and Even Loads Concepts

    32nd ATRF 2009, Auckland, NZ, 1st October 2009