qin [ch’in] dynasty, 221- 206 b.c.e. ï established...

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  • Qin [Chin] Dynasty, 221-206 B.C.E. Established Chinas first empire Shi Huangdi (221-206 B.C.E) Legalist rule Bureaucratic administrationCentralized controlMilitary expansionBook burnings targeted ConfucianistsBuried protestors alive! Built large section of the Great Wall

  • Shi Huangdis Terra Cotta Army

  • The Great Wall with Towers

  • The Eastern terminus of the Great Wall, Shanhai Pass

  • Han Dynasty, 206 B.C.E.-220 C.E.People of the Han original ChinesePaper invented [105 B.C.E.] Silk Road trade develops; improves life for manyBuddhism introduced into ChinaExpanded into Central Asia

  • Changan The Han Capital

  • Emperor Wudi, 141-87 B.C.E.Started public schools. Colonized Manchuria, Korea, & Vietnam. Civil service system bureaucratsConfucian scholar-gentry Revival of Chinese landscape painting.

  • Trade Routes of the Ancient World

  • Sui Dynasty, 581-618 C.E.Land Equalization System land redistribution.Unified coinage.Grand Canal constructed.Established an army of professional soldiers. People were overworked and overtaxed!

  • The Grand Canal

  • The Grand Canal Today

  • Tang Dynasty, 618-907 C.E.Imperial examination system perfected. Liberal attitude towards all religions. Spread of Buddhism in China

    Golden Age of foreign relations with other countries. Japan, Korea, Persia

  • Tang Government Organization

  • Tang Dynasty, 618-907 C.E.New technologies:Printing moveable print PorcelainGunpowderMechanical clocks More cosmopolitan culture. Reestablished the safety of the Silk Road. Tea comes into China from Southeast Asia.

  • Empress Wu Zetian, 624-705The only female Empress in Chinas history who ruled alone. Searched for outstanding individuals to attract to her court.Construction of new irrigation systems.Buddhism was the favored state religion. Financed the building of many Buddhist temples.BUT She appointed cruel and sadistic ministers to seek out her enemies.

  • Foot-Binding in Tang ChinaBroken toes by 3 years of age.Size 5 shoe on the right

  • Foot-Binding in Tang China Mothers bound their daughters feet.

  • Foot-Binding in Tang ChinaFor upper-class girls, it became a new custom.

  • The Results of Foot-Binding

  • Song [Sung] Dynasty, 960-1279 C.E.Creation of an urban, merchant, middle class. Increased emphasis on education & cheaper availability of printed books. Magnetic compass makes China a great sea power!

  • Rice Cultivation Began Under the Song

  • Mongolian Steppes

  • Xinjiang Region Typical Uygher [Mongol] Yurt

  • Mongol Invasions

  • The MONGOLS [Golden Horde]Temujin --> Genghis Khan [Universal Ruler]1162 - 1227 from the steppe [dry, grass-covered plains of Central Asia]

  • The MONGOLS [Golden Horde]Genghis Khans Tax Laws:If you do not pay homage, we will take your prosperity.If you do not have prosperity, we will take your children.If you do not have children, we will take your wife.If you do not have a wife, we will take your head.Used cruelty as a weapon some areas never recovered from Mongol destruction!

  • The Extent of the Mongol Empire

  • Yuan (Mongol) Dynasty, 1279-1368 C.E. Kublai Khan [r. 1260-1294]Pax Mongolica [Mongol Peace]Tolerated Chinese culture but lived apart from them. No Chinese in top govt. posts.Believed foreigner were more trustworthy.Encouraged foreign trade & foreign merchants to live and work in China. Marco Polo

  • Marco Polo (1254-1324)A Venetian merchant. Traveled through Yuan China: 1271-1295Black Stones [coal] Gunpowder. Noodles.

  • Marco Polos Travels

  • Yuan Dynasty, 1279-1368 C.E.The Black Plague was spread by the Mongols in the mid-14c. Sent fleets against Japan.1281 150,000 warriorsDefeated by kamikazi [winds of the gods] Kublai Khan experienced several humiliating defeats in Southeast Asia late in his life.

  • Chinas last native imperial dynasty!

  • The Forbidden City: Chinas New Capital

  • Revived the Civil Service Exam

  • Ming Cultural RevolutionPrinting & LiteracyCheap, popular books:woodblock printing.cheap paper.Examination system.Leads to explosion in literacy. Leads to further popularization of the commercial market.Culture & ArtIncreased literacy leads to increased interest in cultural expressions, ideas, and things:Literature.Painting.Ceramics.Opera.

  • Ming Silver Market Spanish Silver ConvoysTriangle route:Philippines to China to Japan.Silver floods Chinese Market:Causes devaluation of currency & recessionAdds to reasons for Chinese immigration overseas.Reduces price of Chinese goods in EuropeIncreases interest in Chinese culture & ideas in Europe.Helps fund conquest of New World Encourages Europeans in conquest & trade.

  • Ming Emperor Tai Zu (r. 1368-1398)

  • Admiral Zheng He (Cheng Ho)Ming Treasure FleetEach ship 400 long & 160 wide1371-1435

  • Admiral Zheng He (Cheng Ho)Chinas Columbus?

  • 1498 --> Da Gama reached Calcutta, Chinas favorite port.

  • Ming Painting and Calligraphy, early 16c

  • Imperial Chinas Impact on HistoryRemoved religion from morality. Beginnings of political philosophy through which a ruler must prove he/she is legitimate. Mandate of Heaven Secular law. Valued history The Dynastic Cycle

    *Short-lived but very significant.Book burnings (including Confucius!)Millions of peasants were forced to build the Great Wall along the northern border.

    China, from Qin, developed as the name outsiders used to refer to China. But the Chinese still refer to themselves as Han people. *Note the western terminus at Jiayu Pass and the eastern terminus at Shanhai Pass.*How effective do you think this kind of fortification would have been in pre-modern times? *The Han Synthesis term refers to the emphasis on Legalism, but with a touch of Confucianism. The Han dynasty recorded Confuciuss teachings (The Analects) and put a big emphasis on the family.

    Founded the Imperial UniversityRequired examinations to become bureaucrat (civil service system)Soldiers dropped to lowest status.Confucianists at work; Daoists at home.

    The Han tried to replace literature, including Confuciuss writings, lost during the Qin Dynasty. Created new works of literature and music. Scroll painting began during this time. Iron was now used for plows and weapons. Acupuncture was invented. Invented a crude seismic sensing tool, so they could send troops and food to the scene of an earthquake!

    Inventions include: paper (105 CE), sternpost rudder on ships, water mill, wheelbarrow, furrowed cultivation

    Show map for Silk Road trade. It brought Chinese together into one civilization, creating a common culture. Economically, it brought much wealth to the Han, as they exported much more than they imported.

    Wudis public schools taught Confucianism. Grand School in capital. In 100 years, 30,000 studied there.

    *What about this map suggests that Changan was a city of an advanced civilization?Answers might include: Grid pattern. Palaces and administrative buildings suggest centralized governments.Markets suggest trade.*The Han Synthesis term refers to the emphasis on Legalism, but with a touch of Confucianism. The Han dynasty recorded Confuciuss teachings (The Analects) and put a big emphasis on the family.

    Founded the Imperial UniversityRequired examinations to become bureaucrat (civil service system)Soldiers dropped to lowest status.Confucianists at work; Daoists at home.

    The Han tried to replace literature, including Confuciuss writings, lost during the Qin Dynasty. Created new works of literature and music. Scroll painting began during this time. Iron was now used for plows and weapons. Acupuncture was invented. Invented a crude seismic sensing tool, so they could send troops and food to the scene of an earthquake!

    Inventions include: paper (105 CE), sternpost rudder on ships, water mill, wheelbarrow, furrowed cultivation

    Show map for Silk Road trade. It brought Chinese together into one civilization, creating a common culture. Economically, it brought much wealth to the Han, as they exported much more than they imported.

    Wudis public schools taught Confucianism. Grand School in capital. In 100 years, 30,000 studied there.

    *The Han Synthesis term refers to the emphasis on Legalism, but with a touch of Confucianism. The Han dynasty recorded Confuciuss teachings (The Analects) and put a big emphasis on the family.

    Founded the Imperial UniversityRequired examinations to become bureaucrat (civil service system)Soldiers dropped to lowest status.Confucianists at work; Daoists at home.

    The Han tried to replace literature, including Confuciuss writings, lost during the Qin Dynasty. Created new works of literature and music. Scroll painting began during this time. Iron was now used for plows and weapons. Acupuncture was invented. Invented a crude seismic sensing tool, so they could send troops and food to the scene of an earthquake!

    Inventions include: paper (105 CE), sternpost rudder on ships, water mill, wheelbarrow, furrowed cultivation

    Show map for Silk Road trade. It brought Chinese together into one civilization, creating a common culture. Economically, it brought much wealth to the Han, as they exported much more than they imported.

    Wudis public schools taught Confucianism. Grand School in capital. In 100 years, 30,000 studied there.

    *Above is a picture of Suzhou in Jiangsu province showing houses along the Grand Canal.From north to south

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