REFERS TO THE WAYS THAT AUTHORS ORGANIZE INFORMATION IN TEXT

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<p>TEXT STRUCTURE</p> <p>TEXT STRUCTUREREFERS TO THE WAYS THAT AUTHORS ORGANIZE INFORMATION IN TEXT.</p> <p>What is a text structure?</p> <p>A way for the author to organize the text so the reader understands the message.What is a text structure?Builders can use different kinds of structures to build different thingsA skyscraper, for example, is a different kind of structure from a house</p> <p>3What is a text structure?</p> <p>Writers use different structures to build their ideasEach text structure communicates ideas in a different way4Examples FictionStory Elements:CharacterSettingConflict/ResolutionPlot Non FictionCause and EffectSequenceProblem/SolutionDescriptionCompare and Contrast</p> <p>Because nonfiction texts are not built like narrative texts (no rising action, plot, etc.)T-ChartWhy do we need to learn about Text Structures?Venn DiagramHow text is organized.</p> <p>ALL stories are chronological.Nonfiction has lots of text structures.Each paragraph may be different.</p> <p>Well learn 5 types.Text StructureChronologicalSequenceCompare and ContrastCause and EffectProblem and SolutionWhat are the 5 Kinds of Text Structures?What are the 5 Kinds of Text Structures?Sequence (Chronological and Order of Importance)Compare and ContrastCause and EffectProblem and SolutionDescriptiveChronological orderAuthors use chronological order to explain how things happen in orderChronological order is also called sequence or time order</p> <p>10Chronological orderYou will know that you are reading a text in chronological order because you will see words like first, next, later, then, and finally</p> <p>11In order of time</p> <p>Chrono = timeStories are told chronologically</p> <p>Chronological Example</p> <p>Moved AwayMet GirlFell in Love</p> <p>Born in 1882Marriedin 1906Diedin 1948Steps described in the order they occur.</p> <p>Sequence / Order of Importance</p> <p>Put on ShoeMake Two LoopsTie Loops TogetherTightenLaces</p> <p>Get breadOpen jarsSpread peanut butterSpread jellyCombine slicesEnjoy.Does not take place at any specific point in time.What is Sequence?Text StructureDescriptionSignal WordsSequenceDescribes events in the order that they happened or tells the steps of how to do something first before second since later now next previously then finally dates after when14Texts that follow this structure tell the order in which steps in a process or series of events occur. </p> <p>Questions to ConsiderWhat happened? What is the sequence of events? What are the sub-stages? </p> <p>Graphic OrganizersFlow MapMulti-flow MapTimelineSequential Orderafterafterwardas soon asbeforeduringfinallyfirstfollowingimmediatelyinitallylatermeanwhilenextnot long afternowon (date)precedingsecondsoonthenthirdtodayuntilwhenSequential Order Signal Words11-1-12 first block stopped16Sequence</p> <p>Event 1Event 2Event 3Event 4Event 5Appendix 317Another text structureSometimes, a writer will want to explain how one event leads to anotherThis kind of text structure is called cause and effect</p> <p>18What is Cause and Effect?Text StructureDescriptionSignal WordsCause and EffectThe causes of an event and its resulting effect(s) are presented. if/then as a result therefore consequently since because hence thus this led to19Cause and EffectExplains reasons why something happened.</p> <p>Or explains the effects of something.</p> <p>Not feeding it.Not petting it.Not loving it.Why Dog Ran AwayLots of Karate Movies in 60sMany Karate Schools Opened.Nun chuck sales Increased 400%Text is not tellingthe story of a dog.Hospital caseswent up.The effect of not feeding the dog the dog ran awayThe cause of the schools, nun chuck increase and hospital cases is cause by the Karate movies.20What are some signal words for Cause and Effect?on account of as a result due to consequently since because thus this led to</p> <p>21More with cause and effect Baby painted turtles spend all winter in their nests. They have special chemicals in their blood that can keep their blood from freezing. As a result, baby painted turtles can survive freezing temperatures! </p> <p>22More with cause and effect Baby painted turtles spend all winter in their nests. They have special chemicals in their blood that can keep their blood from freezing. As a result, baby painted turtles can survive freezing temperatures! </p> <p>This is the cause23More with cause and effect Baby painted turtles spend all winter in their nests. They have special chemicals in their blood that can keep their blood from freezing. As a result, baby painted turtles can survive freezing temperatures! </p> <p>This is the effect24Cause and Effect</p> <p>Appendix 525ReviewWhich text structure tells about how things are similar and different?Compare and contrastWhich text structure explains how things happen in time order?Chronological order</p> <p>26Problem and SolutionAuthor states a problem and solution(s).Similar to cause and effect.</p> <p>MissingBooksPutting inthe ClosetGettingLockers</p> <p>Eagles wereendangered.Make laws to protect them.Basically &amp; Effect With an Opinion.</p> <p>And an answer.Another kind of text structureSometimes, an author will want to explain a problem, and then show one or more solutionsThis kind of text structure is called problem and solution</p> <p>28What is Problem and Solution?Text StructureDescriptionSignal WordsProblem and SolutionA problem and one or more solutions to the problem are presented. problem is solution is if/then to solve the problem</p> <p>29An example of problem and solution Park School had a terrible problem. Every day at recess, students would argue over the slides. Teachers had to spend time every day taking care of the arguments. Finally, one teacher came up with a great solution. They bought another set of slides that everyone could enjoy.</p> <p>Can you find the problem and the solution in this paragraph?30An example of problem and solution Park School had a terrible problem. Every day at recess, students would argue over the slides. Teachers had to spend time every day taking care of the arguments. Finally, one teacher came up with a great solution. They bought another set of slides that everyone could enjoy.</p> <p> Here is the problem31An example of problem and solution Park School had a terrible problem. Every day at recess, students would argue over the slides. Teachers had to spend time every day taking care of the arguments. Finally, one teacher came up with a great solution. They bought another set of slides that everyone could enjoy.</p> <p> Here is the problemHere is the solution32Problem and Solution</p> <p>Appendix 433Another text structureSuppose an author wanted to explain how these two birds are similar and differentChronological order wouldnt work---there is no order of eventsThe author would need to use compare and contrast</p> <p>34What is Compare and Contrast?Text StructureDescriptionSignal WordsCompare and ContrastTwo or more events, objects or places that are being compared and shown how they are alike and/or different but however nevertheless similarly in contrast different from the same like unlike35Compare and ContrastCompare = find similarities Contrast = find differences</p> <p>Shows whats in common and whats different.</p> <p>Apples &amp;OrangesFruits </p> <p>Have Seeds</p> <p>HealthyColors</p> <p>Tastes</p> <p>LocationsWhat are some signal words for Compare and Contrast?Bothbuthowever nevertheless on the other hand in contrast different from the same like unlike</p> <p>37Compare and contrast graphic organizerTo organize details from a paragraph in compare and contrast, use a Venn diagram38</p> <p>ComparisonDifferences DifferencesSimilaritiesAppendix 139What is Description?Text StructureDescriptionSignal WordsDescriptionA topic is described by listing characteristics, features, attributes, and examples. for example for instance such as is like in addition also including in particular</p> <p>40Description paragraphsIn this kind of paragraph, the author offers a main idea statement, and then supports that statement with several details</p> <p>41Descriptive paragraphs </p> <p> The pond was a beautiful place to visit. The falling leaves, all different colors, decorated the surface of the water. At the edges of the pond, small wildflowers grew. The golden forest glowed faintly in the distance. 42Description paragraphs </p> <p> The pond was a beautiful place to visit. The falling leaves, all different colors, decorated the surface of the water. At the edges of the pond, small wildflowers grew. The golden forest glowed faintly in the distance. Main idea43Description paragraphs </p> <p> The pond was a beautiful place to visit. The falling leaves, all different colors, decorated the surface of the water. At the edges of the pond, small wildflowers grew. The golden forest glowed faintly in the distance. Main ideaAll of the other sentences explain why the main idea is true44Description</p> <p>Appendix 245Emily Kissnerhttp://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/aSGuest11441-142494-text-structure-power-point-entertainment-ppt-powerpoint/highmail.highlands.k12.fl.us/~deanc/textstructure.pptwww.prc.k12.ms.us/docs/.../Teaching%20Text%20Structure.ppt</p> <p>Resources</p>