methods of organization analyze ways authors organize and present ideas
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Methods of OrganizationAnalyze ways authors organize and present ideas
Making Information ClearAuthors choose structure to organize information and make their meaning clear.Readers use strategies to support interpretation of text.
Writing ClarityAuthors use organization to develop their point of viewThey use different approaches to support their purposesThey pick an organization format that will help make their ideas clear to the reader
Readers askCan I see a pattern to the argument?How are the ideas divided and presented?Why has the author chosen this particular organization pattern?
Organizational PatternsChronologicalCause and EffectComparison and ContrastMain Idea and Supporting Details
ChronologicalStory or information is told in the order that the events occurred
Chronological Example (1) First, Goldilocks sat in the great big, Papa Bear chair, but it was too hard.Then, she sat in the medium sized, Mama Bear chair, but it was too soft.Finally, she sat in the little, bitty, Baby Chair, and it was just right.
Chronological Example (2)When the Anglo-Saxons conquered the British Isles they introduced their language which was composed of common everyday words like boat and tree.Later, the Normans added French words like caf.
Cause and EffectThe author establishes a link between the way things are now and how they got that way.CAUSEEFFECT
Order doesnt matterSometimes the cause will be presented firstthen the effect will followCAUSEEFFECT
Cause/Effect Example (1)Cause: During the experiment, Henry poured the liquid bromine into the saline solution. Effect: His hypothesis was proved correct when the solution changed colors.
Order still doesnt matter Sometimes the issues are presented with the effects sited firstthen the causes are offered as explanationCAUSEEFFECT
Cause/Effect Example (2)Effect: The future of gorillas in the wild is at risk. Scientists predict that at the present rate of decline, in 30 years all the worlds wild gorillas will be gone. Cause: Gorilla meat is a dietary staple for nearly 12 million people in Africa.
Comparison and ContrastOne idea is presented first, followed by a similar or different way of seeing things.
Compare/Contrast Example (1)Seurat painted scenes of everyday life full of realistic people and objects with soft edges and lines. He wanted his art to capture feelings of the moment.Picasso, on the other hand, used distorted images and strange colors to create mood.
Compare/Contrast Example (2)Saturn is the second largest planet in the solar system, much larger than Earth. It is mostly made of hydrogen. It rotates more quickly too. A day on Saturn is only about 10 Earth hours long. But it takes about 30 of our years to make one full trip around the sun.
Main Idea and Supporting IdeaMajor ideas are presented and supported with evidence or details.
Main Idea Example (1)Native American tribes lived in a variety of different dwellings. The Plains Indians used tepees that were easy to put up and take down. The Iroquois built longhouses, which were large rectangular homes. The Navajo constructed earth-covered dwellings called hogans.
Main Idea Example (2)Out on the sidewalk I could hear Ted and his brother arguing. Then the neighbors dog started barking because of the loud hammering across the street. It was not a peaceful day.
Key WordsThis story is organized bycomparing a familys life in an apartment with its life in a housedescribing a series of events that fulfills a family dreamdiscussing what each member of a family thinks about building a homeproviding examples of how people lived in 1925
Which of the following best describes the organization of the passage?Presenting the steps of amber and pearl formation in the order in which they occurComparing the formation of amber to the formation of pearlsDescribing features of amber and pearls that determine their worthPresenting basic information first about amber and then about pearls
Chronology Key WordsFirstNextThenAfterBeforeSequential datesEvents Order
Cause and Effect Key WordsProblem/SolutionsQuestions/Answers WhyBecauseReasons
Compare/Contrast Key WordsDifferSameAlikeCompareButBothSimilar
Main Idea Key WordsOverviewMostly aboutDetails
REVIEWWhat are the 4 organizational patterns?Why do authors use different types of organization?What clues will help you determine the pattern?