sacrament of penance
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Augustine Tran Nhu HuynhJohn the Baptist Nguyen Dinh SonI. Introductionmany sacraments of forgiveness and reconciliation in the history Other: prayer, reading of scripture, fasting, almsgiving and charity work
modern church: administered privately by a priest and received by Catholic perhaps one a year.patristic period: public presided by bishop and for the notorious sinners and one in lifetime.medieval ages: the assurance can be given by a lay afterward by the clergy alone.
Work of repentancePresence time was the brief prayerancient time were usually lengthy acts of mortification.
two elements that always found that were the confession and forgiveness.
Latin Paenitentia: repentance or penitence, an interior turning away from sinful attitude and actions.Greek Metanoia: conversion or change of heartEnglish: penances the short of penitence,
II. The concept of sin and forgiveness throughout the agesAncient: Civilization laws were often understood as given by gods The role of punishment was also religious. Help to preserve the divinely established order and order of societyMild punishments: exclusions from religious worship, ritual of purification and sacrifice Severe forms: included publish prayer and fasting, self-disfigurement , other sign of remorse, social ostracism, physical torture and death.
Ancient Israel:was a religious society, ancient laws were religious laws Break the laws were sins, violate the covenant, defile the relationship with a divine personPunishment: sacrifices and sin offering, prayer and lamentations, fasting and fines,to restore the covenant relationship
The time of Jesus:many penitential practices prescribed by TorahAddition: day of Atonement, the high priest confess his sins and the sins of the people before sacrifice. sacrifice only in the temple of Jerusalem: outside seek reconciliation by: fasting, sleeping on the ground, wearing sackcloth and ashes, and almsgiving
III. Early ChristianityDo not much difference from Jewish:Paul: expel members who married his stepmotherdispel who worship idols, drunker, charge interest on loans and immoral practices. (1 Cr 5:1-13).2Cr 2: 5-11, 2 Th 2: 6-15, receive them again in community if they were punished enough
The different with JewishThe Rabbi did it in the authority of the Law but early Christian did it in the authority of Christ.Practice: the Keys of heaven to bind and to loose people on earth (Mt 16: 19; 18: 15-18) no any writing about the ritual but be done in gather of community (1Cr 5: 4-5).
Theology senseJesus was the sacrament of divine forgiveness to those who met him means the Baptism:Salvation came through baptism and fellowship in the communityCommunity was a sacrament of reconciliationCommunity contain the means of overcome sin and people must acknowledge their sin (1Jn 1:8-10) and confess to other( James 5: 16).All sins can be given by the mercy of God except sin against Holy Spirit or deadly sin 2nd CenturyShepherd of Hermas: God in his mercy had provided for sinners who turned from their evil ways should be received back but no repeated
Clement of Alexandria : Fallen Christian could be forgiven after their baptism but only once
Teaching of the Twelve: Confess your sin in the assembly and do not come to your prayer with a guilty conscience (4,14).Ignatius of Antioch: speak of fraternal correction and pray for otherSt Polycarp of Smyrna: pastor must have compassionate and merciful to the sheep in Christs flock who went astray.
Third cent the patternwent to bishop and confessed their error, have to reform their lives. Excluded from Eucharistic worship Wait until bishop and community were convinced Perform work of penance: fasting, praying, almsgiving, some be exorcised penitence can be few weeks or yearsThe bishop imposed the hands on them as receive back the Holy Spirit
Emperor Decius 249-250: LapsingOpenly offer sacrifice to Roman godsPay for certificates that they had done Other renounce their faith and after have second thoughts about itHave the letter of the martyr that promise to intercede for them
251 north Africanbishop decided in favor of both forgiveness and severity Certificates of sacrifice: be readmitted with long period of penanceoffer sacrifice: be admitted to penance discipline but reconciled at the end of their lives.Those have letter of martyr was still do public penance but lessThose did not do penance and reconciliation with the church only in dying were left for the mercy of God.Roma: strict on apostasy and other sins adulterers and fornicator, murder, thieves the Spanish council of Elvira: who offered sacrifice to gods could not receive communion though after reconcile and only once and the same penalty on other 17 sins.
Theologythe leader of the Church have the power to bind and loosen who reconciled with the Church also forgiven by God.Cyprian: ecclesiastical forgiveness was needed for divine forgiveness, for sin be forgiven through process of repentance but not in the rite.
4th Cent persecution was over: council of Nicaea approved the single repentance after baptism for apostates and adulterer after public repentance. bishop have the right to act as judgesbreak relationship become break divine law and ecclesiastical lawconversion of the heart to a penalty for violating the law.
Theology:Athanasius a repentence heart obtains their remission form the priest.Ambrose: baptism and public repentance only one and the minister forgive sins not by his own power but the Lord.
Augustine: serious sins required the discipline of public penitence that was imposed by bishop, the private repentance was not enough.
Leo: grant those who were dying should be reconciled even if they had not completed their penance.
4th and 5th cent: processWent to bishop and ask what to do. Some to the monk to have advice first, big cities that function of bishop for the priest.Enroll Order of penitents brief liturgical ceremony which set him apart from Eucharist and community. Receive back that require him to renounce his sinfulness and ask Gods mercy , be exorcised in final time. The Rite of impose the hands by bishop or anointing the oil.
The penitenceThey were mark out as sinnersWear sackcloth made of goat hairChain to signify the bondage of sinRags to dramatize the poverty of virtueCut short hair as the slave of SatanSprinkle with ashes as were death like Adam
Attitude of being Christian and to the reconciliationofficial religion: those enter did not feel very great to holinessIdeal of moral replace by more practice: not understand the public repentance.Many committed the serious secret sins did not come forwardMost Christian felt no need for the public penance: only fasting, almsgiving, prayer, Eucharistic sacrifice.public penitence enroll at the old ages or halfhearted and hope for the forgiveness at the death bed
Reasons for avoiding public penitence: It was obviously harshnessSocial stigma had come to be attached to itCan be receive only onceEven after reconciled were bound to observe for reminder: could not marry, no sexual relation, no engage in business, military, public or church office
Unexpected effects of canonical penanceThe Bishop and priest were forbidden to become penitenceClerics committed the serious sins were underwent other discipline called degradationResult that few priest and no bishop received public penanceLead to the celibacy of celery in the west for the forbidden sexual relationsThe monk live the live of repentance so no marry become the law of the Roman churchAppear the spiritual guidanceIV. Confession and penance in the Middle agesA young Christian Patrick: was a slaver in Ireland to Monk and Bishop in charge the mission to Ireland: the liturgy which distinguee other though was celebrated in Latin.
Mission of Irelandmonk gave private and repeat confession and continuous works of penitence.travel so on One trip to hear confession and assign penance and the next trip pray with penitent, asking Gods mercyThe sign of forgiveness was a blessing than imposing the handCarry the book contain the sins and penance for each one.
Canonical penitence in this time at Italyperiod of repentance was reduced to the forty days of LentPenitent being sign with ashes on Ash Wed and reconciled on Holy Thursday, penance became lighter.
6th Centthe monk spread their way of liturgy to many Spain, Germany, Switzerland and other..became success for the promise of salvation in baptism no longer assure and avoid of older form of repentance.650 council of Chalon, France approved confession to priest as a medicine for the soul
Practice grew and the book of penitent were used in various parts of Europe but the assign was different depend the places:Thief: restore the stolen plus compensationAdultery: payment for damage plus abstinence from intercourseFighting and bloodshed: scourging and prohibition to carry weaponMurder: compulsory pilgrimage that is exileOther include: fasting, abstaining from tasty food, prayer, psalm, almsgiving, excluded taking communion
The time became short but the penance more intense: like a year of mild fasting by 3 days complete fastingA fine substituted for almost penalty and in pre-Christian Ireland one man can do penance for otherThe practice spread fast and become tradition, the bishop want to reform must accept public penitence for public sin and private penitence for private sin.
8th centmany bishop and councils recommend the confession the grave sins before communion made obligatory for confession 3 times a year.Fourth Lateran Council degreed who commit grave sin must confess to their pastor within a year
1215 confess to priest become an official sacrament in western. Solemn public penit