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Importance of Conceptual Scoring to Language Assessment in Bilingual Children 2011 ASHA Convention, San Diego, CA November 19, 2011. Shannon Wang, M.A., CCC-SLP Nancy Castilleja, M.A., CCC-SLP Marie Sepulveda, M.S., CCC-SLP Mark H. Daniel, Ph.D. Agenda. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Importance of Conceptual Scoring to Language Assessment in Bilingual Children

    2011 ASHA Convention, San Diego, CANovember 19, 2011

    Shannon Wang, M.A., CCC-SLPNancy Castilleja, M.A., CCC-SLPMarie Sepulveda, M.S., CCC-SLPMark H. Daniel, Ph.D.

  • AgendaOverview: Assessing bilingual children

    Conceptual score approach to language assessment

    Data collection

    Research results

  • Overview: Assessing Bilingual ChildrenIDEIA Statute: Reduce the inappropriate over-identification of children, especially minority and limited English-proficient children, as having a disability. Statute: Title 1.D.664.b.2.D.vii

  • Normal bilingual phenomena can look similar to a disorder to those unfamiliar with 2nd language acquisitionSome typical characteristics of bilingual speakers in the U.S.Arrest: The level of proficiency in the language does not change.Attrition: Language loss and language forgettingAvoidance: Specific element of a language is not usedLanguage non use (silent period): a language is not used for communication purposesOvergeneralization: a language rule is applied in an unrestricted fashionLanguage transfer: phonological, morphological, syntactic, semantic and/or pragmatic characteristic is used in another languageFossilization: an inaccurate rule stabilizes to the point of continual usage(Region 4 Educational Service Center, 2005)

    Result: Bilingual children often misdiagnosedLow test scores in both Spanish and English

  • Assessing Bilingual AbilitiesThe lower vocabulary of bilinguals at certain stages of development may have nothing to do with handicaps or dominance questions but probably more with a smaller variety of linguistic input in each language taken separately. Hugo Baetens-Beardsmore, 1986

    Assessing vocabulary in bilingual children: best practice is to test both languages H. Kayser, 1989; H. W. Langdon, 1989

  • Conceptual ScoringConceptual scoring is scoring the meaning of a response regardless of the language in which it is produced. B. Pearson, S. Fernandez, & D.K. Oller, 1993

    Bilingual children benefit from conceptual scoring, especially when tested in Spanish L. Bedore, E. Pea, M. Garcia, & C. Cortez, 2005

    Different ways of combining test scores across languages were testedcombining scores across two languages in a composite or selecting combinations of better task or language performance to use as a basis for decision-makingClassification can be more accurate when scores in both language are used systematically for decision-making.E. Pea and L. Bedore, 2011

  • Conceptual Scoring ---> Dual Language ScoreConceptual scoring is based on literature examining semantic language development (vocabulary and other semantic skills).

    PLS-5 Spanish targets oral language (semantic and morphosyntactic skills) and early academic skills.

  • Does the dual language score approach provide a more valid representation of a bilingual childs language skills?

    Studies Examining a Dual Language Approach for PLS-5 Spanish

    PLS4 Spanish bilingual pilot study

    PLS5 Spanish bilingual tryout studybilingual standardization study

  • Development of a dual-language scoring procedureBilingual expert panelHortencia Kayser, Ph.D. Henriette Langdon, Ph.D. Elizabeth Pea, Ph.D.

    Developed PLS4 Spanish English Record Form supplement

    Administered PLS4 Spanish to participants

    After administration of the PLS-4 Spanish, items the child missed in Spanish were re-administered in English

    PLS4 Spanish Bilingual Pilot Study

  • PLS4 Spanish Bilingual Pilot StudyParticipants n=28Ages 3:7-6:10

    Countries of originMexicoCaribbeanCentral & South America

    Caregiver education level11th grade or less 37%High school graduate or GED22%13 years of college or technical school22%4 or more years of college 19%

  • Fluency in Spanish

    Exposure to SpanishPrimary caregiver speaks Spanish to childChild is Spanish-English bilingualChild may be enrolled in bilingual classes

    Language comprehensionUnderstands Spanish and a little English ORUnderstands both Spanish and English ORUnderstands some concepts only in Spanish and some only in English

    Language expressionSpeaks Spanish, a little English ORSpeaks both Spanish and English

    PLS4 Spanish Bilingual Pilot Study

  • Results93% received additional points in ACScore difference range: 0 to 6 points (mean = 2.9)

    75% received additional points in ECScore difference range: 0 to 13 (mean = 3 points)

    32% of sample earned scores that moved from language-disordered range of performance to typically developing range

    PLS4 Spanish Bilingual Pilot Study

  • PLS5 Spanish Bilingual Tryout StudyParticipants n=200

    Ages 2:0 through 7:11

    DiagnosisTD: n = 166NonTD: n = 34

  • PLS5 Spanish Bilingual Tryout StudyCriteria for Language Disorder

    Inclusionary CriteriaDiagnosed with a moderate to severe language disorder (< 77 on standardized test) in either receptive language, expressive language or both ORDiagnosis based on non-standardized tests results; plus statement provided by clinician indicating a moderate to severe language disorder

    Must be enrolled in language therapy

  • PLS5 Spanish Bilingual Tryout StudyCriteria for Language Disorder (cont.)

    Exclusionary Criteriahistory of hearing impairment, middle ear infections/ otitis media/PE tubes, or hearing aidsphonological disorderverbal apraxia or dyspraxia, or exhibits deletions of final sounds or syllables Exceptionsaspirated final /s/, common in a Puerto Rican dialectConsistently substitutes final /s/ with another phoneme

  • PLS-5 Spanish Bilingual Tryout Study: Sample Demographics

    Rec

    PLS-5 Spanish Tryout: Additional points gained from English administrationNovember 3, 2009

    Auditory Comprehension (receptive)

    Gain inAge

    English22.533.544.555.566.577.52-34-56-7

    0343423321095

    14234422122321399

    212321322394

    312143113394

    41314123456

    51223122111565

    622121053

    7111211124

    811101

    9111012

    1011011

    N810101216181481311812405644

    Mean1.11.82.32.82.03.23.14.14.54.62.02.92.13.03.6

    Rec

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    English gain

    points gained

    number of cases

    PLS-5 Bilingual Tryout, points gained in English: ReceptiveTypically developing children, ages 2-3 (N = 40)

    Exp

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    English gain

    points gained

    number of cases

    PLS-5 Bilingual Tryout, points gained in English: ReceptiveTypically developing children, ages 4-5 (N = 56)

    age

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    English gain

    points gained

    number of cases

    PLS-5 Bilingual Tryout, points gained in English: ReceptiveTypically developing children, ages 6-7 (N = 44)

    Nonclin

    PLS-5 Spanish Tryout: Additional points gained from English administrationNovember 3, 2009

    Expressive

    Gain inAge

    English22.533.544.555.566.577.52-34-56-7

    0222122211321777

    1211324132775

    2221152322412

    3112132145

    4111111

    511211024

    6111012

    7111030

    811011

    91010

    102020

    N435691194121186183337

    Mean0.50.31.01.72.72.33.46.32.92.32.11.81.03.22.4

    Nonclin

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    English gain

    points gained

    number of cases

    PLS-5 Bilingual Tryout, points gained in English: ExpressiveTypically developing children, ages 2-3 (N = 18)

    Clinical

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    English gain

    points gained

    number of cases

    PLS-5 Bilingual Tryout, points gained in English: ExpressiveTypically developing children, ages 4-5 (N = 33)

    Demogs

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    English gain

    points gained

    number of cases

    PLS-5 Bilingual Tryout, points gained in English: ExpressiveTypically developing children, ages 6-7 (N = 37)

    ES

    Average point gain by item type and age

    Item typeAgeNMSD

    Receptive2-3402.12.1

    4-5563.02.4

    6-7443.62.8

    Expressive2-3181.01.1

    4-5333.23.2

    6-7372.42.0

    Acad

    PLS-5 Spanish Tryout, Conceptual ScoringNonclinical cases

    Receptive language proficiency ratingExpressive language proficiency rating

    Little EnglishBoth Spanish & EnglishNLittle EnglishBoth Spanish & EnglishN

    2-30.392.29742-30.111.4048

    4-51.192.83674-50.534.4050

    6-71.074.00506-70.422.7443

    N9893191N8061141

    Acad

    00000.790.67

    00013.713.5

    Nonclin, 2-3

    Nonclin, 4-5

    Nonclin, 6-7

    Clin, 2-3

    Clin, 4-5

    Clin, 6-7

    Language proficiency rating

    Average point gain

    Receptive Language:Point gain by age & proficiency rating

    clin ES

    0000.140.51.33

    00001.22.17

    Nonclin, 2-3

    Nonclin, 4-5

    Nonclin, 6-7

    Clin, 2-3

    Clin, 4-5

    Clin, 6-7

    Language proficiency rating

    Average point gain

    Expressive Language:Point gain by age & proficiency rating

    SES

    PLS-5 Spanish Tryout, Conceptual ScoringClinical cases

    Receptive language proficiency ratingExpressive language proficiency rating

    AgeLittle EnglishBoth Spanish & EnglishNAgeLittle EnglishBoth Spanish & EnglishN

    2-30.001.0072-30.140.008

    4-50.793.71214-50.501.2015

    6-70.673.5096-71.332.179

    N231437N2012

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