spanishamericanwar 8th grade

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  2. 2. Chapter 23, Section 2 War With Spain Why did tensions in Cuba lead Americans to call for war with Spain? How did Americans win a quick victory in the Spanish-American War? How did the United States gain and rule its new empire?
  3. 3. Spanish Empire (Once upon a time) Dominated by the Western Hemisphere, the Spanish Empire was the 3rd largest empire in World History (1st=British, 2nd=Mongol)
  4. 4. The Spanish Empire Before and After Spains Empire 1790s Spains Empire 1898
  5. 5. Chapter 23, Section 2 Americans Call for War With Spain Over Cuba By the 1890s, Spains empire in the Western Hemisphere had shrunk to two islands in the Caribbean, Cuba and Puerto Rico. Rebellion in Cuba In 1868, the Cuban people rebelled aainst Spanish rule. The revolution was crushed, and some revolutionaries fled to New York. In New York, Puerto Rican-born Lola Rodrguez de Ti wrote poems, and Jos Mart raised funds, gave speeches, and published a newspaper in support of Cuban independence. In 1895, Mart returned to Cuba. Rebels launched a new fight against Spain. Soon, they won control of much of the island.
  6. 6. Spain sent a new governor, who used brutal tactics to crush the revolt. In a policy known as reconcentration, his men moved about half a million Cubans into detention camps so they could not aid the rebels.
  7. 7. Americans worried about the revolt. Americans had money invested in plantations, railroads, tobacco, and iron mines in Cuba. American opinion split over whether or not to intervene in Cuba. So enter Social Media ( No NOT Facebook) to influence War Support
  8. 8. Chapter 23, Section 2 Americans Call for War With Spain Over Cuba Business leaders opposed American involvement. They didnt want to do anything that might hurt foreign trade. Other Americans sympathized with Cuban desires for freedom. Americans Call for War The press whipped up American sympathies for the people of Cuba. Joseph Pulitzers World and William Randolph Hearsts Journal competed to print the most grisly stories about Spanish atrocities, or wartime acts of cruelty and brutality. To attract readers, Hearst and Pulitzer used yellow journalism, or reporting that relied on sensational stories and headlines. Often, these reports were biased or untrue. When a photographer told Hearst there was no war, Hearst supposedly replied, You supply the pictures. Ill supply the war. President Grover Cleveland and his successor, William McKinley, tried to keep the country neutral.
  9. 9. Enter Yellow Journalism
  10. 10. Yellow Journalism
  11. 11. Remember the Maine In 1898, fighting broke out in Havana, the Cuban capital. President McKinley sent the battleship Maine to protect American citizens and property there. On the night of February 15, as the Maine lay at anchor in Havana harbor, a huge explosion ripped through the ship. It killed at least 260 American sailors.
  12. 12. Chapter 23, Section 2 Americans Call for War With Spain Over Cuba The real cause of the explosion remains a mystery. But Pulitzer and Hearstss papers clamored for war. Remember the Maine! they cried. In the end, McKinley gave in to war fever. On April 25, 1898, Congress declared war on Spain.
  13. 13. Chapter 23, Section 2 The Spanish-American War The Spanish-American War lasted only four months. The battlefront stretched from the Caribbean to the Philippine Islands. The Philippines Assistant Secretary of the Navy Theodore Roosevelt instructed Commodore George Dewey, commander of the Pacific fleet, to prepare for war with Spain. As soon as war was declared, Dewey sailed his fleet to Manila, the main city of the Philippines. In the darkness on April 30, 1898, the fleet slipped into Manila harbor. The Spanish fleet was surprised. The Americans bombarded the Spanish ships. By noon, the Spanish fleet had been destroyed. By July, American ground troops had landed in the Philippines. Local people had been fighting for independence from Spain for years. With the help of Filipino rebels, led by Emilio Aguinaldo, the American forces quickly captured Manila.
  14. 14. Chapter 23, Section 2 The Spanish-American War War in Cuba American troops landed in Cuba. The expedition was badly organized. Theodore Roosevelt organized a volunteer unit, later called the Rough Riders. The Rough Riders joined regular troops in a battle to gain control of the San Juan Heights overlooking the Cuban city of Santiago.
  15. 15. Teddy Roosevelt and the Rough Riders
  16. 16. The Spanish-American War African American members of the 9th and 10th Cavalries, nicknamed Buffalo Soldiers, also played a role in the victory. Two days later, the Americans destroyed the Spanish fleet in Santiago Bay. The Spanish army in Cuba surrendered. In a separate action, American troops claimed Puerto Rico. On August 12, Spain and the United States agreed to end the fighting. v=q60HQm4gMcQ
  17. 17. RECAP Refer back to this cartoon
  18. 18. Recap William McKinley (1897 1901) Spanish American War. Made Teddy Roosevelts Career Phillipino American War (1899 1902 ) Teddy Roosevelt (1901 1909) Active involvement in Latin America Taft ( 1909 1913) $$$ Dollar Diplomacy Woodrow Wilson (1913 1921) Idealist Condemned heavy handed foreign policy (yet) D.R and Haita. Sent two thousand soldiers to quell Pancho Villa in the Mexican revolution. Could all this foreign involvement be helped ???
  19. 19. THEREFORE