steppe schithians burials
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Social and economic stratification of steppe Scythians (on materials of finds of antique
ceramics in burials)”
The Greek goods were spread very wide over the Northern Black Sea Area in the VIIth -
IVth centuries BC (fig. 1). The frames of the regions where were met antique import extended
from ancient Greek centres of North Shore of the Black Sea very far into the continent depths
(400-600 km of an overland way at times through the waterless steppes, wide tracts of wild
forest). Intensity of such finds in oikoumene makes possible estimating of scales and degree of
influence of the Greek economy and culture on development of the civilization of the Early Iron
Age. Therefore, studying of the Greek import in the Northern Black Sea Area is the permanently
actual problem. The level of our knowledge of the ancient history in many respects determines
by the quality of its decision.
The researching of the antique import is traditionally important theme both for Ukrainian
and Russian archaeology of the Northern Black Sea Area of the Early Iron Age. It is naturally,
because the antique ceramics is submitted on numerous sites in a best way. So, the products that
came in so-called “barbarous” lands from the m o t h e r c o u n t r y are described in this
report. Production of the antique potter’s, bronze and jeweler workshops, commodity output of
which was focused on the demand and tastes of the population of the forest-steppe and steppe
zones the Northern Black Sea Area, appeared though already in the VIth-IVth centuries BC not
only in the antique centers of the Northern Black Sea Area, but in the Scythian sites too.
But, as a whole, questions of studying of assortment, volumes and dynamics of commodity
manufacture in Bosporus, Olbia and others antique centers of the Northern Black Sea Area are
covered not yet enough. They are included in a separate problem of studying of social and
economic bases of Scythia. This problem is complex and just waits for the decision.
The purpose of a suggested research is the analysis and generalization of the black -glazed
ceramics, made in the antique centers o f m e t r o p o l e i s and found in Scythia in the Early
The material on thise research is in a lot not only central, but in the regional, departmental
(museum, high school, academic) and interdepartmental editions. The publications in
“Archaeological Researches in Ukraine”, seven issues of which from 1997 to 2004 contain a new
information facts concern to antique subjects give representation about scales of antique finds in
the Northern Black Sea Area. This pottery was the basic component of the Greek import. But,
generalizing works on antique import in Scythia are known only two. (Onaiko, 1970;
Bandurovskij, 2004). The territorial frames of the last book are limited only by forest-steppe
part on the Left Bank of the Dnieper River.
This research includes the import from m e t r o p o l e i s to steppian part of
Scythia by the second half of the VIth - IVth centuries BC, which correspond to
the chronology of Scythia: the second half of the VIth - first half of the Vth
centuries BC (the Scythian middle period); the second part of the Vth - IVth
centuries BC(the Scythian last period). We don`t talk about pottery from the
sites of Scythian archaic (the second part of the VIIth-first part of the Vith
centuries BC), because we are researching only black-glazed ceramics, which
ware spreading mainly in the stappian zone. But we remember, that first finds of
the East Greece ceramics had appeared in materials of the Scythian (more
accurate “Scythian-like”) settlements in the forest- steppian zone of Northern
Black Sea Area and its ware the milestones of trade ways and communications
which existed in the VIIth – IVth centuries BC. The Greek-Scythian trade ways
had complex character and passed through overland and rivers both in meridian
and latitude directions in accordance with topography of the Northern Black Sea
Area and mercantile centers. The most northern point of spreading of this
ceramics is Trakhtemirov hillfort situated on the right riverside of the Dnieper
and Belsk situated on the left riverside.
1. Greek import in the Scythian middle period
(the second half of the VIth - first half of the Vth centuries BC)
The earliest samples of simple «banded Ionic ceramics» are vessels by the second half of
the VIth century BC from the sites of the Right Bank Forest-Steppe. There are: jugs, lekythosoi,
cups (kylikes), askosoi, saucers. The group of open vessels with bands is not numerous. Small
bowls and plates of this group concern to products of Ionic workshops of the VI century BC. The
fragments of such vessels were found in the sites of the Right Bank, for example, in Sharpovskoe
hillfort. A painted Ionic small bowl with two holes for suspension was found in the barrow 447
of Zhurovka groups (Fig. 7, 7). Such vessels were applied in the cult purposes and are known on
sanctuaries of Istria and Panticapaion. Small lid with traces of painting with red glazer was found
in the barrow 400 in urochische Krivorukovo at Zhurovka. It dated by beginning of the Vth
century BC (Onaiko 1966, p.5). Small bowl as «the fish tail» concerns to the number of the rare
forms (Bessonova, Skoryi, 2001, p. 82, 83). The numerous samples of the banded Ionic ceramics
occur from Bel'sk hillfort (the Left Bank, forest-steppe zone) (Shramko, 1973, p. 86).
Similar vessels have been widely distributed in the cities and in the settlements of the
Northern Black Sea Area. Such vessels frequently meet in the sites of Black Sea coast and on
island Berezan’. It dated by the middle and second half of the VI century BC. Some researchers
carried them to products of the island Samos (Onaiko, 1966, p. 25; Skudnova, 1988, p. 12, 13).
Recently was stated the opinion, that this banded utensils, which are the most widespread and
least precisely located, were made in all significant centers of East Greece (Sidorova, 1992, p.
162-166). But as Miletus was mother country of the almost of all Northern Pontos poleis a
mentioned-above banded Ionic ceramics came from here in the greatest amounts .
Thus, the bulk "banded" Ionic ceramics was found in the sites of the Right Bank Forest-
Steppe. On the Left Bank such finds were met mainly in the Bel'sk hillfort. In recent times
researchers began to distinguish a Samian manufacture utensils (more often lekythosoi) in the
group of East Greece ceramics. This utensils met mainly in the archaelogical monuments of the
Right Bank of the Dnieper (forest-steppe zone). N.A. Onaiko allocates lekythoi of two types.
The first type is the small lekythoi with rounded body, funnel-shaped mouth and the taped
handle (Fig. 6, 12,13). One such lekythos with a zigzag on shoulders executed by a red paint,
was found in barrow 423 near village Zhurovka, another one – with horizontal bands occurs
from the barrow Г at the same village. Similar lekythoi are dated by analogies by the second half
of the VIth century BC (Onaiko, 1966, p. 25). Lekythoi of the second type, decorated with
horizontal bands, are submitted by a vessel from barrow 491 near village Makeevka
(Belotserkovskij district, Kiev region). A characteristic detail of this vessel is the baggy form of
body (Galanina, 1977, pl. 12, 8). (Fig. 6, 14).
The askos with horizontal bandsn sometimes meet in the barbarous sites of The Right
Bank. Such vessels are found in the barrow Г near village Zhurovka, in the tumuli near village
Lasurtsy and Grischenitsy of Kanev district, Cherkasy region (Onaiko, 1966, p. 25) (Fig. 7, 2,3).
The fragment of askos (?) is noted in the materials of Motronino hillfort (Bessonova, Skoryi,
2001, p. 82). Some of them appeared in the steppian zone.
The ceramics described above meets also in the steppe sites of the Crimea. The lekythos of
Samian manufacture was found in the burial 7, barrow 13 near village Krylovka in the steppe
zone of the Crimea (Kolotukhin, 2000, p. 96, fig. 16, 4) and Matrosovka near Olbio. Similar
products occur from archaic Olbian necropolis where it was dated by last quarter of the VI
century BC (Skydnova, 1988, p.36, 158б N1, 245). It is considered, that these vessels had also
Samian manufacture and can be dated by the second half of the VI century BC
Since the middle of the VI century BC the early greek ceramics begins to come in the
Northern Black Sea Area from Attic. It was submitted by fragments of amphorae, cups (kylikes)
and lekythoi. The antique black-figured pottery are met in materials of barrows and settlements
on the forest-zone.
Black Pottery appears in barbarous sites the Northern Black Sea Area in the end of the VIth -
Vth centuries BC. The earliest form of such ceramics are cups (kylikes). The simple black-
glazed cup (kylix) on a high foot was found in the barrow near village Berestniagi. The base of
similar cup (kylix) occurs from the barrow near village Bobritsa of Kanev district of Cherkasy
region. Both finds are dated by the end of the VIth - beginning of Vth century BC (Onaiko, 1966,
In black-glazed ceramics of the first half of the Vth century BC is distinguashed the group
of cups (kylikes) which can be divided in to two types. The vessels continuing a line of
development cups (kylikes) on a high base of earlier period concern to the first type. This form is
characteristic both for black-glazed and for red-figured ceramics (Fig. 10, 13). Such cups
(kylikes) are found: in the barrow 401 in urochische Krivorukovo near village Zhurovka (Shpola
district of Cherkasy region); in the barrow 4 near village Berestniagi (Kanev district Cherkasy
region) (Fig. 10, 1,2). The fragment of a base similar cup (kylix) was found near village
Zarubintsy. Cups (kylikes) are submitted basically by fine fragments in the materials of
Motronino hillfort. The fragments of thin-walled cups (kylikes) with profiled edge, on a base
with a wide pallet support (Fig. 10, 6-9) prevailed. Nearest analogies of cups (kylikes) this type
are known in materials of Nymphaion necropolis where it are dated by the second quarter of the
Vth century BC (Silantieva, 1959, p. 172, fig. 30, 1,2).
For the second type of cups (kylikes) are characteristic non-deep capacity with outturned or
direct edge, the low pallet on a ring base and massive П-shaped handles. They meet in the sites
both of the Right Bank and of the Left Bank. The black-glazed cup (kylix) on the low pallet was
found in the barrow 2 near village Aksiuitintsy (Romny district, Sumy region) (Fig. 10,5), and
the bottom of such cup (kylix) was found on Bel'sk hillfort. On the Right Bank of the Dnieper
such cup (kylix) was found in the barrow near village Grischenitsy of Kanev district of Cherkasy
region (Fig. 10, 3). Cups (kylikes) this type is possible to date by middle of the Vth century BC.
The group of black-glazed small cups on a high base dates by the first half of the Vth century
BC. Such vessels appear in sites of the Right Bank. Black-glazed small cup on a high base was
found in the barrow 491 near village Makeevka Belotserkovskij district of Kiev region (Fig. 11,
2). The other cup occurs from barrow 403 of urochische Krivorukovo near village Zhurovka
Shpola district Cherkasy region (Fig. 11, 3).
The small cup with white horizontal bands and graffito on the pallet was found in one of the
earliest steppe complexes near town the Dnieperorudnyi Zhaporozhskaia region (Murzin, 1977,
p. 60, fig. 4, 1).
To the middle of the Vth century BC concerns a small black-glazed toilet vessels. They are
submitted by lekanis and pyxis from the barrow at villages of Bobritsa and Zhurovka (the Right
Bank). Most interesting of them is lekanis as it has rather rare form for this time. It was found in
the barrow 66 near village Bobritsa of Kanev district of Cherkasy region. It has low and rounded
unlarge capacity and non-profiled base. It was covered thick black glazer with an olive shade
(Fig. 10,4). Similar lekanis are found in Athenian Agora. Black-glazed pyxis occurs from barrow
404 in urochische of Krivorukovo near village Zhurovka of Shpola district of Cherkasy region
(Fig. 10, 2). The find is dated by middle of the Vth century BC. It is necessary to relate with
toilet vessels of this time and black-glazed aryballitic lekythos from the barrow 4 at village
Berestniagi (Fig. 10,1). It also dated by middle of the Vth century BC. To later time should be
attributed the black-glazed aryballitic lekythos from the barrow near village Emchikha of
Mironovskij district of Kiev region (Onaiko, 1966, p. 62).
A ceremonial red-figured ceramics appear in the beginning of the Vth century BC in materials of
barbarous sites of the Northern Black Sea Area. The red-figured cup (kylix) with dedicated
inscription to the Healer and Delphinios from barrow 400 urochische Krivorukovskoe near
village Zhurovka (Shpola district, Cherkasy region, the Right Bank) concerns to the beginning of
Vth century BC. This cup (kylix) has rather non-deep capacity and with outturned edge and high
base. On the bottom of cup (kylix) painted the figure of sitting by a back to the spectator of the
naked young man with a rhyton, entered in a circle. The picture is painted rather fluently, but
Cup (kylix) with a similar painting was published among finds on Athenian Agora and
belongs to painter "Pithos". Similar cups (kylikes), decorated with the image in a circle dates 500
BC, and the earliest samples the dated by end of the VIth century BC (Onaiko, 1966, p. 27). It is
the earliest find of red-figured ceramics in the Dnieper Area.
The amount of finds of antique ceramics of the end of the Vth - beginning IVth centuries
BC is insignificant. For example, it is a red-figured krater from I. Fundukleja's excavation (Fig.
11, 6). N.A. Onaiko insists on its dating by the end of the Vth century BC. The painting was
executed in a late magnificent style. The basic plot of the ornament is the picture of military
dance pyrikhe - which is peformed by the girl. In addition to the dancer also other personage are
represented here: the judge, young men, flautist-male. A opposite side of this vessel was
decorated with Bacchic scene (Sileniuses and Baccante) (Onaiko, 1966, p. 29, pl. 10,11). Red-
figured kraters occur also from the barrow 1 near village Grischentsy (Fig.11,4) and the barrow
401 near village Zhurovka (Fig.11,5).
Such vessels appear in steppe Scythian sites. Fragmented red-figured krater is dated by
last quarter of the Vth century BC. It was found in 1870 A.E.Ljutsenko on a place of burning of
died woman in a southern part of barrow Temir-Gora (the Crimea). On a kept part of the vase is
pictured the scene of fighting between menada and two satyrs: in the center is represented the
menada in a untwisted long chiton and two attacking her satyrs. The manner of execution of
painting allows to relate it to the circle of "painter Penelopy" (Jakovenko, 1977, p. 143, fig. 4).
The skythos of "painter Penelopy" dated by 40s of Vth century BC is kept in the Hermitage
(Gorbunova, Peredolskaia, 1961, p. 90).
1. Finds of the vessels of antique manufacture in the materials of the barbarous sites of the
Northern Black Sea Area reflect cultural and social specificity of the population of a forest-
steppe zone. It consists in influence of the ancient Greek culture on a life of the barbarous tribes
remote from coast. Already in anybody does not cause doubt the fact of penetration of the Greek
dealers deep into the territory occupied by local tribes since the middle of the VIIth century BC.
Probably, the Greek handicraftsmen or dealers visited and also some time lived in the territory,
for example, of Bel'sk hillfort (the Left Bank Forest-steppe) or Pastyrskoe, Sharpovskoe or
Motronino (the Right Bank Forest-steppe).
2. The most northern points of spreading of antique goods in the VIth – the first half of the
Vth centuries BC on the Left Bank of the Dnieper was Kolomak hillfortin Vorskla Area. On the
Right Bank of the Dnieper the basic finds of an archaic period have been concentrated on the
territory of modern Cherkasy region. However, the most northern find of the Right Bank of the
Dnieper considers a Chian bulk-amphora dated by beginning of the Vth century BC in the
territory of modern Rovno region.
3. At the earliest stage of becoming and development of trade and economic relations
between antique centers of the Northern Black Sea Area and the population of the Left-Bank and
the Right Bank Forest-steppe the greatest activity was shown by Ionia. By B.A. Shramko's
calculations, an Ionic ceramics on Bel'sk hillfort has 16% of all definable materials of East
Fortification. The second place occupies Chios amphorae, and then go "proto-Thasian"
amphorae and storage vessels from Thasos, Attic and Lesbos. On the Western Fortification the
first place belongs to Ionic ceramics then follow Chios, Thasos, Attic, Lesbos and other centers
(Shramko, 1987, p. 125-126). Approximantly same ratio was fixed on Kolomak hillfort in
Vorskla Area (Radzievskaia, 1992, p. 178).
4. A same picture rises after studying of burial materials of the sites a forest-steppe zone.
On data A.V. Bandurovskij, storage amphorae is distributed as follows: Ionic centers – 55,5 %;
Lesbos (together with amphorae on a truncated-conic base) – 16,8 %; "proto-Thasian" – 11,3 %;
Chios – 5,1 %; Samos – 1,8 %; Klazomenai – 1,5; Milesia – 0,2 %; Corinth – 0,2 %; 7 % - yet to
not established centers (Bandurovskij, 2004).
5. The resulted data are close to the calculations made in relation of Berezan’, Olbia and
Right-bank Forest-steppe Ukraine (Leipunskaia, 1981, p. 50, 68-69; Onaiko, 1966, p. 22-23, 51-
52). Such concurrence is not casually and finds an explanation in the leading part of an Ionic
centers in process of colonization of the Northern Black Sea Area.
6. The southern direction of trade ties was a basic direction during all existence of Scythia.
Greeks and Scythians-nomads equally have been interested in an establishment of contacts with
each other. The economic space of Scythian steppes and Forest Steppe zone represented
practically unlimited commodity market of products of the Greek’s workshops (potter's utensils,
a luxury goods, etc.).
7. Attractivity of the Greek way of a life for Scythians may be once-more non-economic
reasons of development of Greeks and Scythians-nomads ties. The custom of the using of the
grape wine had quickly distributed to whole steppe and forest-steppe. It had large both
economic, and cultural and manner of life consequences. However, in VIth centuries BC it is
possible to speak only about appearantion of Greek-Scythian wine trade: antique import has been
found only in 33 Scythian burials of this period. During the same period, on seen, there is only
an acquaintance nomads to an ancient culture.
8. First regular trade Greek-Barbarian ties connected with two points of the Northern Black
Sea Area: northeast (Don area) where arises Elizavetovka hillfort and northwest (mouth of the
estuaries of the the Dnieper and the Bug rivers) where arise settlements of Berezan’ and Olbia.
Generall accepted the trade way across Southern Bug: Berezan’-mouth of the estuaries of the the
Dnieper and Bug rivers (Liman) - Southern Bug - Nemirov hillfort (Domanskij, 1970, p. 47-53).
It trade way operated from the very beginning of occurrence of the Greek settlement on island
9. The relations between nomads and inhabitants of Berezan’, later between nomads and
inhabitants of Olbia and its chora during the considered period (the first and second stages of
Greek-barbarous relations under K.K. Marchenko's scheme) had peaceful character
(Marcenko, Vinogradov, 1989, p. 806). However, the common opinion about a degree and
intensity of relations of Greeks with barbarians (nomads and settled) does not exist. K.K.
Marchenko emphasizes the special importance of a southern vector in trade Olbia and underlines
presence of barbarians on settlements of the Lower Bug Area in the VIth century BC
(Marcenko, 1980, p. 141). N.A. Leipunskaia opposite, considers, that importance for Olbia of
trade with Scythians in the VIth century BC it is obviously exaggerated. In her opinion, in Olbia
trade ties with mother country prevailed and trade-exchange relations with barbarians did not
play a determining role in development of city (Lеipunskaia, 1981, p. 125-130).
10. However, undoubtedly, that to the middle of the VIth century BC with an establishment
of the regular ties between Greek and barbarians the Greek-Scythian market is formed. On its
demand rather quickly in antique settlements of the Dnieper area and the South Bug Area arise a
craft manufacture focused on selling in Scythia. So, nail-lire pins, bracelets, grivnas of Scythian
types, and except for adornments ornaments, also some kinds of the weapon could be made not
only in Forest Steppe zone (Petrenko, 1978, pl. 1, 7), but also on settlement Jagorlytskoe. During
the same period, apparently, formates "Olbian school” of animal style (Ostroverkhov, 1979, p.
27 - 29). East trading way was described B.N. Grakov. This way was oriented not only for the
export of the goods from mother country, but also of products of "Olbian school” of bronze
manufactures. It went from Olbia, crossed Don. On the Volga it branched in the north (to
southern spurs of Ural, Orsk and Prikamye) and in the south (aside Northern Caucasus )
(Grakov, 1947, p. 23-39). To the middle of the Vth century BC manufacture of focused on the
barbarous customer products by Bosporan masters grows. Probably, already at this time the some
Ionic masters could work on Bosporos (Grach, 1986, p. 75-91).
2. Greek import in the Scythian late period
(the second part of the Vth-IVth centuries BC)
3.2. Fine Wares
This category of antique import is submitted by black-glazed, red-figured, red-clay and
grey-clay utensils. As the most part of the red-clay and grey-clay utensils was made in
workshops of antique centers of the Northern Black Sea Area, here it is not examined.
There is complete set of the potter's antique ceramics only in very rich burials.
Unfortunately, the majority of the Scythian burials is looted. There not less even by the
fragments of the utensils it is possible to establish its assortment in the materials of burial. So, in
a looted burial barrow 5 near village Ivanovka of Boguslav district Kiev region (Forest-Steppe
Right-Bank), except for ceramics of the local manufacture were found some fragments of narrow
neck Olbian jugs with light engobe, grey-clay small bowl, red-clay Ionic small bowl, Chian
amphorae, red-figured oinochoe with a picture of pursuid of maenad by Satyr, a fragment of a
krater, skyphos with concentric circles of a incised ornament, banded black-glazed skyphos, one
more vessel of type skyphos (Kovpanenko, Skoryi, Baturevich, 1996, p. 112). In the women’s
burials the black-glazed ceramics is included as a rule into a set of stock, was connected with a
toilet. So, a small black-glazed Greek bowl closed by mirror stood alongside a head of the
woman from unlooted tomb in Tolstaia Mogila. The silver antique utensils for wine: tiny cup,
rhyton with a gold tip and a cup have been established in the children's burial of this barrow near
head of the the deceased. (Mozolevskij, 1979, p. 104, 111). The handle and a base of cup (kylix)
(Fig. 13, 4; 14,1, 6)and a bone core from a assembled bone spindle were found in the looted
tomb 1 of Melitopol’ barrow to the left of that place where there should be a head of the
deceased (woman) (Terenozhkin, Mozolevskij, 1988, p. 33). Here an antique cup (kylix) is
connected with a toilet or ritual set too. The amphorae described above and a silver vessel, other
import vessels which reflect all spectrum of ceremonial ceramics which arrived to the Scythian
steppe were found in the tomb 1. A black-glazed cup with stamped ornament and graffito, a
mouth of black-glazed kantharos were found in a looted central Chertomlyk tomb (Alekseev,
Murzin, Rolle, 1991, p. 81,82). A bronze situla was found at an entrance in a niche of the
chamber № 5 of Chertomlyk barrow. There were silver cup (kylix) and a cup with spherical body
alongside a head of the first warrior. A bronze semi-spheric bowl stood at an entrance to the
niche F of the chamber 5 of this barrow. One of the most known finds from Chertomlyk barrow
is a silver amphora which together with a silver basin and a ladle made the cult set of utensils
placed in the northwest chamber near to burial of tsarina. Uniqueness of amphora in many
respects complicates it attribution. The researchers mark the affinity of the image on it with such
creations of antique toreutic as Chertomlyk gorit and Pectoral from Tolstaia Mogila (Alekseev,
Murzin, Rolle, 1991, p. 120-121). The richest set of antique utensils was found in Gaimanova
Mogila (village Balki of Vasil’evka district of Zhaporozhye region). There were four amphorae,
bronze situla, a plate and a tray on which the bronze utensils laid: oinochoe, cup, strainer in an
household niche, except for two bronze Scythian kettles. The entrance in a niche guided the
servant at which a black-glazed saltcellar and a plates of antique assembled comb has been
found. A silver gilded cup with images of Scythians, a cup without an ornament, two rhytons,
cup (kylix) have been found in hiding-place of Gaimanova Mogila) (Mozolevskij, 1983, p. 125).
The set of antique utensils from the barrow Solokha was very rich too. An amphora with bronze
kyathos with the head of a swan, silver flat cup (kylix) with an inscription have been found in the
northern chamber of the barrow Solokha. Three amphorae with the holes luted with plaster, a
bronze gilded vessel similar under the form to a bowl, bone casket and a spindle were found in
the southern chamber-pantry of this barrow. The ceremonial gorit and gold phiale laid near to
east skeleton, which N.I. Veselovsky considered as s skeleton of tsar. In total seven more silver
vessels have been connected to this skeleton. A black-glazed cup (kylix) was among silver
vessels also(Mantsevich, 1987, p. 13, 20,21). Yet richest set of antique utensils had been foud in
Berdyansk barrow. Amphorae stood in two lines in the central burial of this barrow along a wall,
as well as in Melitopol’ barrow. Red-figured krater, three red-figured and one black-glazed
skyphoi stood near to them (Cherednichenko, Murzin, 1996, p. 71). This barrow has given the
richest collection of red-figured ceramics. On the characteristic of this group of antique smart
ceremonial utensils we shall stop more in detail.
Rred-figured lekythoi meet in the Scythian sites of the Northern Black Sea Area more
often than other ceramics of this group. The copy with the image of the sphynx that was found in
the burial № 2 of the barrow № 3 of Pereschepino barrow burial field (the Left Bank) concerns
to the earliest red-figured lekythoi. The fragments of the same vessel occur from the next barrow
№ 2. Both vessels by analogy with lekithos with a sphynx from the barrow near village
Grischentsy in the Right Bank Forest-steppe are dated by end of the Vth – beginning IVth
centuries BC (Onaiko, 1966, pl. XII, 5; Shramko, 1987, p. 124, fig. 60,1).
The red-figured lekythoiIn meet also the Right Bank sites. One from them was found in
the burial 2 of the barrow 4 near village Ivanovka Boguslav district Kiev region. On the lekithos
the female figure draped in long clothes with the hand lifted above an altar is represented
(Kovpanenko, Skoryi, Baturevich, 1996, p.108,109, fig. 6,9). The lekythos with Hermes and a
female figure was found in the barrow 66 near village Bobritsa, dated by the time not later
boundary of the Vth-IVth centuries BC (Petrenko, 1967, pl. 13, 17).
Vessel with the image of a female figure in a long chiton and Hermes from materials of
Kamenka hillfort is considered to be the most known lekythos in a steppe zone (Grakov,1954).
Squat lekythoi with netted pattern (fig.11, 11) are later. They are more characteristic for
the steppe Scythian sites. Tiny lekythos with netted pattern was found in the burial of the IVth
century BC in Trekhbratnij barrow in the Crimea (Bessonova, 1973, p. 247, fig. 7, 2). The
lekythos netted pattern with missing neck stood among other stock in a headboard of the skeleton
2 in pair burial 2 of the barrow 5 near village Shirokoe (Kovpanenko, Jakovenko, 1973, p. 260,
fig. 6). Lekythos with netted pattern and missing neck stood in heads of the woman in the barrow
16 of burial 1 Mamai-Gora barrow burial field (Andrukh, Toschev, 1999, p.101, fig. 27) and in
one of Luibimovka tumuli in Kherson region (Leskov, 1974, p. 38). Single in Forest Steppe zone
lekythos with netted pattern was found in the barrow of former Romny district (Onaiko, 1970, №
669). Similar vessels frequently meet in Olbia and other cities of the Northern Black Sea Area
during all the IVth century BC and is especial in its end (Kozub, 1962, p. 130-131, pl. IV, 4;
Kaposhina, 1959, p. 128, 2, 8; Melukova, 1975, p. 244, fig. 46, 7). They were found in burials
13, 34, 36, 42 of necropolises Nymphaion and dated 350-325 BC (Solov`ev, 2003, p. 78, 96, 97,
105). Two lekythos with netted pattern, dated by the beginning and second quarter of the IVth
century BC, are kept in funds of the Simferopol republican study of local lore museum
(Vdovichenko, 2003, p.82, n 28, 29).
Squat lekythoi with picture of a large palmette (Fig.11, 10) were found in the tumuli №
22 at Pesochin and in former Lubenski district (the Left Bank). Very much close under the form
and ornament vessels repeatedly met in the tumuli of the Right Bank Forest-steppe (Onaiko,
1970, p 58, № 671). The lekythoi with palmette were found in the First Ispanova Burial
(Dnepropetrovskaia region) in the steppe zone of the Northern Black Sea Area (Mozolevskij,
1980, p. 139, fig. 74,7) and in one of Perekop tumuli on Kherson region (Leskov, 1974, p. 96,
fig. 83). Similar red-figured lekythoi occur from Thrakian burials in the Lower Danube
(Andrukh, Sunichuk, 1987, p. 116). On finds in Olbia, necropolis Panskoe and necropolis
Apollonia of Pontos (Kozub, 1962, p. 99; Rogov, Tunkina, 1998, p. 173, fig. 7, 13; Ivanov,
1963, pl. 50, 1, 132) lekythoi with palmette are dated by the second - third quarter of the IVth
century BC. In burials 4, 36, 37 of necropolises of Nymphaion it concern to the second and
fourth quarters of the IVth century BC (Solov`ev, 2003, p. 71, 98, 99).
One complete and one fragmented black-glazed lekythoi occur from the tumuli № 2 and
№ 3 of Pereschepinskij barrow burial field. Complete copy has rather wide funnel-shaped mouth.
Similar vessels of end of the Vth – beginnings IVth century BC are known among finds in
Olbian necropolis (Kozub, 1974, p. 95, fig. 46, 1,2,4). Similar lekythos was found in a layer of
end of the Vth–of beginning of IVth centuries BC on settlement Andreevka Southern on
Bosporos (Kruglikova, 1975, p. 81, fig. 35, 7).
Black-glazed painted skyphos (black glaze pottery painted with added colours) of group
St. Valentin was found in Scythian burial 3 of the barrow 2 near village Korneevka (Veselovskij
district of Zhaporozhskaia region) (Kovalev, Polin 1991, p. 48, fig. 9, 4). The vegetative
ornament (palmette and two friezes with horizontal located branches) is painted with added
white paint. The nearest analogy to this vessel is skyphos from funds of the Crimean republican
museum of local lore. Place of a find is not known (Vdovichenko, 2003, p.88, n 46).
Red-figured skyphoi were found in central burial in Berdyansk barrow. Skyphos № 1 was
decorated with pair compositions of talking men divided with magnificent palmette under
handles (Polin, Kovalev, Cherednichenko, 2000, p. 106). The nearest analogy to a vessel from
Berdyansk is skyphos from Luibimovskoe barrow (Leskov 1974, p. 35, fig. 26). The other
analogy should be a fragment of skyphos from a collection of the Sevastopol museum of local
lore, which concerns to the second quarter of the IVth century BC (Vdovichenko, 2003, p.115, n
111). I mean skyphos from Berdyansk barrow should be dated by the second quarter of the IVth
On fragmented skyphos № 2 painted a nude athlete holding a strigil in his hand. As well as
on the previous vessel, figures are divided palmette. Authors of the publication give numerous
analogies and date this find within the limits of the first half of the IVth century BC (Polin,
Kovalev, Cherednichenko, 2000, p. 106). Close under the form and a decor the fragment of
skyphos has been found in neighborhood of Chersonesos. But in these case the athlete painted
with aryballos. This painter’s "Q" vessel is dated by the second quarter of the IVth century BC
(Vdovichenko, 2003, p.115-114, n 112)
Red-figured skyphos № 3 has been decorated with the female head with a conic headdress.
Under handles of a vessel are palmette and volutes (Polin, Kovalev, Cherednichenko, 2000, p.
106 – 107). This plot meets on red-figured vessels of the various types, f.e. on the pelike «the
Temple Herakles», tiny hydria of Otuzskaia scientific stations (Ugento painter) № 67 which are
dated 340-320 BC (Vdovichenko, 2003, p. 92,97 - № 56, 67). However to the image on the
skyphos 3 from Berdyansk barrow is the closest the image of the female head to the right on the
squat lekithos from a room 2 of Nymphaion (Chistov, 2000, pl. 1,1). It dated by the first half of
the IVth century BC, that does not contradict the date suggested by authors of the publication.
The red-figured a krater with pictures of five figures in dance – satyres and maenads with
thyrsuses and timbrells was found in central burial of Berdyansk barrow. On opposite side of a
vessel pictured youths-palestritos. Authors of the publication direct on set of analogies to this
vessels and dates its by the end of the Vth - beginning of the IVth century BC (Polin, Kovalev,
Cherednichenko, 2000, p. 102-105). Similar under form and decor krater in Western burial of
barrow Taschenak at Melitopol has been found (Fialko, 2001, p. 81). To those numerous
analogies which are resulted by authors of the first publication of a krater from Berdyansk
barrow, it is possible to add a fragment of a red-figured krater from materials of the Crimean
republican museum of local lore with its dating by end of the Vth – beginning of the IVth
centuries BC (Vdovichenko, 2003, p. 96, № 65).
The red-figured amphoriskos decorated on shoulders to two ornamental small bands (tongue
ornament and the stylized flowers of a lotus alternating with palmette) was found in Trekhbratnij
Kurgan (Bessonova, 1973, p. 248, fig. 7,1).
Two fragments of one glazed red-figured cup (kylix) were found in the Pervaia Ispanova Mogila.
On one of them two woman figures is pictured and two palmette is pictured on the other
fragment.(Mozolevskij, 1980, p. 139, fig. 74,9). This cup (kylix) is similar to the other vessels
which are dating by 400 BC (Rogov, Tunkina, 1998, p. 163).
A lekanis lid, decorated by images of women`s small heads in saccoses (caps) in pair, facing
each other was foud in the tomb №1 of Melitopol’ barrow (Terenozhkin, Mozolevskij, 1988,
p.114-115) (Fig. 13, 4-10). Lekanis lid from fonds of the Crimean republican museum of local
lore is exact analogy of Melitopol’ one. The lid is made “Painter of the Riding Lekanis” and was
dated by third quarter of the IVth century BC. The same master had made lekanis lid from old
excavation in area Feodisiia (Vdovichenko, 2003, p. 84, 98, № 36, 70).
Black-glazed utensils from materials of barbarous sites the Northern Black Sea Area are
included cups (kylikes), kantharoi, lekythoi, pelikoi, saucers and saltcellars. Set for drink in
man's Scythian burials has in its contents cups (kylikes) and kantharoi. In woman’s burials black-
glazed vessels for drinking (one or two vessels), as a rule, meets in toilet sets. Burials of women
of high social status contained more numerous and various set of antique utensils. For example,
in the burials 11 of the barrow 3 near village Nagornoe in Odessa region (area of the Lower
Danube) were found eight vessels: kantharos, skyphos, cup, lekanis, lekithos, a bowl, two red-
figured oinochoe (Andrukh, 1995, p. 46-49).
Specularities of spreading of the black-glazed utensils are traced at the analysis of materials of
some Scythian barrow burial field. In the Scythian barrow burial field of Vysshetarasovka eight
burials (from 52 investigated burials) contained the antique vessels (Buniatian, Cherednichenko,
Murzin, 1977). Most of them occur from the female burials. All vessels (saltcellars, kantharoi,
cup (kylix), small plate) were found in accumulations of stock subjects connected with a toilet or
magic (not in the rests of doleful food). The set of antique utensils from the largest steppe barrow
burial field of Mamai-Gora (locates in 5 km from Kamenka hillfort well known the powerest
economic center of Steppe Right-bank Scythia) is rather indicative. For today 163 Scythian
burials have already published. From them 80 burials have not been disturbed by looters, 34 is
looted in part. Only 22 (19,2 % from non-disturbed and looted in part Scythian burials) barrows
from this shedule contained the antique ceramics. Basically it was the fragments of one or two
amphorae in the mounds and the moats of the tumuli. Only one woman burial in barrow 16
contained toilet and ceremonic antique ceramics: the lekythoi with netted pattern and a black-
glazed with stamped ornament dish. In the woman burial 8 of the barrow 4 was found single
light-clay jug of Bosporan manufacture. Single black-glazed kantharos was found in the woman
burial 4 of the barrow 20 (Andrukh, 2001, p.225). Near man skeleton in the burial 2 of the
barrow 143 black-glazed kantharos – kylix was found with grey-clay jug and handmade pot
(Andrukh, Toschev, 2004, p.28-31). It was the accumulations of stock subjects for drinking.
Let's consider the basic forms of the black-glazed vessels. The black-glazed skyphoi are
considered the earliest vessels for drinks. It are excavated basically on the sites of the Right Bank
Forest-Steppe. One of them was found in the barrow 188 on the left bank of Tenetinka river
(Smela district, Cherkasy region), the second - in vicinities of the town Smela. Both are dated by
middle of the Vth century BC. The third skyphos was found in the vicinities of Shpola (Shpola
district of Cherkasy region) (fig. 11, 1). More correctly to date it by later time bound of the Vth-
IVth centuries BC. The fragments of the skyphoi on a low ring stand, and a fragment of a vessel
with outturned outside edge of the type deep skyphos (Bessonova, Skoryi, 2000, p. 83,84) occur
from Motronino hillfort.
In steppe sites black-glazed skyphoi was found in burial 7 of barrow 4 near village
Lugovoe (Saki district, the Crimea). Burial is dated within the frames of the first half of the Vth
century BC (Kolotukhin, 2000, p. 60, fig. 29, 1-12). In headboard of the defunct in a child burial
1 of barrow 4 near village Pervomaevka (Verkhnerogachik district, Khersonskaia region) stood
black-glazed skyphoi with a deep bowl on a low profiled pallet with missing (in an antiquity)
handles. It had stamped ornament from four palmette and two concentric circles. The nearest
analogy to an ornament of skyphos from Pervomaevka is the ornament of the vessel № 623 from
material of Athenian agora. Manufacture of skyphoi with the distingwished mouth began about
420 BC and existed to 380 BC (Sparkes, Talcott, 1970, p.112, № 617-623).
Extremely seldom in the barbarous burials of the Northern Black Sea Area meet lekanis
(Fig. 10,4,5). One of them was found in the barrow № 10 of Saryi Merchik barrow burial field
(the Left Bank) together with a Herakleian amphora of the first half of the IVth century BC. It is
very close to this find lekanis from barrow № 66 near village Bobritsa in the Right Bank Forest-
steppe that was dated by the beginnings of the IV centuary BC (Onaiko, 1966, p. 62; Petrenko,
1967, p. 94, 133, pl. 12, 5). Similar black-glazed lekanis was found in the layer of the IVth
century BC on settlement Chertovatoe VII of Olbian chora (Kryzhitsky and other, 1989, p. 130,
fig. 49, 5).
Using of the cups (kylikes) in the barbarous environment had been fixed by Herodotos: «And
all those from them who have killed very many man, have on two cup (kylix) and drink from
both” (Herod., IV. 66). Earliest of them were kylikes with a shallow receptacleon a ring legs and
the massive П-shaped handles, found in the sites of the Left Bank Forest-Steppe. Two complete
copies occur from barrow 2 in urochische Staikin Verkh and near village Aksiuitintsy. About ten
fragments of the mouths and the bottoms by the first half – middle of the Vth century BC
(Sparkes, Tаlcott, 1970, № 5.407-413) from same kylikes are known from the materials of Bel'sk
hillfort excavation. From the barrow 4 near village Luibartsy and near village Rashevka occur
kylikes on a low profiled base. The bottom of the vessel from Luibartsy decorated with a
stamped ornament from four palmette framed with concentric circle from notches. Fragments of
such vessels were found also on Bel'sk hillfort. Similar kylikes meet in Scythian the Right Bank
Forest-Steppe tumuli, Greek necropolises of Northern and Western Black Sea areas (Onaiko,
1970, p. 16, 59, № № 696, 701; Brashinskij, 1980, p. 128-129, pl. XIV, fig. 171). It were dated
by the middle — third quarter of the IVth century BC Cup (kylix) meet more often in steppe
zone of the Northern Black Sea Area than in forest-steppe. In feet of the deceased from the
Trekhbratnij barrow (the Crimea) among other subjects of stock was found black-glazed cup
(kylix) with a stamped ornament from four palmette at the bottom, connected by arches and three
circles of notches. (Bessonova, 1973, p. 247). At the right shoulder of the deceased (woman) in
the barrow 18 near village L’vovo stood cup (kylix) with missing in antiquity handles. It is a
vessel with a deep bowl on low profiled foot. The bottom inside was decorated with a stamped
ornament which was consisted of a wide ring of notches and four crosswisely located palmette in
the center (Kubyshev, Nikolova, Polin. 1982, p. 135, 140, fig. 6,9). The black-glazed cup (kylix)
with missing one handle was found in filling of an entrance pit of the looted burial 1 of the
barrow 3 near village Bogdanovka (Kakhovka district, Kherson region). Inside it has been
decorated with a stamped ornament from eight located on a circle palmette, connected by arches.
Inside a circle two concentric circles are drawn. Outside little bottom was decorated with five
concentric rings of glazer (Bitkovskij, Polin, 1987, p. 76, fig. 6). Decoration of vessel from
Bogdanovka is the closest to ornaments of the bolsal of Athenian agora (the end of the Vth
century BC) (Sparkes, Talcott. 1970, part. 1, p. 108, part 2. N 548).
Cup (kylix) with a stamped ornament (six palmette, connected by arches, in the center
situated a composition from nine small circles, located between two concentric circles) was
found in the burial 2 of the barrow 1 barrow burial field Plavni 1of Izmail district of Odessa
region in a lower reaches of Danube (Sunichuk, Fokeev, 1984, p. 105, 107, fig.3, 14,15).
Stamped ornament by analogy to finds on Athenian agora is dated 420-400 BC (Sparkes, Talcott,
1970. p. 109-112). On a felt coverlet in feet of the girl-teenager in a tomb 1 of the barrow 4 of
group Nosaki near village Balki (Vasil’evka district, Zhaporozhskaia region) stood cup (kylix)
with missing handles on the ring figured foot. A rim of a vessel is thickened and bended. On
materials of Athenian agora these vessels have started to be made in second quarter of the Vth
century BC and have existed almost without changes up to first quarter of the IVth century BC
(Sparkes, Talcott.1970, p.102, N 469-472).
The group of kantharos-shaped cups (kantharos-kylikes) in sites of the Left Bank Forest-Steppe
is submitted by vessels from the tumulis near village Aksiuitintsy (1905), № 8 at Pesochin, № 4
of Bel'sk necropolis "Б" and № 1 near village Volkovtsy. At the bottom of all these cups
(kylikes) is present a stamped ornament (Onaiko, 1970, № 686). They are dated by the second -
third quarter IVth century BC by analogies from Athenian agora (Sparkes, Talсott, 1970, № №
700-701, pl. 29). They are well-known in many Scythian tumulis, in the Greek cities and their
necropolises in the Northern and Western Black Sea areas of the middle – second half of the
IVth century BC (Onaiko, 1970, p. 16; Brashinskij, 1980, № № 170, 200-201).
Kantharos-shaped cups meet in steppe zone. So, in the man's burial 2 in the barrow 13
near village Vinogradovo (Saki district, the Crimea) kantharos-shaped cup (kantharos-kylix) was
found at an entrance into the burial chamber. It had traces of repair. Internal surface of a bottom
was decorated with a stamped ornament as palmette in the circle in the center. Two rows of
slanting notches are disposed around palmette on the perimeter placed (Kolotukhin, 2000, p.49,
fig.28,6). Kantharos-shaped cup (kantharos-kylix) was found in the inlet man's burial 2 of the
barrow 4 of Scythian barrow burial field near village Vladimirovka. A stamped ornament from
four palmette, connected by arches, placed at the bottom. The ornament surrounds a circle from
short slanting notches (Cherednichenko, Boldin, 1977, p.132, fig.8,2). Kantharos-shaped cup
with a stamped ornament was found in the pair children's burial 2 of barrow 7 of the barrow
burial field near village Kut (Apostolvo district, the Dnieperopetrovsk region, Right Bank a
steppe zone) (Berezovec, 1960, p.52, fig. 10,2). Similar vessels occur from complexes Athenian
agora where it are dated by the second quarter – middle IVth century BC (Sparkes, Talcott, 1970,
pl.28, N 658).
Kantharos-shaped cups (kantharos - kylikes) meet and in the burials of the Left Bank a
steppe zone. So, in the burial 2 of the barrow near village Ilyinka (Kamensko-Dneprovskij
district, Zhaporozhye region) at an entrance in the burial chamber stood cup, similar described
above. Stamped ornament as four palmette, connected by arches in the concentric circles
executed by slanting notches, decorated its bottom. The second similar vessel (with an ornament
from six palmette, connected by arches) occurs from the children's burial 6 of a same barrow
(Pleshivenko, 1991, p.63, 70 fig.4,4; 11, 3). The vessels with such ornament have appeared in
the end of the Vth century BC and existed there all IVth century BC (Sparkes, Talcott, 1970, p.
In steppe of the Crimea such vessel was found in the burial 1 of the barrow near village
Vladimirovka Dzhankoi district. Stamped ornament as four, connected by arches, palmette
placed on the bottom of a vessel. Kantharos-shaped cup (kylix) with a similar ornament was
found in this barrow (burial 4 of teen-ager). Besides an ornament the vessel had graffito as the
monogram on an external surface of a bottom (Kolotukhin, 2000, p.11, 14, 86 fig.6,1. 14). The
nearest analogy to the described vessels is the vessels from the materials Athenian agora
(Sparkes, Talcott, 1970, p. 118-119, N652, 653 – under the form – 659, pl. 53.559, pl. 56, 659).
This group of the vessels is dated 390-380 BC.
Kantharos were found in all areas of Scythia. The earliest black-glazed a goblet -
kantharos is considered to find in the inlet woman burial 2 of the barrow 3 near village
Bogdanovka on Kherson region. It placed near feet of the deceased. This vessel with thin walls
and vertical handles was covered with black high quality glazer and was manufactured in Ionia,
most likely in Chios. Now it is single such find in the barbarous sites of the Northern Black Sea
Area yet.The authors of the discovery dated its by the second half, end of the Vth century BC
(Bitkovskij, Polin, 1987, p. 83, fig. 10). In necropolis Olbia it is known three such vessels (1 type
kantharoi on J.I.Kozub's classification) (Kozub, 1974, p. 50). One such goblet was found in
Nikonion and now is kept in the archeologic museum of Odessa (Sekerskaia, 2001, p.118). I.B.
Brashinskij the similar under the form vessel from the burial 3 of the barrow 75 of Elizavetovka
barrow burial field relates to the first half of the IVth century BC (Brashinskij, 1980, p. 134. №
205, pl. 16, 20). The goblet – kantharos from necropolis Panskoe 1 is dated within the limits of
first half of the IVth century BC (Rogov, Tunkina, 1998, p. 167, fig. 6,6).
The squat kantharoi covered with good glazer, are typical for vessels of the second - third
quarter of IV century. This vessels find in the tumuli of the Left Bank Forest-Steppe near village
Aksiuitintsy (1905), № 3 near village Luibartsy, № 6 near village Staroe (Ivanov, 1963, pl. 104,
460; Onaiko, 1970, p. 58). From the barrow № 18 of Pesochin's barrow burial field and
destroyed barrow of Scythian time near village Rashevka in Poltava region there is a fragment
kantharos on a high foot (Stepanovich, 1995, p. 172-173). On finds from Athenian agora and
necropolis of Elizavetovka hillfort the kantharos is dated by the end of the IV- the beginning of
the IIId centuries BC (Sparkes, Talсott, 1970, p. 29, № 714; Brashinskij, 1980, p. 134, № 203,
The identical vessels were found in the sites of the Right Bank: in the tumuli № 32 and №
63 near village Bobritsa, № 4 near village Ryzhanovka, № 20 near village Novoselovki. In
Ryzhanovka's barrow such kantharos was found together with Bosporian coins of 340s-315s BC
(Onaiko, 1970, p. 58, 141, pl. VII, 680).
The greatest collection of the black-glazed kantharoi (Fig 13,1) occurs from the steppe
sites. The kantharos with traces of repair and a beaten off ledge of one of handles was found in
the burial 9 of the barrow 22 barrow burial field near village Kut. (Berezovec, 1960, p. 55, 68,
fig. 10,3, 24). A black-glazed kantharos on the low pallet and small bended rim was found in the
burial 1of the barrow 1 of the group Lis’ia Mogila (Mozolevskij, 1980, p. 119, fig. 55, 17).
Together with parting food in the burial 1 of the barrow 13 the group 1 near village Kapulovka
Nickopol district the Dnieperopetrovsk region was found black-glazed kantharos with beaten off
handles. At the bottom outside scratched graffito. On form and quality glazer kantharos is dated
IVth century BC (Terenozhkin, Illinskaia, Chernenko, Mozolevskij, 1973, p.122, fig.10, 6). In
woman’s burial 1 of barrow 30 of Vysshetarasovka Scythian barrow burial field together with a
mirror, awl and spindle wheel was found a black-glazed kantharos with missing handles. In the
pair burial looted in an antiquity of barrow 33 of this barrow burial field was found kantharos
(Buniatian, Cherednichenko, Murzin, 1977, p.76, 84, fig. 22,6). Complete kantharos was found
in feet of the deceased in the partly looted burial 2 of the barrow 3 near village Otradnoe
(Bashtanskij district, Nikolaev region) (Grebennikov, 1980, p.152, 155, fig. 5, 8). The kantharos
on the high ring pallet was found in the barrow 26 of the group Shirokoe 2 in Kherson region
(Chernenko, Bunianian, 1977, p.47). The kantharos which handles hardly are higher than a rim,
was found in the burial 1 of the barrow 3 near village Oktiabr'sroe (Pervomaiskij district, the
Crimea) (Kolotukhin, 2000, p.32, 100, fig.20, 5). Similar kantharoi from the materials of
Athenian agora are dated middle of the IVth century BC (Sparkes, Talcott, 1970, part 1, p.122,
part 2, N 706).
An internal surface of the bottoms of the kantharoi, as well as bottoms of cups (kylikes)
and saltcellars had been sometimes decorated (Fig.13, 3,6). The plots of a stamped ornament are
rather monotonous. The black-glazed kantharos with a stamped ornament on an internal surface
as three circles executed by short slanting notches stood in the pair burial 4 of the barrow 20 of
barrow burial field Mamai-Gora together with a toilet set (in a wooden bowl) (Andrukh, Toshev,
1999, p.119, fig. 33,2). On the form this kantharos is close to vessels of Athenian agora, dated
350s-325s BC (Sparkes, Talcott, 1970, part 2, N700). The kantharos from Mamai-Gora barrow
burial field is the closest to the ornament on the bottom of the kantharos-like cup (kylix) from
burial 10/1992 of Olbian necropolis, that was dated 340s-325s BC (Papanova, 2000, p. 212, fig.
11,). In Kut’s barrow burial field, in a woman burial 9 of the barrow 7 near to pyxis and spindle
wheels was found kantharos(Berezovec, 1960, p. 55, 68, fig. 10,3, 24).
The latest are considered kantharoi with a ribbed external surface. In the sites of the Left
Bank Forest-Steppe such vessels meet extremely seldom. The kantharos with ribbed wall occurs
from the barrow № 9 at Staryi Merchik . One fragment of kantharos with ribbed walls was found
on the East fortification of Bel'sk hillfort (Shramko, 1987, pl. XXV, 2). In steppe Scythian sites
they meet more often, than in forest-steppe. Ribbed kntharos was found in barrow 4 of group
Ostraia Mogila near village Shirokoe in Kherson region (Olgovskij, Polin, 1977, p.37, pl. IX). It
are known on finds in other steppe Scythian burials also (Evdokimov, Fridman, 1991, fig. 16, 11;
Kubyshev, Nikolova, Polin, 1982, p. 130-148). In the burial 3 of the barrow near village the
Vladimirovka (Dzhankoiskij district, the Crimea) kantharos besides a ribbed external surface had
a stamped ornament as circles from slanting short notches on an internal surface of the bottom
(Kolotukhin, 2000, p.13, 87б fig.7,2). On the materials of Athenian agora similar vessels are
dated by the third quarter of the IV century BC (Sparkes, Talсott, 1970, p. 287, pl. 29, № 704,
711). During of same time they had appeared in steppe Scythian burials (Gavrilyik, 1989, p. 61).
Open black-glazed vessels (bowls, cups, saltcellars) meet in the Scythian burials more
often, than other potter's utensils. Thus they are used as toilet vessels in woman burials.
Black-glazed the bowl with the hemispherical body on the ring pallet and rim on the edge
of mouth was found in the barrow № 11 near village Staryi Merchik (Khar'kovskaia region) (Fig.
14, 3). The vessel has been filled with a glass beads. On stock this burial is dated 340s-325s BC
(Bandurovskij, Buinov, 1999, p. 23-24).
The greatest quantity of the bowls occurs from the steppe Scythian burials. More often
these vessels have a stamped ornament. Near of the left hand of the deceased (woman) in the
burial 2 of the barrow 4 of the group Strashnaia Mogila near town Ordzhonikidze in Nikopol
district there was a bowl with the ridge walls, added with brown passing in red glazer (bad
burning of a black-glazed vessel). On the internal side of the vessel were four stamped palmette
(Terenozhkin, Illinskaia, Chernenko, Mozolevskij, 1973, p. 149, fig.30, 3). The black-glazed
bowl on the ring pallet stood near the head of the dead (woman) in the burial 1 of the barrow 16
from Mamai-Gora barrow burial field. On an internal surface of a vessel was a stamped
ornament from seven palmette, which were connected by arches. The ornament is framed by
concentric circles from short slanting notches (Andrukh, Toshev, 1999, p.101-102, fig.27,1).
Such kind stamped decoration is characteristic for middle of the IVth century BC (Sparkes,
Talcott. 1970, part 1, p.129, part 2, N805).
The black-glazed small plate with a direct rim and stamped ornament at the bottom stood
alongside of the dead’s (woman) head in the pair burial 2 of the barrow 49 from
Vysshetarasovka Scythian barrow burial field. On an internal surface of a bottom was made an
ornament from five palmette in a circle from short slanting notches (Buniatian, Cherednichenko,
Murzin, 1977, p. 16,108, fig. 41,2). On its form it is dated beginning of the IVth century BC and
this date proves to be true with analogies to an ornament (Sparkes, Talcott, 1970, part 1, p. 147,
In area of a head of the deceased in the tomb Malyi Chertomlyk was found a black-glazed
the bowl with one handle (one-handler or kanastron) which was dated 480s-425s BC (Sparkes,
Talcott, part.1, 1970, p. 124, part 2. N 747-750).
Special group of black-glazed ceramics make cups. This utensils sometimes name also
saltcellars. The deep cup occurs from the barrow near village Aksiuitintsy (the Left Bank). At the
bottom it was decorated with a stamped ornament from crossed arche-like lines which ends are
crowned with palmette. The palmette are in turn framed by four concentric circles from notches.
On the external side of a bowl bottom was scratched graffito ΣΤΑ ΝΑΥ and separate letters A
and sideways from it to the left in an opposite direction, apparently the delta connected with
fork-like sign, after it were letters . Probably, the inscription had magic assignment. The
vessel of the second - third quarter IVth century BC is dated (Onaiko, 1970, p. 59). Small cups-
saltcellars from the tumuli near village Aksiuitintsy, Pesochin's barrow burial field, Mirnoe and
Olephirschina have convex walls with bended inside edges, but also, and rather massive pallet.
In the bottom of some from them are present a stamped palmette ornament and graffito as the
letter of M or Σ. Similar vessels are dated within the limits of first half of the IVth century BC,
but they were produced in Athenes from 400 to 325 (Sparkes, Talcott, 1970, №. 826, 839).
Such vessels meet also in the Right Bank sites. A black-glazed cup-saltcellar on the ring
pallet was found in the burial 2 of the barrow 4 near the village Ivanovka (Boguslavsky district,
Kiev region). (Kovpanenko, Skoryi, Baturevich, 1996, p.108,109, fig. 6,)
The numerous collection of the black-glazed cups occurs from steppe Scythian burials.
Small black-glazed cup with palmette inside stood up after feet of the deceased (woman) in
thebarrow 11 of the group near mine 22 beside town Ordzhonikidze. The black-glazed cup on
the ring pallet with a stamped ornament on an internal surface was found near the spindle wheel
in the woman burial 1 of the barrow 4 near the village Dudchany in Kherson region (Fridman,
1987, p.168). The ornament as four palmette, put in circles from slanting notches has been made
an the internal surface of the vessel. The pallet had was graffito as two letters ｄｈＮ There
was a black-glazed cup on the ring pallet on a felt coverlet from burial of the girl-teenager in a
tomb 1 of the barrow 4 of the group Nosaki near village Balki (Vasil’evka district of
Zhaporozhye region). On an internal surface was placed a stamped ornament as the complex
rosette from seven petals, put in the circle decorated with 16 more rosette that repeated the form
of internal rosette. This ornament is characteristic for middle of the IVth century BC (Bidzilia,
Boltrik, Mozolevskij, Savovskij, 1977, p. 93. fig. 12). The black-glazed small cup -"saltcellar"
turned upside down was found in a toilet set at the left hand of the deceased (woman) in the inlet
burial 4 of the barrow 27 of the Scythian barrow burial field near village
Vysshetarasovka(Buniatian, Chernenko, Murzin, 1977, p. 69, fig. 7,10). According with form the
cup is close to the vessels from materials of Athenian Agora, dated by the second third quarters
IVth century BC (Sparkes, Talcott, 1970, part 1, p.137, part 2, N939-950). Black-glazed cup
with a stamped ornament was found in a looted pair burial 2 of barrow 40 Vysshetarasovka
barrow burial field. It was decorated on the bottom with three palmette and two concentric
circles executed by slanting short notches. To the form of this vessel is close a described above
saltcellar. It is dated by second third quarters of the IVth century BC. The ornament of this vessel
is the closest to the ornament of a vessel from Athenian Agora and which confirms dating on the
form (Sparkes, Talcott, 1970, part 1, p.137, part 2, № 939-950, 682). A black-glazed saltcellar
without an ornament, but with graffito on the pallet was found in the burial Mogila 3 of the
barrow 3 near thevillage Kalinino (Pervomaevsk district, the Crimea) (Kolotukhin, 2000, p.24,
The black-glazed lamps are extremely a rare find in Scythian burials of the Northern Black
Sea Area. Single closed black-glazed fixture has been placed before the wooden coffin in
theburial of the man of 40-45 years in the barrow 1 near the village Pervomaevka
(Verkhnerogachik district, Kherson region). It was the closed vessel on a ring slightly profiled
pallet with extended small horn. The handle was missing in an antiquity (Evdokimov, Fridman,
1987, p.88, 89, fig. 3,1).
Thus, in the end of the Vth -first half of the IVth centuries BC in Steppian Black Sea Area had
been delivered basically cups (kylikes). The kantharos-like cups (kylikes) had appeared here
hardly later. The kantharoi and saltcellars, which frequently decorated with stamped ornament
begin spreaded from the second-third of the quarters of the IVth in the Northern Black Sea Area.
The fragments of the black-glazed ceramics met extremely seldom in the steppe sites of the
settled way of life. One fragment was found on settlement Pervomaevka 3 and only 53 (total
number of finds registed in field lists prevailed 50 000 copies) fragments of black-glazed
saltcellars and kantharosов were found in the layers of Kamenka hillfort for eight years of
incessant author’s excavations on it.
The quantity of black-glazed utensils in the burials of the IVth century BC increases more
than in 10 times in comparison with the previous period. In the same proportion the quantity of
amphorae in the burials IVth century BC increases. The diagram of regional distribution of
ceramics in burials of the IVth century BC shows that amphorae meet in Scythian burials
Dniester Area and Steppe The Crimea more often. The quantity of the burials with black-glazed
vessels equally in the Steppe Crimea, in the Dnieper area and in the Bug Area also makes
approximately 10 % of all scythian burials of this regions (Gavrilyik, 1999, fig. 49, 52).
Continuously extending economic relations, including the Greek import in Scythia, promoted
more and more stronger influence (in some cases penetration) of an antique civilization into
culture and a life of tribes of the Northern Black Sea Area. The history of the ties of Greeks-
colonists with local population of the Northern Black Sea Area can be divided into three the
basic of a stage.
1. Fırst stage of interaction between Greek and Barbarians of the Northern Black Sea
Area took place in the VIIth-first half of the VIth centuries BC. It was the acquainted stage of
interaction’s process between bearers of antique civilization and a native population of the
Northern Black Sea Area. Luxury goods as the ceremonic potter's utensils (weapon, fine ware,
other craft goods) come in basically in the sites of forest-steppe as the most populated regions of
the Northern Black Sea Area. Volumes of such supplies are insignificant, quantity of goods is
not great and it may say only about their several deliveries (or even single arrivals) of ceremonic
utensils here. Perhaps, very often finds of Greek manufacturing from sites of the Northern Black
Sea Area were not goods, but gifts of the first Greek settlers to separate representatives of the
Scythian nobility. Moreover, the impression is created, that things, which came to Northern
Black Sea Coast and used here, was not used in Greece any more, «were not fashionable». But
even in that initial stage trade ties did not have disorderly or random character. The results of the
analysis of the stylistic pecularities of the subjects of the Greek import testified that the most
spreading had got vessels with painting, which answered to requiments of “scythian animal
style” or tastes of the richest representatives of the native population of the Northern Black Sea
Area. Scythians-nomads receive the weapon, other craft goods as before from population of the
Forest Steppe zone and as a result of the predatory raids to Fore Asia. We cannot speak about
regular deliveries of the Greek goods by steppe Scythians-nomads. An intermediary role in the
first ties plays Elizavetovka hillfort in a mouth of Don, later -the settlement on island Berezan’.
2. Second stage of interaction between Greek and Barbarians of the Northern Black Sea
Area took place in the second half of the VIth-first half of the Vth centuries BC. This stage is
signifyed by promotion of nomadic Scythians in the steppe zone of the Northern Black Sea Area.
Scythians-nomads for the first time had directly adjoined with Greek civilization. Both Scythians
and Greeks appeared in equal behavioristic conditions of refinding of mother country: both
peoples began to develop the new spaces very far from “old” mother land practically in one time.
But every people made it by own way in according with their ethnic, economic, social basics.
Nomads made familiar with endless steppe spaces, which were most efficient for all the year
round of the cattle breeding in open steppe. Greeks took an interest in some places of a narrow
but extented strip of the coast with convenient harbors and mouths of the great rivers (Don,
Borysthenes, Tyras and others) and peninsula the Crimea. The trade ways on the rivers (as the
safest and cheapest) and overland had began connected two cultures in one social-economic
system in the Northern Black Sea Area. The basic receiver of Greek goods was population of the
Forest-Steppe zone. But part of the Greek goods already stayed and used in steppe, first of all, in
the Crimea. The Greek import varies both quantitatively and qualitatively. It is possible to speak
about consignments of goods. Wine (from Chios, Thasos, Samos and other) is imported into the
Northern Black Sea Area in plenties. Red-figured utensils become wide-spread among top
Scythian nobility. There is cheaper black-glazed utensils from Antiquea which is already
accessible also to combatants as a "middle class" of a Scythian societу.
3. Third stage of interaction between Greek and Barbarians of the Northern Black Sea
Area date by second half of the V – IVth centuries BC and it is characterized by the Greek goods
into a life of all population of the Northern Black Sea Area. The Greek products meet not only in
burials of nobility, but also in simple burials. The antique import is fixed (basically, the truth, on
fragments of amphorae) and in the layers of Scythian settlements. The basic receivers of Greek
import became nomadic and semi-nomadic Scythians of the steppe zone. The trade between
Scythians and Greeks has character of mass deliveries. The main import item became wine.
Wines from Herakleia, Peparet, Menda, Sinope, Thasos arrived in the Greek centers (Tyras,
Olbia, Berezan’, Chersonesos, Bosporan cities). Then it went away both water and overland
ways deep into barbarians territories. A important role in this trade ties begin played the Scythian
steppe hillforts (f.e. Kamenka and Kapulovka) which supervised a last ferry before the Dnieper
thresholds. Besides the wine, ceremonial black-glazed utensils, subjects of a toilet, some kinds of
the weapon, silver and gold utensils, adornments was imported in Scythia also. There are started
workshops for serving of the barbaric neighbours in the antique centers of the Northern Black
Sea Area. So in the Scythian burials there is a good weapon, adornments, grey-clay and red-clay
ceramics, which was made in view of tastes of customers-barbarians (this group of the Greek
goods in the chapter was not considered). The greek-barbarous mutual relations leave far for
frameworks of economic relations. With reference to last period of existence of Scythian culture
it is possible to speak about influence of antiquity on a life and on culture of the Scythians
inhabitants of the steppe zone of the Northern Black Sea Area. This period is crowned with the
beginning of hellenization process of the Scythian population of the Northern Black Sea Area.