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<ul><li><p>Studies in Fuzziness and Soft Computing 298</p><p>Editor-in-ChiefProf. Janusz KacprzykSystems Research InstitutePolish Academy of Sciencesul. Newelska 601-447 WarsawPolandE-mail: kacprzyk@ibspan.waw.pl</p><p>For further volumes:http://www.springer.com/series/2941</p></li><li><p>Rudolf Seising, Enric Trillas, Claudio Moraga,and Settimo Termini (Eds.)</p><p>On Fuzziness</p><p>A Homage to Lotfi A. Zadeh Volume 1</p><p>ABC</p></li><li><p>EditorsDr. Rudolf SeisingEuropean Centre for Soft ComputingEdificio de Investigacin, 3a Planta.MieresAsturiasSpain</p><p>Prof. Enric TrillasEuropean Centre for Soft ComputingEdificio de Investigacin, 3a Planta.MieresAsturiasSpain</p><p>Prof. Claudio MoragaEuropean Centre for Soft ComputingEdificio de Investigacin, 3a Planta.MieresAsturiasSpain</p><p>Prof. Settimo TerminiDepartment of Mathematics and InformaticsUniversit di PalermoPalermoItaly</p><p>ISSN 1434-9922 e-ISSN 1860-0808ISBN 978-3-642-35640-7 e-ISBN 978-3-642-35641-4DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-35641-4Springer Heidelberg New York Dordrecht London</p><p>Library of Congress Control Number: 2012954156</p><p>c Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part ofthe material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation,broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or informationstorage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodologynow known or hereafter developed. Exempted from this legal reservation are brief excerpts in connectionwith reviews or scholarly analysis or material supplied specifically for the purpose of being enteredand executed on a computer system, for exclusive use by the purchaser of the work. Duplication ofthis publication or parts thereof is permitted only under the provisions of the Copyright Law of thePublishers location, in its current version, and permission for use must always be obtained from Springer.Permissions for use may be obtained through RightsLink at the Copyright Clearance Center. Violationsare liable to prosecution under the respective Copyright Law.The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in this publicationdoes not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevantprotective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use.While the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of pub-lication, neither the authors nor the editors nor the publisher can accept any legal responsibility for anyerrors or omissions that may be made. The publisher makes no warranty, express or implied, with respectto the material contained herein.</p><p>Printed on acid-free paper</p><p>Springer is part of Springer Science+Business Media (www.springer.com)</p></li><li><p>Lotfi Zadeh and three unknown persons in the 1950s as an instructorat Columbia University in New York.</p></li><li><p>A Foreword</p><p>When I started looking at the material in this awesome volume, the first thoughtthat came to mind was social network. While this term has been greatly overusednowadays by the media, this volume is clearly a social network with Lotfi Zadeh atthe center. The term is even more appropriate in the case of Zadeh, who in addition tobeing a thinker of historical note, is an extremely social human being. In addition toproviding inspiring technical ideas that have allowed many people in this network tocarve out impressive careers of their own, Lotfi has often provided advice on mattersboth professional and personal to members of this network. Lotfi was never too busyto listen to the problems of others. I often observed that Lotfi had more patiencelistening to others social problems than technical matters. These pieces help toprovide views of Zadeh as if looking into a big house through different windows.</p><p>This volume, in addition to providing insights to the individual contributors ex-periences with Lotfi either socially or technically, even more interestingly it providesthe opportunity to experience in many cases, another dimension of the contributors.While I have known most of the contributors to this volume for many years, this isone of few, if not only occasion, I have had to read their writings on a non-technicaland more personal subject. In many cases, I found this to be a rewarding and an eyeopening experience as I am sure other readers of this book will find.</p><p>The inclusion of pictures tremendously enhances the pleasure of this volume. Notonly are there pictures of Lotfi but enjoyable pictures of other members of the com-munity. The pictures in this volume almost span the life of the idea of fuzziness.They include black and white pictures vintage pictures from the pre-digital days thatare almost invaluable. These pictures inspire warm memories. For me, it was quitenotable to observe the consistency of Lotfis physical appearance over the long his-tory that these pictures cover.</p><p>Lotfi spent many years on the outside trying to convince people of the value of hisidea of fuzzy sets before the successful applications in Japan showed its usefulness.It is worth noting that these pioneering applications in Japan occurred at a time whenJapan was a rapidly raising star in the worlds technological and economic order; afact that amplified and accelerated the worlds appreciation for fuzzy sets. In manyways Lotfi is still an outsider, in this case in his own fuzzy set community. Mostof the applications of fuzzy sets are based on the Mamdani-Sugeno model. Thisparadigm is a kind of disjunctive approach, as we get more information we addpossibilities. Zadehs perspective, as conveyed with his paradigm of restriction-basedsemantics, is a kind of conjunctive approach, as we get more information we reducepossibilities.</p></li><li><p>VIII Foreword by Ronald R. Yager</p><p>Even now as he marches into his nineties and is unable to attend conferencesand interact with fellow attendees as he so enjoys, Lotfi continues to build a socialnetwork. This time using the latest technology, the Internet, he has built a socialnetwork around his inspired idea of the Berkeley Initiative in Soft Computing. Everyday I receive messages from people around the world via this network of interrelatedscholars. These messages usually involve interesting ideas rather then simply beingannouncements of conferences as is the case with some other groups. The mostinteresting and challenging are those that come from Lotfi, particularly those relatedto his attempt to deal with the issue of causality.</p><p>The editors Rudolf Seising, Enric Trillas, Claudio Moraga and Settimo Terminiare to be congratulated for coming up with such a wonderful idea to help celebrate alife as rich and human as Zadehs in this manner.</p><p>Ronald R. YagerNew York City, July, 2012</p><p>Fig. 0.1. Ron R. Yager lecturing at the 14th International Conference on Information Process-ing and Management of Ucertainty in Knowledge-based Systems (IPMU) 2012 in Catania(Sicily), Italy, on July 11, 2012.</p></li><li><p>Foreword by the Editors</p><p>It is without any kind of doubt that the work of Professor Lotfi A. Zadeh is of a greatrelevance in both the scientific and technological sides. His is a work that not onlymeant an important departure, but also a clear cut, from some old views on whichthinking and research were anchored. He also spread his work all around the worldthrough many lectures in many countries, and offered and continues to offer excitingnew views to open-eyed people wishing to do research without being blocked bysome old formal ways of looking at some theoretic or practical problems, impedingto pose them in a path allowing for its treatment.</p><p>It could be said that Zadeh opened a new paradigm in, at least, Science and Tech-nology that was initially marked by the then surprising possibility of controllingphysical systems whose behavior is empirically described by a set of linguistic ruleswith imprecise terms, but not by an exact system of differential equations, when itexists, being usually computationally difficult to solve to obtain good enough valuesof its outputs. A new wave of researchers arose that, today, is followed by hundredsof researchers and engineers located in almost all parts of the world. Of this wavethose authors contributing to this book are but a sample.</p><p>At the very beginning of the fuzzy adventure, just the presentation of the idea ofFuzziness not only provoked violent oppositions, as it is often the case for innova-tive ideas, but also triggered, and, in a sense forced, a rethinking of a few crucialand debated problems aroused at the beginning of last Century in the field of thefoundations of Mathematics and Logic. Also some papers tried to axiomatize thenotion of fuzzy set in order to take it as the starting point of a subsequent buildingof Mathematics. Besides remembering these first reactions to the then new emergingnotion, we can today certainly affirm that the notion of Fuzziness stands as one ofthe really new concepts that have recently enriched the world of Science in the samegood company of the ones of Computation, Information and Complexity, but also ofBohrs Complementarity. Science grows not only through technical and formal ad-vances on one side and useful applications on the other side, but also by introducingand assimilating new concepts in its corpus. These, in turn, produce new develop-ments and applications. Fuzziness has done all these things and will remain as oneof the few new concepts aroused in the XX Century.</p><p>It is not usual that the founder of a new line of research can see in his life boththe theoretical growing of it, as well as the success of some technological applica-tions actually important from both the economical and the business points of view, asthose coming from Fuzzy Logic and Soft Computing. This is the case with Profes-sor Zadeh, an electrical engineer passionated by posing problems in mathematical</p></li><li><p>X Foreword by the Editors</p><p>terms that not only introduced the theoretical basis of Fuzzy Logic, but who alsocontributed a lot in its technological side with the insights coming from some ofhis many and single authored papers. Zadeh is not only well credited as the intro-ducer of Fuzzy Logic and Soft Computing, but also and around twelve years ago, ofthe new field of Computing with Words from which a new frontier for ComputerSciences is clearly visible and that can allow to afford yet unanswered questions inPhilosophy, Linguistics, Science, Sociology, Technology and, last but not least, In-dustry. To qualify Zadeh as the father of fuzzy logic is a good short description ofits personality.</p><p>It is well known how broad is the spectrum covered by the work of Lotfi Zadeh.In a way, this seems to be reflected in the variety of contributions building this book.Some authors that contribute to this book chose to speak of personal meetings withLotfi; others, about how particular papers of Zadeh opened for them a new researchhorizon. There are contributions documenting results obtained following ideas ofZadeh, thus implicitly acknowledging the inspiration he gave for those achievements.Finally, there are contributions of several third generation fuzzysists/softies whowere first lead into the world of Fuzziness by a disciple of Lotfi Zadeh, who, follow-ing his example, took care of opening for them a new road in science.</p><p>This book just aims at homaging both Professor Lotfi A. Zadehs personality andwork, once he surpassed his ninety years and is happily creative. His gentle atti-tude towards all people he met, as well as his wide tolerance with those that triedto contradict, and sometimes to blame, his contributions, is a characteristic of himthat helped to approach many people to his ideas. Zadeh never refused the contactwith and the offer of advise to young or yet inexpert people; never refused to gentlediscuss in either a public or a private space on his thinking, and this in both spoken orwritten form. Zadeh is always in the opposite side of those kinds of great researcherswho like to be distant and elevated from other people. For short, Zadeh is a nicehuman being who, aside of taking an exquisite care of his creature, likes to be in aclose intellectual contact with people of all conditions.</p><p>The four editors of this book in homage to Professor Zadeh, all of them work-ing from time ago in different areas of Fuzzy Logic or Soft Computing, would liketo thank the multitude of authors contributing to its two volumes. This amount ofpeople is a clear signal of the world-wide recognition reached by Zadehs ideas.</p><p>Rudolf Seising, Enric Trillas, Claudio Moraga, Settimo Termini,Mieres (Asturias, Spain), and Palermo (Italy),</p><p>October, the 30th, 2012</p></li><li><p>Genesis of the Book</p><p>I. Pre-history</p><p>When we started planning this book, born from discussions by the editors at the Eu-ropean Centre for Soft Computing (ECSC), we wrote the following letter to morethan 500 scientists in the field of Soft Computing whose e-mail addresses we knew :</p><p>Dear colleagues,</p><p>In 2012 it will be 50 years that Professor Lotfi A. Zadeh used the wordfuzzy for the first time in a scientific paper:</p><p>..., we need a radically different kind of mathematics, the mathematics offuzzy or cloudy quantities which are not describable in terms of probabilitydistributions.1</p><p>It is also not to be forgotten that in about three and a half years, the theoryof Fuzzy Sets and Systems (FSS) will be 50 years old, and that in this year2011 its founder Lotfi A. Zadeh celebrated his 90th anniversary! It is ouropinion that this 50 years long development of a now well-known theorythat is used in technology, economics and other fields should have a mirrorin the scientific literature. To this end we would like to edit a book entitledOn Fuzziness.</p><p>At this remarkable point of time we think that it is important to have aprinted collection of documents showing the history, the present stage andthe future expectations from the own views of the protagonists.</p><p>We will publish this documentation in a book and we invite you as well asother protagonists in the field of FSS, to contribute to this homage to thelife-long work of Lotfi A. Zadeh. Furthermore, we also would like to inviteand encourage scientists and researchers who have not been enthusiasticwith FSS but who accompanied with their criticisms the genesis and thedevelopment of that field to participate in this book project, since, withouttheir contribution, both the history and the prospect for its future wouldremain incomplete.</p><p>1 Zadeh, Lotfi A.: From Circuit Theory to System Theory, Proceedings of the IRE, May1962, pp. 856-865: 857.</p></li><li><p>XII The Genesis of This Book</p><p>Hence, we ask you to contribute with a short paper on fuzziness (aboutfive (5) pages) from your personal point of view. We would like to ask you tomention in this non-technical contribution to the book how you did arrive tothe field of FSS and to present your views and expectations on fuzziness.</p><p>We also kindly ask you to include, if available, one or two photograph...</p></li></ul>

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