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  • Summer Internship at IIT Hyderabad

    One-month Summer Internship organized by

    TEQIP – III held at IIT Hyderabad

    Name: - Kislay Kumar

    Course: - Bachelor of Technology (B. Tech)

    Branch: - Mechanical Engineering (M.E)

    College Name: - Bhagalpur College of Engineering

    Bhagalpur, Bihar - 813210

    Faculty Advisor: - Dr. Pankaj S. Kolhe (Associate Professor)

    (Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering)

    Guide Advisor: - Abinash Biswal (Ph.D. Research Scholar)

    (Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering)

    Topic: - Testing Performance of SI Engine on Alternative Fuels

    and Spray Characterisation for GDI mode.

  • Topic: - Testing Performance of Spark Ignition(SI) Engine on Alternative Fuels and Spray characterization for Gasoline Direct

    Injection(GDI) mode.

     With depleting conventional source of energy, exhausting petroleum

    deposits there is an ever increasing demand for alternative sources

    of energy which are required to be renewable and less polluting and

    at same time more efficient. There is a continuous battle between the

    improving technology. So various researches and experiments are

    proceeding to check their Spray characterisation and Performance,

    Emission & Combustion characteristics of various alternative fuels

    for Internal Combustion (IC) Engine.

     In Spark Ignition (SI) Engine, fuels such as Lemon Peel Oil (LPO), Iso-

    octane, blend of iso-octane & ethanol and blend of LPO & ethanol, etc.

    are used for spray characterisation for autonomous. Fuels such as

    Methanol, Ethanol, CNG, hydrogen and gaseous fuel, etc. are used for

    testing Performance, Emission and Combustion Characteristics

    should possess certain qualities to run the engine smoothly with

    more efficiency.

     Alternative Fuels are biodegradable, renewable fuel and their

    physical properties are quite more effective for testing performance

    and spray characterisation.

     With the experiments such as Spray Characterisation for Gasoline

    Direct Injection (GDI) mode at Elevated pressure and temperature

    conditions with constant volume combustion chamber and Testing

    Performance on alternative fuels with PFI Injector, and constant

    volume spray chamber to check their various properties which affect

    the smooth running of IC engine and their efficiency.

     GDI is a new trend in SI engine technology. Charge cooling, lower

    oxides of nitrogen, higher compression ratio are the advantages of

    GDI over conventional PFI. Fuel Spray understanding of GDI injector

    plays an important role in engine operation.

  •  In Spray Characterisation of GDI at elevated pressure and

    temperature conditions is carried out through Gasoline Direct

    Injection (GDI) Injector with the help of constant volume combustion

    chamber and with fuel pump and injection control unit.

     Materials and methods which are used in spray characterisation are

    as follows: -

    Constant volume combustion chamber: -

    Idea is to mimic engine like pressure and temperature conditions and

    study the behaviour of different fuels.

    Elevated pressure and temperature created by using the pre-

    combustion of air and acetylene.

    Constant volume combustion chamber

    Image Capture and Image Processing

  • Parameters like liquid and vapour penetration are studied.

    Schlieren Shadowgraphy detects vapour, Mie Scattering gives liquid.

    Image Processing done in MATLAB to detect the boundary of spray.

    Phantom Control Camera

    Schlieren Shadowgraphy

  • MATLAB for image processing through liquid penetration programme

    For Liquid, Mie Scattering Set up is given below: -

    Mie Scattering Setup

    Image Processing in MATLAB for both process

  •  In Testing Performance of SI engine on alternative fuels, the

    experiments were carried out on conventional Port Fuel

    Injection(PFI) Injector using ethanol/butanol – gasoline blend as the

    test fuel and gasoline as the base fuel and without any modification

    of the engine component.

     Here are some diagrams, how the Port Fuel Injection (PFI) mode is

    different with Gasoline Direct Injection(GDI). Given below: -

    Port Fuel Injection VS Gasoline Direct Injection

     The Engine Performance Characteristics with different ethanol/

    butanol gasoline blends vary with the blend ratio. The Exhaust Gas

    Analyser is used to measure the pollutants present in the fuel

    which are injected through PFI injector. The percentage of

    impurities decide the performance characteristics of SI engine. The

    emission of carbon dioxide indicates the combustion of air fuel

    mixture. The availability of carbon monoxide indicates the

    incomplete combustion which shows the poor performance

    characteristics as it affects the efficiency of engine.

     In PFI injection mode for testing performance characteristics of SI

    engine, fuel is injected with air mixture during the combustion

    stroke of engine. During the exhaust stroke, the emission of

  • pollutants decides its performance characteristics and efficiency of


     The schematic diagram of Port Fuel Injector and experimental setup


    Process of injecting Fuel in Four Stroke Engine

  • Experimental setup for testing performance characteristics of SI engine

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