Click here to load reader
Post on 03-Oct-2015
Embed Size (px)
Candela Garca-Maurio 2ESOD07/06/2013
HISTORYThe evolution of the Orchestra.
Since the people in the Paleolithic combination of the different types of sound EJ: the noisy of the water or the sound of a drum etc. People have been putting instruments together in various combinations for as long as there have been instruments, thousands and thousands of years. But it wasn't until about the last 400 years that musicians started forming into combinations that turned into the modern orchestra we say in that time the music like we know started to grow. In the old days, when musicians got together to play, they used whatever instruments were around. If there were three lute players, a harp, and two flutes, then that's what they used. By the 1500s, the music went to a other way , the word "consort" was used to mean a group of instrumentalists, and sometimes singers too, making music together or "in concert".
Around 1600 in Italy, the composer Claudio Monteverdi knew just what instruments he wanted to accompany his opera Orfeo with exactly what instruments should play: fifteen viols of different sizes; two violins; four flutes, two large and two medium; two oboes, two cornetts (small wooden trumpets), four trumpets, five trombones, a harp, two harpsichords, and three small organs. That mean like over actually orchestra.In that year the simple orchestra changed to a big orchestra.
In the next century the orchestra developed still further. The violin family, violin, viola, cello, and bass, replaced the viols, and this new kind of string section became even more central to the Baroque orchestra than the viols had been in the Renaissance.
In the next century, the orchestra changed a lot. This takes us up to 1800, Haydn's and Beethoven's time.
Ludwig van Beethovenwas aGermancomposerofClassical music.He was born 15/16 December 1770.
Beethoven's first music teacher was his father, who worked as a musician in theElectoralcourt at Bonn, but was also analcoholicwho beat him and unsuccessfully attempted to exhibit him as achild prodigy. However, Beethoven's talent was soon noticed by others. He was given instruction and employment by Christian Gottlob Neefe. Beethoven's mother died when he was 17, and for several years he was responsible for raising his two younger brothers.
Beethoven was very early a pianovirtuoso, and more slowly as a composer.Beethoven's personal life was troubled. Around age 28 he started to become deaf (when you cant hear very well) a calamity which led him for some time to contemplate suicide. He liked women married but he never married.
He moved to hause to hause a lot of times.Beethoven was much taken by the ideals of the Enlightenment and by the growing Romanticism in Europe. He initially dedicated his third symphony, the Eroica to Napoleon '. The fourth movement of his Ninth Symphony features an elaborate choral setting of Schiller's an optimisticsong championing the brotherhood of humanity.
The most popular song of beethoven are : Fur Elise.Moonlight Sonata.Symphony no.5 in C MinorHe died the 26 March 1827.
In Beethovens time, the strings were more important.Composers began to write for each instrument a different composition .This meant knowing each instrument's individual "language" and knowing what kind of music would sound best and play easiest on a particular instrument. Composers also began to be more adventurous about combining instruments to get different sounds and colors.
As orchestras were getting bigger and bigger, all those musicians couldn't see and follow the concertmaster.Later in the 1800s, the orchestra reached the size and proportions we know today and even went beyond that size. Instrument design and construction got better and better, making new instruments such as the piccolo and the tuba available for orchestras. The orchestra started growing a lot with differetns types of instruments.
Their experiments with orchestration showed the way to the 20th century. Wagner went so far as to have a new instrument, the Wagner Tuba, designed and built to make certain special sounds in his opera orchestra.
The 20th century has been a century of freedom and experimentation with the orchestra. It has also been a time of people with a lot of talents that invented news and very good compositions.
But actually orchestra still around, and composers sometimes add or subtract instruments, depending on the effect they want to get. You might see a hugely expanded percussion section, or lots and lots of woodwinds and brasses. But the orchestra still takes more or less the same form: a big string section, with smaller sections for brasses, woodwinds, percussion, harps and keyboard instruments.
MUSIC INSTRUMENTSWhat the Orchestra is?
Its a large group of musicians who play together with differents types of instruments.The are four types of instruments: Stings,Woodwind,Brasswind,Percussions.When we speak of orchestras we usually meansymphony orchestras. They have many instruments and play mostly classical music which isperformedin concerts.
A modern orchestraconsistsof foursectionsor families of instruments. Thestringsection is the most important part of asymphonyorchestra.It has more than half of the musicians andconsists ofviolins,violas, cellos andstring basses.
Violin Viola CelloThe violinists play high sounds and aredividedinto two groups. The first violins and the second violins usually play different parts. Theleadingfirst violinist is the concertmaster of the orchestra. Cellos andstring bassesplay low sounds.The first violins play the melody and the second violins play the melody. 2. Thewoodwindsectionconsists offlutes,bassoons, oboes and clarinets. An orchestra can have between two and four of each of these instruments. The woodwind instruments usually sit in two rows, with the section principals in the centre. The four common instruments are almost always there. Mostly, there is a pair of each instrument: for instance, a 1st and 2nd flute. Unlike the strings, each player has a separate part to play. Smallrecorders could also play very high notes..
Flute Bassoon Oboe Clarinet 3. Thebrasssection hasa lot of trumpets, French horns,trombone and onetuba. These instruments are important in the loud,excitingparts of the music. Trumpets and horns play the higher parts, andtubasdominatethe lower parts. This section islocatedmostly at the centre and back of the orchestra. The orchestral brass are all made of metal so the sound is actually produced by "buzzing.
Trumpet French horn Trombone Tuba4. Thepercussionsection has all sorts of instruments,especiallythose that you can hit, shake The variety of instruments is enormous, however they do fall into two main groups: tuned percussion and untuned percussion. There can be any number of percussion instruments in a composition and the variety of instruments used has increased enormously since the beginning of the 20th century.It is important thatcomposers or orchestrators pay attention to the physical requirements of the section, and in particular the choreography of both players and beaters. A common mistake is to allow insufficient time for players to change instrument or pick up new beaters. The drums are the best knownof these instruments. In asymphonyorchestra,timpani make the music moreexciting. Otherpercussioninstrumentsincludebells,cymbals,or xylophones.Other instruments like theharp, piano or saxophone may beaddedto the orchestra if they are needed.
Drum Bell Cymbals Xylophones Also in the orchestra there is a man who directs the diverent sounds. His name is the conductor.But he does important things before the performance. He chooses the music that is to be played at a concert anddecideshow it should be played- loud or soft, fast or slow. Then he calls the musicians totrials ( ensayos)where he often lets sections or individualmusicians play their parts over and over again until the sound is perfect.
Brasssection Stringsection WoodwindsectionPercussionsection ConductorDifferent types of orchesta. Orchestras are as diverse as the music they perform, from opera and classical to modern jazz and movie themes. Three distinct types of orchestra--symphony, chamber and string--expose audiences around the world to new cultural and musical experiences each year.
Symphony : A symphony orchestra consists of a group of 50 to 100 musicians. It contains string, brass, woodwind and percussion instruments. The average size of a full orchestra is about 80 players. Symphonies play various types of music from classical to film scores and jazz. They are always led by a conductor. This is the tipic classic music.
Chamber: A chamber orchestra is a smaller version of a symphony and has less than 50 musicians. The name means the orchestra is small enough to fit in the chamber room of a private home or public hall. The type of music played is identical to a symphony orchestra. They are also led by a conductor.
String :The smallest orchestra is the string orchestra, which is comprised solely of string instruments such as the violin, viola and cello. The size of a string orchestra averages eight instruments, though it can reach 12 to 18 with the addition of more violins.
I found the information here.http://www.nyphilkids.org/lockerroom/history_f-r.htmlhttp://www.8notes.com/biographies/beethoven.asphttp://cnx.org/content/m11897/latest/http://www.english-online.at/music/orchestra/orchestra.htmhttp://www.gcdyo.org.uk/orchestra.htmlhttps://www.google.es/search?newwindow=1&site=webhp&source=hp&q=Different+types+of+orchesta.&oq=Different+types+of+orchesta.&gs_l=hp.3..0i13i30l3.12906.12906.0.13822.214.171.124.0.0.0.88.126.96.36.199...0.0.0..1c.2.16.hp.rLyCpRC0Wc4http://www.ehow.co.uk/list_7263477_different-types-orchestras_.htmlhttp://www.ehow.com/list_7263477_different-types-orchestras_.html