taking healthcare to the cloud

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A technology called cloud computing has generated a great deal of interest as well as trepidation in health care organizations across the globe. Along with the potential benefits of cost reduction, disaster recovery, and dynamic storage scalability come numerous concerns, of which security and patient information privacy are paramount. These concerns have been identified as a mixture of reality and perception that must be overcome for health care to take advantage of the benefits of cloud computing. To overcome the identified barriers to further expansion of health care into the cloud will require adoption of methodology proposed by others by performing detailed data touch point planning and configuration as well as fully taking advantage of new encryption and data center technology.


  • 1. Cloud Computing:Time for HealthCare to move intothe 21st CenturyJerry Collins19 April 2014Walden UniversityHINF - 6960 2Scholarly Project 2014 Spring Semester

2. IntroductionIn 2012 healthCareexpenditures,after a shortseven yearperiod, grewfrom $1.9733trillion to anadditional $800billion annually(Kellermann &Jones, 2013).(Kane, 2012) 3. IntroductionTwo Institute of Medicine(IOM) reports thatforever changed healthcare and specificallyHealth Care IT (HIT)HIT responded to the callfor safety and quality, butthe associated costs haverapidly becomeuntenable(IOM, 1999)(IOM, 2001) 4. IntroductionA possible answer tosustain the pursuit ofHIT to provide anaffordable solution isCloud Computing,but barriers toexpansion existOthers haveidentified: The need for cloud computing inhealthcare Barriers to expanded use of cloudcomputing in healthcare Overcoming the barriers toexpansion of cloud computing inhealthcareNew ways tofinallyovercome thebarriers 5. IntroductionCloud Computing Explained Delivery Models & Deployment ModelsIdentified Needs for Expansion of Cloud Computingin Health Care Cost Reduction - Disaster Recovery - Storage ScalabilityBarriers to Expansion in Health CareOvercoming Barriers 6. IntroductionArea of Focus: Cloud Computing and health careKey Terms: cloud computing, health care, privacy,securityThesis Statement: In order to bring health care into the 21stCentury, the needs for cloud computing identified by others mustbe answered by addressing the barriers to expansion, bothunsubstantiated and real. 7. BackgroundCloud Computing Explained(Lakjeewa, 2011)Delivery Models Software-as-a-Service (SaaS): Provides application such as ElectronicHealth Records (EHRs) hosted and made available to the customerover a network by a cloud service provider (Kuo, 2011). Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS): A development tool hosted in the cloudwhere developers can easily build and deploy applications (Kuo, 2011). Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS): All components for operations,storage, hardware, servers, and network gear are housed, ran andmaintained by the cloud 8. BackgroundCloud Computing Explained(Lakjeewa, 2011)Deployment Models Public cloud: Open to the general public over the Internet. Theprovider, such as Amazon Elastic Compute (EC2) provides avirtual computer for the organization to operate their ownapplications on a pay-as-you go basis (Kundra, 2011). Private cloud: Cloud infrastructure for one organization. Anexample would be an organization using Microsoft Azure as abase for its private deployment (Kuo, 2011). 9. BackgroundCloud Computing Explained(Lakjeewa, 2011)Deployment Models (Cont.) Community cloud: A cloud shared by more than one organizationsupporting a specific mission for a community of organizations. Maybe managed either by third party or the organization on or off site(Kundra, 2011). Hybrid cloud: Consists of two or more clouds, whether private, publicor community allowing organizations to manage a cloud in its owndata center and extend that private cloud out into the public cloud viaremote secure servers (Kuo, 2011). 10. NeedsIdentified Needs for Expansion of Cloud byHealth Care Cost Reduction The number one gain to be realized from thecloud is cost reduction. With all aspects,including infrastructure, software, and evenmanagement paid for on a per-use-basis, cloudgreatly reduces the cost. No investment in anyphysical resources coupled with paying only forneeded resources makes cloud an attractiveoption financially (Lewis, 2010). 11. NeedsIdentified Needs for Expansion of Cloud byHealth Care Disaster RecoveryDefinition: The processes, policies andprocedures to prepare for recovery or continuationof the organizations technology infrastructureafter a natural or man-made disaster (DisasterRecovery, nd.).(Disaster Recovery, nd.)(Digital Dawn, 2012) 12. NeedsIdentified Needs for Expansion of Cloud byHealth Care Storage ScalabilityDefinition: Maintaining storage and traffic loadduring the peak traffic load for a customer,without adding additional hardware orinfrastructure without interference to thecustomer workload (Weiss, 2007). 13. BarriersBarriers to Expansion in Health Care Number of Barriers, including: Data lock-in Network infrastructure bottlenecks Access to data by vendors Two Other Concerns Top List: Security Patient Information Privacy 14. BarriersBarriers to Expansion in Health Care Security and Patient Information Privacy Real and Perceived ConcernsSurvey by IDC, 2008 Security concern was named as the mostserious barrier to adoption.Survey by Information Week, 2009 and 2010 31% of thoseinterviewed viewed Software-as a-Service Applications lesssecure than internal systems, down from 35% in 2009.Survey by IDC, 2010 Less than 10% of respondents hadconfidence in cloud security.(Kshetri, 2013).(Technorati,2011) 15. BarriersBarriers to Expansion in Health Care(Technorati,Harris Interactive survey for Novell, 2010 90% concerned with 2011)cloud security, 50% saw security as the primary barrier toadoption, 76% believed that private data was more secure onpremise, and 81% were concerned for regulatory compliance.Survey by IDC, 2011 47% concerned about a security threatCiscos CloudWatch 2011 report for the U.K., 2011 76% ofrespondents cited security and privacy as a top barrier to cloudadoption (Kshetri, 2013).Security and privacy concerns are a mix of reality and perceptionthat will need to be overcome for expansion into the cloud toflourish (Kshetri, 2013). 16. BarriersBarriers to Expansion in Health Care Common Concerns Shared Common to any network setting Security architecture design, reducingexposure to attack surfaces, malware, andaccess control Beyond these, that do apply to Cloud: Often shares resources, availableanywhere, accidental deletions, andcloud data access by the cloud provider(Ryan, 2013)(Technorati,2011) 17. Overcoming BarriersOvercoming Barriers to Expansion Removing the barriers, both real andperceived requires: Planning and configuration of data touchpoints in three areas Data processing and storage Management of infrastructure User experience(Lhr, Sadeghi, & Winandy, 2010). 18. Overcoming BarriersOvercoming Barriers to Expansion Removing the barriers, both real andperceived requires: (Cont.) Cryptographic key management Active key management Certificate management Hardware and software management User experience Trusted Virtual Domains(Lhr et al, 2010). 19. Overcoming BarriersOvercoming Barriers to Expansion Privacy Encryption Technologies Homomorphic Encryption Fully Homomorphic Encryption overQuantum Computing (Maimut,Patrascu, & Simmons, 2012) Two Key Partially HomomorphicEncryption (Nissany, 2014) 20. Overcoming BarriersOvercoming Barriers to Expansion Colocation Definition: A data center location providingspace, power, cooling, and connectivity toothers in a secure environment. Physically on the same data center floor Special new networking fabric withincolocation coming available (Equinix, 2013a). 21. Overcoming BarriersConclusionThesis Statement: In order to bring health careinto the 21st Century, the needs for cloudcomputing identified by others must be answeredby addressing the barriers to expansion, bothunsubstantiated and real. 22. Overcoming BarriersConclusion (Cont.)Cloud computing offers a number of potential benefits to healthcare organization among others cost reduction, disaster recovery,and storage scalability. The realization of those benefits hasbeen hindered by a number of concerns, both in reality andperception, for the two largest barriers of security and privacy ofpatient data. Research and development of solutions to theseconcerns are ongoing and include both how virtual domains aretreated as well as new and exciting ventures into finally havingtruly secure encryption as well as locating services in the samephysical location via colocation to provide the required protectionand security of patient data. 23. References 24. References (Cont.) 25. References (Cont.) 26. References (Cont.) 27. References (Cont.) 28. References (Cont.) 29. References (Cont.) 30. References (Cont.)