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Teddy Roosevelts Square Deal
Teddy Roosevelt, Progressive
the strenuous life & Rugged IndividualismBorn into wealthy NY family in 1858How asthma shaped his lifeGroomed for Big ThingsScientist, historian, outdoorsmanPolitical beginningsSetbacks and a new purposeUncontrollable = Dangerous
The IronySept. 6, 1901The man in the arenaYouth and VigorImage vs. realityCore beliefs
That Damned Cowboy!
Make up of the parties in 1900
The Spoils System vs. The Best and Brightest
Used the Bully Pulpit to push his message
Believed that the fed. govt should step in when state & local govt are unable to deal with issues that arise
It is the duty of the President to act upon the theorythat he is the steward of the peopleand to assumethat he has the legal right to do whatever the needsof the people demand, unless the Constitution forbids it.
Progressivism at work1902 Coal Strike140,000 coal miners go on strike in PennsylvaniaDemand s20% Raise9 hour workdayRight to organize a union***TR intervenes, calling both sides to the White House***It is agreed that an arbitration commission will decideResults10% raise9 hour workdayNo strikes for 3 years/no unions***What we learned from this episode***1.Fed. Govt expected to intervene when public welfare threatened2. Progressive philosophy wins out (disputes can be handled in an orderly way thru deliberative process by experts)
-crushes Alton Parker-7.6 million to 5 million
-TRs presidency peaks from 1904-1906
The wise custom which limits a President to two terms regards the substance and not the form. Under no circumstances will I be a candidate for or accept another nomination.
1904 Presidential Election
MuckrakingHenry Demarest LloydS. S. McClureLincoln SteffensIda M. TarbellUpton SinclairRay Stannard BakerInvestigative journalism
Topics & purposes varied
The heyday & the demise
PeopleIssues, Rise & Fall
By 1900, trusts control 80% of industrywhy is this a problem?
Sherman Anti-Trust ActSet up to combat monopoliesLargely ineffective due to 1) vague language 2) lack of enforcementTR filed (44) suits; many were successful; public loved it!
The Elkins Act The Hepburn Act
Health Regulating Foods & DrugsTR reads The JungleAppoints commission to examine the meatpacking industryTRs response?Meat Inspection Act of 1906New cleanliness requirementsCreated federal meat inspection program used for nearly a centuryPure Food & Drug ActHalted the sale of contaminated food and medicinesCalled for truth in labelingAnother instance of Progressive ideals winning the day (labeling)
Before TR, the Fed. Govt pays little to no attention to our natural resourceswhy?By 1900, U.S. facing a Natural environment crisis
Farmers, Ranchers, Coal & Lumber Companies, Factories, Big Cities
In 1903, TR is convinced to take actionSets aside 148 million acres of forest reserve80 million acres for research purposes50 wildlife sanctuariesSeveral National ParksNamed Gifford Pinchot to Head of US Forest Service
***Conservation vs. Preservation***
TR & other Progressive Presidents fail to address civil rightsTR does invite Booker T. Washington to a White House dinnerA symbolic gesture, but no real policies put in place to ensure African-Americans civil rights
The Great CampaignWilliam Howard Taft is hand picked by TR to run in 1908He wins a big victorydisappoints TR while in office By 1912, Republican coalition is broken between 1.Conservatives (Status Quo)*Conservatives stay with the Republican Party (Taft)2.Progressives (Seeking change)*Progressives break and form the Bull Moose Party (TR)TR Calls for a NEW NATIONALISM The fed. govt should exert its power for the welfare of the people!Direct election of SenatorsWomens suffrage8 hour workdayMinimum wage for womenFederal law against child laborFederal trade commission to regulate business
RESULT=Taft and TR split Rep. vote; Woodrow Wilson (Dem) wins
Woodrow Wilsons New FreedomGrew up in VA during CW2nd Dem. Since CW1st Southerner in WH since 1850!Pres. Of PrincetonGov. of NJConfident in his ability to persuadeAttacked the Triple wall of privilege!TariffsBanksTrusts
Woodrow Wilsons New FreedomTARIFFSSpecial Session-1st since J. AdamsLowers tariffs/introduces progressive income tax
BANKINGAgain summons CongressFederal Reserve Act-gives us the fed. Banking system we have today (using dollar bills)
BUSINESSClayton Antitrust ActEstablishes Federal Trade Commission