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CHAPTER-IINTRODUCTION A man spends the first half of his life learning habits that shortened other half of his life. Health and illness are defined according to the values of a particular society. When a person is able to adjust and adapt to his environment he is said to be healthy. A person with good mental health lives in harmony with the society. A study describes that people are not simply ill or well but their degree of health changes according to their inner or outer of circumstances. Inner circumstances refer to human biology, which includes genetic factors, constitutional factors, sex, colour, physique, health status and physiological factors like puberty and old age. Outer circumstances refer to the environment in which the person lives.1 The attitude of an individual (whether one is laughing or crying, alert or drowsy, happy or sad irritable or tranquil) depends on specific biochemical activity is the nervous system. Some times one attempts to alter that bio chemistry in order to achieve a state of mood or mind which enables him to enjoy peace tranquility though the use of drugs. Although one may attempt to alter biochemistry through meditation, relaxation, exercise, acupuncture and the like, the most common way adopted by some of us is by taking a drug. Whatever means one uses, the end result is still a change in the biochemical activity of the nervous system. In the historical evolution, man has been able to dominate nature by his knowledge, his inventiveness and his technological achievements, thereby achieving greater control over the world and its organization. While technological progress and inventiveness have brought comforts to the individual it has also increased his


insecurity due to all the new problems he has to face, which inevitably generates anxiety. In the tension filled modern World, no one is entirely freed from anxiety what ever his class, creed or station in life may be. Some of us therefore seek relief from anxiety by using drugs, which reduce his tension and alters his mood. The uses of these drugs have introduced the phenomenon of dependence. Universally,

irrespective of time, place, or culture, throughout history, man has had the habit of using substances which affect his mind and alter his level of consciousness. The origin of drug use is mentioned in the Rig Veda for ritual use of soma Rash. The opium, derived from poppy, as a sleep inducing drug was mentioned in 300 BC and it is acclaimed that opium use could be traced back to 4000 B.C. in samerid, Australia and India. Asia Pacific region, produce more than 60% if the Worlds opium that is needed for medicinal purpose, illicit opium is produced mostly is the golden triangle and golden crescent regions. The area covered by golden

triangle are Burma, Laos, and Thailand which covers an area of 75,000 square miles and produces 400-800 tones of opium annually. The golden crescent -an area along the borders of Pakistan, Iran and Afghanistan produces an estimated 600-900 tons of opium annually. All this production finds its way into the illicit drug traffic all over the World for money. The Overall situation of drug abuse in the Asia Pacific countries in summarized by Abarro (1987:15) Cannabis and opiates continue to dominate the drug abuse scene, and also the most favorite drug abuse occurs in Japan, Philippines, Bangladesh, Australia, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia and New Zealand. Lately, cocaine is much used in countries like Australia, New Zealand and Philippines. Cocaine abuse


problems have also been reported in Bangladesh, Japan, Sri lanka and also in India and Pakistan. In Pakistan at least 1.55% of the total population comes under the category of regular drug abusers. The problem of dug abuse has been compounded by the lack of economic growth, increasing social and political instability and cultural confusion. Research findings and other sources suggest that the hippie culture of the early 1960s popularized the use of drugs- as a way of life among the youths and the age between 15-30 years. According to the under -Secretary General of the United Nations, the illicit drug trade is a three hundred billion dollar a year business industry, catering to tens of millions of addicts. According to a 1986 National Institute on Drug Abuse study of drug related deaths in 27 metropolitan areas across the country of US, 25% of blacks are accounted as victim of drugs leading of AIDS. The history of the human race has also been history of drug use. There is simple historical evidence for the fact that drug abuse ante dated drug therapy, Just as toxicology pared the way for pharmacology. For centuries, herbs, roots, hark, leaves and plants have been used to relieve pain and to control diseases. The use of drugs in itself does not cause any harm; for drug, properly administered have a curative effect. Unfortunately, certain drugs also produce enticing side effects such as feeling of euphoria -a sense of feeling good, elation, serenity and power. What began as some thing of a recreational activity, evolved in time in to a problem of dependence and abuse (UN, 1989) According to a study describes, If a man begins with certainties, he shall end is doubts, but it he will content to begin with doubts, he shall end in certainties.2


First the what question. what is a drug? What are drug use, abuse, misuse, and overuse? what is drug dependence and tolerance? The answers to these questions are as follows:Drug: Any substance, which when taken in to a living organism, many modify one or more of its functions. Drug abuse: Persistent or sporadic excessive use, inconsistent with or unrelated to acceptable medical practice. Drug Misuse: Medical or lay use of a drug, for a disease state not considered to be appropriate Drug overuse: Excessive medical of lay use if a drug, in terms of Length of therapy, or severity of disorder, in which there is accepted evidence of therapeutic effect. Drug addiction: A behavioral pattern of compulsive drug use characterized by over whelming involvement with the use of a drug, the securing of its supply and a high tendency to relapse after withdrawal. Drug habituation: The term Drug habituation has been used when drugs are used as a habit, and there is no physical dependence, but just psychological craving and dependence when the drug is with held. Drug dependence: According to WHO, A state, psychic and sometimes also physical, which results from the interaction between of living organism and a drug which is characterized by behavioral and other responses, that always include a


compulsion to take the drug on a continuous or periodic basis, in order to experience its psychic effects and sometimes to avoid discomforts of its absence.3 Tolerance: Drug tolerance in characterized by diminished response to drugs with continued exposure. There is a need to apply increasing doses of a drug in order to produce the same effect. Commonly used Drugs: (1)Narcotics: Eg: Opiums, morphine, heroin or brown sugar, pethidine, methadone etc. (2)Stimulants: Eg : Amphitamines, cocaine, crack, caffeine and such like. (3)Hallucinogens: Lysergic Acid Diethyl amide (LSD), Marijuana, ganja, bhang, hashish, charas. (4)Volatile substances: Gasoline, Petrol (5)Others: Poisonous mushrooms nail, polish recover and such like. When compared to American ethnic racial populations. Indian adolescents use drugs more heavily with there consequences4

. Stronger evidence exists for

correlations between early substance abuse, the onset of a pattern of juvenile criminal activity, and adult criminal activity leading to long term incarceration5. Growth and development of an individual occur on the basis of their cultural and hereditary background. In growth and development of human being, as a child he is completely dependent on his family. In the next stage of adolescence, a sense of attachment comes into a predictable shift from family to peer group, where they develop a sense of identity. A study describes has coined the term transescence to 5

describe this age group, emphasizing the importance of change and transition 6. According to a study, the initiation of drug abuse was found to be most common after bearing high school and he found a majority of the students to be experimental abusers.7 NEED FOR STUDY The adolescence is a period of biological growth and maturation, self discovery and social adaptation. Real and imagined weaknesses and deficits of self and environmental provoke an adolescent to redefine himself. Many questions arise; what kind of people and they? What kind if people should they be? Etc., Freud made the link between the biological changes of the puberty and what he considered one of the major development concerns of adolescence; establishment of firm individuality, a sense of self and ego identify. No matter whether one lives in the city or in the middle class suburbs, all young men and women feel pressurized when they face the challenges of every day life, This may either head to immediate adaptation and self control in some, or aggreniveress and other inadequate role performances leading to the use of drugs as an antidote to their mental stress and trauma. There is a need to caution the adults about the attitude determinants leading to drug dependency is adolescent students. Adolescence also grows in a complex urban environment usually fall victims of this drug culture. Also other external factors such as westernization, television and globalization have created such all impact on our culture that our adolescent population easily tends to inherit the negative aspects like drug misuse etc.,


Secondly the urban environment is risk with social conflicts, income in equities, crime and drug use that the adolescence get influenced by the prevalent practices, a final view is that early adolescence is extrem


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