The Context, Content and Process of Political Marketing Strategy

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<ul><li><p>This article was downloaded by: [Moskow State Univ Bibliote]On: 07 February 2014, At: 23:25Publisher: RoutledgeInforma Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954Registered office: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH,UK</p><p>Journal of Political MarketingPublication details, including instructions forauthors and subscription information:http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/wplm20</p><p>The Context, Content andProcess of Political MarketingStrategyPaul Baines a &amp; Richard Lynch aa Middlesex University Business School , London, UKPublished online: 08 Oct 2008.</p><p>To cite this article: Paul Baines &amp; Richard Lynch (2005) The Context, Content andProcess of Political Marketing Strategy, Journal of Political Marketing, 4:2-3, 1-18,DOI: 10.1300/J199v04n02_01</p><p>To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J199v04n02_01</p><p>PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE</p><p>Taylor &amp; Francis makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of all theinformation (the Content) contained in the publications on our platform.However, Taylor &amp; Francis, our agents, and our licensors make norepresentations or warranties whatsoever as to the accuracy, completeness,or suitability for any purpose of the Content. Any opinions and viewsexpressed in this publication are the opinions and views of the authors, andare not the views of or endorsed by Taylor &amp; Francis. The accuracy of theContent should not be relied upon and should be independently verified withprimary sources of information. Taylor and Francis shall not be liable for anylosses, actions, claims, proceedings, demands, costs, expenses, damages,and other liabilities whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly orindirectly in connection with, in relation to or arising out of the use of theContent.</p><p>This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes.Any substantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan,sub-licensing, systematic supply, or distribution in any form to anyone is</p></li><li><p>expressly forbidden. Terms &amp; Conditions of access and use can be found athttp://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditions</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [M</p><p>osko</p><p>w St</p><p>ate U</p><p>niv B</p><p>ibliot</p><p>e] at </p><p>23:25</p><p> 07 Fe</p><p>brua</p><p>ry 20</p><p>14 </p></li><li><p>GUEST EDITORIAL</p><p>The Context, Content and Processof Political Marketing Strategy</p><p>Paul BainesRichard Lynch</p><p>Middlesex University Business School, London, UK</p><p>Over the last thirty years or so, the concept of marketing strategy hasbecome widely accepted within the management literature (see, for ex-ample, Kotler, 2000; Aaker, 2001; Baker, 2001). In essence, marketingstrategy represents a broad general set of principlesor, in Kotlerswords, a game planthat will achieve the marketing objectives of theorganisation. Marketing strategy is likely to have some special charac-teristics: it may involve the creation of a unique and valuable position ina market place (Porter, 1996; Hooley and Saunders, 1999; Doyle, 2001;Cool, Costa and Dierickx, 2002). A company that has a good marketingstrategy is likely to perform differently from rivals in the market placeor, if the same, then to perform in different ways (Porter, 1996). It maywell involve seizing a new window of opportunity through new technol-ogy, new market segments, market redefinition, new legislation andnew marketing channels (Doyle, 2001). The purpose of this special edi-tion of the Journal of Political Marketing is to examine the applicationof such principles to political marketing. This is undertaken by the ex-ploration and application of some basic strategic principles in this intro-duction and by the contributing papers of our distinguished panel ofacademics and practitioners in the pages that follow.</p><p>Journal of Political Marketing, Vol. 4(2/3) 2005Available online at http://www.haworthpress.com/web/JPOLM</p><p> 2005 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved.doi:10.1300/J199v04n02_01 1</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [M</p><p>osko</p><p>w St</p><p>ate U</p><p>niv B</p><p>ibliot</p><p>e] at </p><p>23:25</p><p> 07 Fe</p><p>brua</p><p>ry 20</p><p>14 </p></li><li><p>From the perspective of political campaigning, the marketing analogy isnow widely accepted with its underpinning logic of companies-as-parties,voters-as-customers (Denton, 1988; Reid, 1988; OShaughnessy, 1990;Niffenegger, 1989). This has allowed general definitions of marketingstrategy to be applied to political marketing. Thus, for example, elec-tions involve the use of marketing research to identify voter segments.Candidate and party positioning are then undertaken within the electionmarket place (Baines, 1999) and message development leads to variousforms of media campaigning (Varoga and Rice, 1999). We are certainthat the papers published in this special edition bring new and valuableinsights to this approach to political marketing strategy. However, theargument in this editorial is that the companies-as-parties, voters-as-customers approach underplays some important facets of political mar-keting strategy. We are not indicating that the analogy is wrong; simplythat it is only one perspective that may miss useful insights into the de-velopment of political marketing strategy. The purpose of this editorialat least in this opening partis to outline an alternative insight intostrategythat of context, content and processand explore its implica-tions for the development of political marketing strategy.</p><p>In order to explain context, content, and process in political market-ing strategy, it useful to begin by going back to the very nature of busi-ness strategy itself. A widely accepted definition of business strategycan be adapted to define political marketing strategy: the identificationof the purpose of a political party and the actions to achieve that pur-pose (adapted from Andrews, 1987). Within this definition, it is com-monly acknowledged amongst business strategists that it is useful tomake a distinction between three main, interconnected dimensions:context, content, and process (Pettigrew and Whipp, 1991; Pettigrew etal., 2002). By contrast with business strategy, we observe that the typi-cal marketing strategy definitions outlined above rarely make such adistinction, which we believe to be particularly important in developingpolitical marketing strategy. In many cases, they focus mainly on thecontents of the marketing plan (see, for example, Doyle, 1998 andBaker, 2001) rather than the context and process of marketing strategydevelopment. To explore the implications of this, we begin by definingcontext, content, and process:</p><p> Contextdefined as the circumstances surrounding the strategicdecision, both defining and confining the way that strategic deci-sion-making develops (Lynch, 2003). The political marketing con-text is special because it is substantively different in every country</p><p>2 JOURNAL OF POLITICAL MARKETING</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [M</p><p>osko</p><p>w St</p><p>ate U</p><p>niv B</p><p>ibliot</p><p>e] at </p><p>23:25</p><p> 07 Fe</p><p>brua</p><p>ry 20</p><p>14 </p></li><li><p>in the world (Baines, Scheucher and Plasser, 2001). It is boundedby laws, restrictions, and specialist (in the sense of independent orheavily controlled) media coverage in particular as well as by dif-fering degrees of political competition (i.e., the numbers of politi-cal parties, types of alliances constituting oligopolies, monopolies,and poligolies in the vast majority of cases (Baines, Brennan andEgan, 2001). Arguably, this complex context applies to few otherproducts or services. Perhaps, the closest parallel is with financialservices, where international restrictions abound. Why are theresuch variations in political marketing contexts, one might ask? Be-cause political marketing products and services have considerableimpact upon society and affect peoples lives and futures.</p><p> Contentdefined as the chosen strategy and the specific actionsthat follow in order to implement the plan (Lynch, 2003). Politicalmarketing content is probably similar to that developed in servicesmarkets (Newman, 1987; Baines, Brennan and Egan, 2001). Itcommonly involves the identification of the target electorate andthe development of specific campaigns to persuade voters to fa-vour a particular political party or group. We make no claim thatthis aspect of political marketing is special although there are ele-ments of it, e.g., negative campaigning, which are not allowed inthe standard commercial campaign.</p><p> Processdefined as the way that strategy is developed over timeand the related decision-making managerial processes that interactwith content and context (Quinn, 1981; Lynch, 2003). Arguably,political marketing strategy has similarities with product relaunchcampaigns. However, the actual election requires a greater degreeof flexibility than the traditional product relaunch described inmarketing theory because of the nature of condensed time elementof the election battle(see Butler and Collins, 1999). This is quitedifferent to many, if not all, other marketing strategy areas andsupports our argument that political marketing strategy is special.</p><p>In strategic theory, the three above elements are only facets of thesame strategy and act together at the same time (Pettigrew and Whipp,1991). Nevertheless, each of the above areas is commonly identifiedand explored separately in order to draw out its individual insights.Each of the above three areas is therefore, separately explored in greaterdepth in the sections that follow. This editorial concludes by showinghow each of the chosen papers in this special edition explores elementsof these three dimensions.</p><p>Guest Editorial 3</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [M</p><p>osko</p><p>w St</p><p>ate U</p><p>niv B</p><p>ibliot</p><p>e] at </p><p>23:25</p><p> 07 Fe</p><p>brua</p><p>ry 20</p><p>14 </p></li><li><p>THE STRATEGIC CONTEXT OF POLITICAL MARKETINGSTRATEGY</p><p>Many new and existing products and services are constrained by le-gal and political frameworks both within countries and across coun-tries as a result of the role of governments and international treatiesdeveloped over time. Typically, the strategic context is analysed usingsuch frameworks as PESTEL analysis (Kotler, 2000; Lynch, 2003).However, we believe that such contextual analytical tools are insuffi-cient for the development of political marketing strategy and need to besupplemented with other concepts and models.</p><p>The conduct of political parties, the election systems that are em-ployed and the intervening periods of political decision-making arebounded by national systems of laws, rules, and procedures (Scammell,1997; Baines, Sheucher and Plasser, 2001). Such formal and informalrules and procedures then guide and channel marketing activities asso-ciated with political activity (Newman, 1999). In turn, these govern theanalysis and development of political marketing. Ergo, they are essen-tial to the development of political marketing strategy.</p><p>But how do we develop and structure our environmental analysis toprovide sufficiently detailed political marketing strategy insights? Auseful starting point is the consideration of the background history anddevelopment of politics in the country concerned (Baines, Lewis andHarris, 2002; Burton and Shea, 2002). We take a broad view of poli-tics here in the sense that some countries may not have a democraticgovernment, but they are likely to still have political activities that willinvolve some forms of marketing strategy and activities. Within thisgeneral frameworkwhich we have called the background of the strat-egy contextthere will be a clear system of beliefs and laws that governhow political activities are conducted. Such a background derives fromthe history, culture and governance of the country and is the broad gen-eral context within which all politics is conducted. This is important be-cause it will influence the way that political marketing is undertaken.</p><p>Within this broad framework, each country then has a set of eco-nomic and political principles that determine the way that economicgrowth, wealth generation, and its distribution are developedin es-sence, the distinction and the balance between capitalist and socialistapproaches to national political development (Koopman and Montias,1971). Political marketing strategists need to analyse and work withinsuch a framework, which we have called the system of the strategy con-</p><p>4 JOURNAL OF POLITICAL MARKETING</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [M</p><p>osko</p><p>w St</p><p>ate U</p><p>niv B</p><p>ibliot</p><p>e] at </p><p>23:25</p><p> 07 Fe</p><p>brua</p><p>ry 20</p><p>14 </p></li><li><p>text. This contextual system underpins and directs the role of politicalmarketing around the world.</p><p>Within such a system, there will then be specific laws, rules, conven-tions, and procedural and legal organisations that will constrain and en-force the conduct of political marketing activities.We include withinthis the third estate of the media, incorporating press, radio and televi-sion, and other means of communicating with the electorate. We labelthis the framework of the strategy context. This contextual framework isfundamental to the activities of political marketing. The three areasbackground, system, and frameworkmove from the general to the spe-cific and can therefore be considered as sequential. They are combinedand summarised in Figure 1.</p><p>To illustrate the concept of the background, system, framework para-digm and its impact on political marketing strategy further, we have ap-plied the B-S-F framework for the UK, USA, France, Turkey, andMexico. See Figure 2.</p><p>One clear implication of Figures 2a and b is the difficulty of drawingout international lessons on strategy: strategic context makes electionstrategy special, possibly even unique, to each individual country. Whatis clear from the above figures is that the context of each individualcountry has an impact on both the process and content of politicalmarketing.</p><p>THE STRATEGIC CONTENT OF POLITICAL MARKETINGSTRATEGY</p><p>To some extent, the strategic content of political marketing strategydepends on both context and process, as outlined in further detail beforeand after this section. Some components of strategic content are never-theless basic to most elections to differing degrees. Most political par-ties and candidates must segment their voters, they simply do not havesufficient resources to aim their message at the whole voter franchise.Nevertheless, although most countries have adopted universal suffrageat 18 years of age, not all have. For example, South Koreas age of vot-ing consent is 20 years old and some countries in the Middle East haveno system of democratic voting. As rates of voting tend to differ by age,gender and occupational group in Britain (see Worcester and Mortimore,1999) and in Sweden and the US (see Granberg and Holmberg, 1995), wepostulate that the political context affects strategic content in elections,fundamentally changing the message that is aimed at motivating these</p><p>Guest Editorial 5</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [M</p><p>osko</p><p>w St</p><p>ate U</p><p>niv B</p><p>ibliot</p><p>e] at </p><p>23:25</p><p> 07 Fe</p><p>brua</p><p>ry 20</p><p>14 </p></li><li><p>groups to vote. We provide further evidence for this in the papers con-tained within this special edition.</p><p>The way in which messages are relayed to the publics of differentcountries (see Figures 2a &amp; b) differs and so, therefore, does the con-tent of those messages. Thus, political issues pertaining to Turkeysgovernment relate to the Kurdish question (i.e...</p></li></ul>

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