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NOVEMBER 2010 BRIEFING R E P O R T U.S. COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS U.S. COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS Washington, DC 20425 Visit us on the Web: www.usccr.gov The Educational Effectiveness of Historically Black Colleges and Universities

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  • N O V E M B E R 2 0 1 0

    BRIEFING R E P O R T

    U . S . C O M M I S S I O N O N C I V I L R I G H T S

    U.S. COMMISSION ON CIVIL R IGHTS

    Washington, DC 20425

    Visit us on the Web: www.usccr.gov

    The Educational Effectiveness of Historically Black Colleges and Universities

  • The EducationalEffectiveness

    of Historically BlackColleges

    and Universities

    A Briefing BeforeThe United States Commission on Civil Rights

    Held in Washington, D.C.

    Briefing Report

  • The Educational Effectiveness of Historically Black Colleges and Universities_____________i

  • Table of Contents i

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ...........................................................................................................1

    FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ................................................................................8

    INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................................11

    SUMMARY OF THE PROCEEDINGS ....................................................................................17Louis W. Sullivan ..............................................................................................................17

    Historically Black Colleges and Universities and the Development ofStudents......................................................................................................17

    The Morehouse School of Medicine......................................................................17Factors Accounting for the Educational Success of Students at

    Historically Black Colleges and Universities ............................................18Earl S. Richardson .............................................................................................................18

    Challenging the Rightful Place of Historically Black Colleges andUniversities in Higher Education...............................................................18

    Impact of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 on Historically Black Collegesand Universities .........................................................................................19

    How the Historically Black Colleges and Universities Survived ..........................20Historically Black Colleges and Universities are Primary in Narrowing

    the Higher Educational Gap between African-Americans andWhites ........................................................................................................20

    Jamie P. Merisotis..............................................................................................................22Four Areas of HBCU Effectiveness.......................................................................22Serving as Leaders in Student Engagement...........................................................22Promoting Civic Engagement and Service Learning.............................................23Enabling Educational Attainment for Low Income, First Generation,

    and Disabled Students................................................................................23Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM).............................24

    Raymond C. Pierce ............................................................................................................24A Real and Continuing Threat to Historically Black Colleges and

    Universities ................................................................................................24Desegregation in Higher Education .......................................................................25The 1978 Civil Rights Policy for Higher Education Desegregation......................26The 1994 Federal Policy for Higher Education Desegregation .............................26The Present.............................................................................................................27

    Mikyong Minsun Kim........................................................................................................28Four Areas of Focus...............................................................................................28Institutional and Student Characteristics of Historically Black Colleges

    and Universities and Historically White Colleges and

  • ii Table of Contents

    Universities ................................................................................................28Research Findings on Selected Outcomes .............................................................30Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Student Engagement

    and Development .......................................................................................31Historically Black Colleges and Universities Merit Support.................................32

    Discussion Summary .........................................................................................................32Academic Outcomes at Historically Black Colleges and Universities ..................32Dropout, Graduation, and Performance on National Examinations ......................33Historically Black Colleges and Universities as Pipeline to Graduate

    School ........................................................................................................34Historically Black Colleges and Universities, STEM, and Teacher

    Education Programs ...................................................................................34Historically Black Colleges and Universities as Catalyst for Change...................35A Nurturing Environment ......................................................................................36Lack of Parity between HBCUs and Non-HBCUs................................................37Subsidizing Student Tuition...................................................................................37Greater Staff Workload..........................................................................................38Lack of Adequate Facilities ...................................................................................38Lack of Technology Transfer and Commercialization Centers.............................38Faculty Salaries......................................................................................................39The Right to Exist ..................................................................................................39Struggle Over State Funding and Program Duplication ........................................40A Complementary System of Higher Education ...................................................42Dearth of Black Male Undergraduates at TWIs ....................................................44Policy Initiatives to Support HBCUs.....................................................................44Threats that Imperil HBCUs ..................................................................................45

    STATEMENTS ............................................................................................................................47Louis W. Sullivan, M.D., Chair of The Presidents Board of Advisors on

    Historically Black Colleges and Universities ........................................................47Contributions of Historically Black Colleges and Universities to the

    Nation.........................................................................................................47Earl S. Richardson, President, Morgan State University ...................................................49Jamie P. Merisotis, President, Institute for Higher Education Policy................................54

    HBCUs and Student Engagement..........................................................................56HBCUs and Civic Engagement/Service-Learning.................................................56HBCUs and Success for Low-Income, First Generation, and Disabled

    Students......................................................................................................57HBCUs and Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) .....................58

    Raymond C. Pierce, Dean and Professor of Law, North Carolina CentralUniversity...............................................................................................................61Failure of the Federal Government to Enforce Federal Civil Rights

    Laws: A Real Threat to Historically Black Colleges andUniversities ................................................................................................61

    Mikyong Minsun Kim, Associate Professor of Higher Education, GraduateSchool of Education and Human Development, The George

  • Table of Contents iii

    Washington University ..........................................................................................65Institutional and Student Characteristics at HBCUs versus HWCUs....................65Effectiveness of HBCUs versus HWCUs ..............................................................66Academic Development and Success ....................................................................66Early Career Earnings ............................................................................................66How Do Students Learning Opportunities Differ between HBCUs and

    HWCUs?....................................................................................................67Conclusion and Recommendation .........................................................................67

    The Role of Ethnicity in Choosing and Leaving Science in Highly SelectedInstitutions..............................................................................................................78

    The Causes and Consequences of Attending Historically Black Colleges andUniversities .................