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  • The Healthy Brain and Effects The Healthy Brain and Effects of Traumatic Brain Injuryof Traumatic Brain Injury

    Samantha Backhaus, Ph.D., HSPPSamantha Backhaus, Ph.D., HSPP January 19, 2007January 19, 2007

  • GENERAL OVERVIEWGENERAL OVERVIEW

    The Healthy BrainThe Healthy Brain CNSCNS Brain stemBrain stem SubcortexSubcortex CortexCortex

    TBI and TBI EffectsTBI and TBI Effects Role of the FamilyRole of the Family

  • Central Nervous System (CNS)Central Nervous System (CNS)

    CSN:CSN: brain and spinal cordbrain and spinal cord Brain: (a) brain stem; (b) Brain: (a) brain stem; (b) subcortexsubcortex; (c) ; (c) cerebral cortexcerebral cortex Spinal cord: mediator b/t spinal nerves Spinal cord: mediator b/t spinal nerves and brain possessing nerve fibers that and brain possessing nerve fibers that relay sensory information to brain and relay sensory information to brain and motor information from brain to rest of motor information from brain to rest of body.body.

  • Brain StemBrain Stem Located at top of spinal cord forming three major Located at top of spinal cord forming three major componentscomponents MedulaMedula, , ponspons, midbrain, midbrain Reticular formationReticular formation: runs through entire brain stem : runs through entire brain stem creating a network of fibers that mediates creating a network of fibers that mediates communication among spinal cord, cerebellum, communication among spinal cord, cerebellum, cerebral cortex, and other brain structurescerebral cortex, and other brain structures Reticular activating system (RAS):Reticular activating system (RAS): allow alertness allow alertness to meaningful sights, sounds, or touches in to meaningful sights, sounds, or touches in environment. Crucial in maintenance of wakefulness, environment. Crucial in maintenance of wakefulness, consciousness, and attention.consciousness, and attention.

  • Brain Stem: MidbrainBrain Stem: Midbrain

    Visual information is initially relayed to Visual information is initially relayed to midbrain (where visual reflexes midbrain (where visual reflexes originate). Blinking, dilation, originate). Blinking, dilation, constriction of pupil, and certain eye constriction of pupil, and certain eye mvtsmvts.. Hearing reflexes: being startled by loud Hearing reflexes: being startled by loud noisenoise Basic Basic mvtmvt patterns: walking and patterns: walking and runningrunning

  • Brain Stem: Brain Stem: PonsPons

    Lies just below midbrainLies just below midbrain Regulation of sleepRegulation of sleep--wake cyclewake cycle Upper portion: wakefulnessUpper portion: wakefulness Lower: permits one to fall asleepLower: permits one to fall asleep Vital inhibition of motor activity that Vital inhibition of motor activity that accompanies certain stages of sleepaccompanies certain stages of sleep

  • Brain Stem: MedullaBrain Stem: Medulla

    Lowest structure in brain stemLowest structure in brain stem Regulation of cardiovascular system, Regulation of cardiovascular system, breathing, and maintenance of muscular breathing, and maintenance of muscular tone in skeletal musclestone in skeletal muscles Implicated as mechanism that assist in Implicated as mechanism that assist in reducing body’s sensitivity to painreducing body’s sensitivity to pain

  • SUBCORTEXSUBCORTEX

    Includes cerebellum, hypothalamus, Includes cerebellum, hypothalamus, thalamus, basal ganglia, and limbic system thalamus, basal ganglia, and limbic system viewed as resident to the viewed as resident to the subcortexsubcortex Arousal, initial filtering of and orientation to Arousal, initial filtering of and orientation to sensory stimuli, coordinated stereotypic sensory stimuli, coordinated stereotypic response patterns (fight or flight), and response patterns (fight or flight), and execution of complex behaviors (including execution of complex behaviors (including instinctive responses)instinctive responses)

  • SUBCORTEX: CerebellumSUBCORTEX: Cerebellum

    Not technically Not technically subcorticalsubcortical Lies behind medulla and lower portion of cerebral Lies behind medulla and lower portion of cerebral cortexcortex Diverse motor skills depending on region of Diverse motor skills depending on region of cerebellumcerebellum VermisVermis (middle): postural disturbances and cognitive (middle): postural disturbances and cognitive deficits (learning and memory, executive control, deficits (learning and memory, executive control, visuoperceptionvisuoperception).). Lateral lesions result in difficulty coordination rapid Lateral lesions result in difficulty coordination rapid alternating alternating mvtsmvts.. Vertigo and disturbance of eye movementsVertigo and disturbance of eye movements

  • SUBCORTEX: HypothalamusSUBCORTEX: Hypothalamus

    Basic regulatory functions: thirst appetite, Basic regulatory functions: thirst appetite, sexual arousalsexual arousal Lesions: diminished drive states, obesity, and Lesions: diminished drive states, obesity, and loss of decreased temp. regulationloss of decreased temp. regulation

  • SUBCORTEX: ThalamusSUBCORTEX: Thalamus

    Lies near middle of brain and composed of two Lies near middle of brain and composed of two halveshalves Station for most sensory pathways to the cerebral Station for most sensory pathways to the cerebral cortex, contributing significantly to conscious cortex, contributing significantly to conscious experience of sensationexperience of sensation Higher cortical functions such as language (Higher cortical functions such as language (decrdecr verbal fluency, spontaneity of speech, and reduced verbal fluency, spontaneity of speech, and reduced tone) and memory (retrotone) and memory (retro--and and anterogradeanterograde)) Emotional alterations such as reduced spontaneity, Emotional alterations such as reduced spontaneity, apathy, or lowered initiative in thalamic lesionsapathy, or lowered initiative in thalamic lesions

  • SUBCORTEX: Basal GangliaSUBCORTEX: Basal Ganglia

    Lies at base of cerebral hemispheresLies at base of cerebral hemispheres Contains 3 structures: Contains 3 structures: putamenputamen, , globusglobus palliduspallidus, and caudate, and caudate MotoricMotoric control and voluntary and control and voluntary and automatic automatic mvtsmvts Translates cognition into actionTranslates cognition into action Contributes to learning, memory, Contributes to learning, memory, receptive, and expressive language.receptive, and expressive language.

  • SUBCORTEX: Limbic SystemSUBCORTEX: Limbic System

    Several structures that add to regulation of emotionsSeveral structures that add to regulation of emotions Includes hypothalamus, Includes hypothalamus, cingulatecingulate, , septalseptal region, region, hippocampus, hippocampus, fornixfornix, and , and amygdalaamygdala Regulate and adjust emotional tone that Regulate and adjust emotional tone that accompanies behavior and contributes to accompanies behavior and contributes to motivational aspects of behavior and learning and motivational aspects of behavior and learning and memorymemory CingulateCingulate lesionslesions: : amotivationalamotivational or or akineticakinetic syndrome: no initiation of behavior and will at times syndrome: no initiation of behavior and will at times simply sit for hourssimply sit for hours

  • SUBCORTEX: Limbic SystemSUBCORTEX: Limbic System

    SeptalSeptal regionsregions: expression of intense anger or rage: expression of intense anger or rage Hippocampus:Hippocampus: learning and memory. Consolidates learning and memory. Consolidates new info and contributes to transition of ST to LT new info and contributes to transition of ST to LT memory formationmemory formation FornixFornix:: originates in hippocampus and is critical originates in hippocampus and is critical interconnection for interconnection for neurocircuitryneurocircuitry w/in systemw/in system AmygdalaAmygdala: expression of emotional responses and : expression of emotional responses and participates in laying down of new learning, participates in laying down of new learning, especially those with emotional component.especially those with emotional component.

  • CEREBRAL CORTEXCEREBRAL CORTEX

    Newest and most developed portionNewest and most developed portion Participates in highest level of cognitive Participates in highest level of cognitive processingprocessing Contributes to aspects of personality and Contributes to aspects of personality and social interactionsocial interaction 2 hemispheres and 4 lobes 2 hemispheres and 4 lobes –– occipital, occipital, parietal, temporal, and frontalparietal, temporal, and frontal

  • CORTEX CORTEX -- HemispheresHemispheres

    Left (in most rightLeft (in most right--handed):handed): Language abilitiesLanguage abilities Verbal MemoryVerbal Memory Seeing the detailsSeeing the details RightRight--sided sensory / motor movementssided sensory / motor movements

  • CORTEX CORTEX -- HemispheresHemispheres

    Right: Right: Visual Spatial AbilitiesVisual Spatial Abilities Control of left side of bodyControl of left side of body Memory for visual objectsMemory for visual objects AttentionAttention AwarenessAwareness Seeing the Big PictureSeeing the Big Picture Understanding subtleties of speechUnderstanding subtleties of speech

  • CORTEX CORTEX –– Occipital LobeOccipital Lobe

    Location in back of brainLocation in back of brain Integration of visual stimuliIntegration of visual

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