The hyporheic handbook

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The hyporheic (groundwater) zone is like an undiscovered universe of specially-adapted organisms. The organisms are found in porous strata and stream sediment.


<ul><li> The Hyporheic Handbook A handbook on the groundwatersurface water interface and hyporheic zone for environment managers Integrated catchment science programme Science report: SC050070 </li> <li> Science Report The Hyporheic Handbook ii The Environment Agency is the leading public body protecting and improving the environment in England and Wales. Its our job to make sure that air, land and water are looked after by everyone in todays society, so that tomorrows generations inherit a cleaner, healthier world. Our work includes tackling flooding and pollution incidents, reducing industrys impacts on the environment, cleaning up rivers, coastal waters and contaminated land, and improving wildlife habitats. This report is the result of research funded by NERC and supported by the Environment Agencys Science Programme. Published by: Environment Agency, Rio House, Waterside Drive, Aztec West, Almondsbury, Bristol, BS32 4UD Tel: 01454 624400 Fax: 01454 624409 ISBN: 978-1-84911-131-7 Environment Agency October, 2009 All rights reserved. This document may be reproduced with prior permission of the Environment Agency. The views and statements expressed in this report are those of the author alone. The views or statements expressed in this publication do not necessarily represent the views of the Environment Agency and the Environment Agency cannot accept any responsibility for such views or statements. This report is printed on Cyclus Print, a 100% recycled stock, which is 100% post consumer waste and is totally chlorine free. Water used is treated and in most cases returned to source in better condition than removed. Further copies of this summary are available from our publications catalogue: http://publications.environment- or our National Customer Contact Centre: T: 08708 506506 E: Dissemination Status: Released to all regions Publicly available Keywords: hyporheic zone, groundwater-surface water interactions Environment Agencys Project Manager: Joanne Briddock, Yorkshire and North East Region Science Project Number: SC050070 Product Code: SCHO1009BRDX-E-P </li> <li> iii Science Report The Hyporheic Handbook Science at the Environment Agency Science underpins the work of the Environment Agency. It provides an up-to-date understanding of the world about us and helps us to develop monitoring tools and techniques to manage our environment as efficiently and effectively as possible. The work of the Environment Agencys Science Department is a key ingredient in the partnership between research, policy and operations that enables the Environment Agency to protect and restore our environment. The science programme focuses on five main areas of activity: Setting the agenda, by identifying where strategic science can inform our evidence-based policies, advisory and regulatory roles; Funding science, by supporting programmes, projects and people in response to long-term strategic needs, medium-term policy priorities and shorter-term operational requirements; Managing science, by ensuring that our programmes and projects are fit for purpose and executed according to international scientific standards; Carrying out science, by undertaking research either by contracting it out to research organisations and consultancies or by doing it ourselves; Delivering information, advice, tools and techniques, by making appropriate products available to our policy and operations staff. Steve Killeen Head of Science </li> <li> Science Report The Hyporheic Handbook iv Authors Steve Buss ESI Ltd, New Zealand House, 160-162 Abbey Foregate, Shrewsbury, Shropshire, SY2 6FD, UK. Zuansi Cai Groundwater Protection and Restoration Group, University of Sheffield, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7 HQ, UK. Bayarni Cardenas Jackson School of Geosciences, University of Texas at Austin, USA. Jan Fleckenstein Department of Hydrology, University of Bayreuth, Universittstrasse 30, 95447 Bayreuth, Germany. David Hannah School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK. Kate Heppell Department of Geography, Queen Mary University of London, London, E1 4NS, UK. Paul Hulme Environment Agency, Olton Court, 10 Warwick Road, Solihull B92 7HX, UK. Tristan Ibrahim Catchment Science Centre, Kroto Research Institute, University of Sheffield, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, UK. Daniel Kaeser Centre for Sustainable Water Management, Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster LA1 4AP, UK. Stefan Krause School of Physical and Geographical Sciences, Earth Sciences and Geography Department. Keele University, Keele, ST5 5BG,UK. Damian Lawler School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK. David Lerner Catchment Science Centre, Kroto Research Institute, University of Sheffield, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, UK. Jenny Mant River Restoration Centre, Cranfield University, Building 53, Cranfield, Bedfordshire MK43 OAL, UK. Iain Malcolm Marine Scotland, Freshwater Laboratory, Faskally, Pitlochry, Perthshire PH16 5LB, UK. </li> <li> v Science Report The Hyporheic Handbook Gareth Old Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, Oxford, OX10 8BB, UK. Geoff Parkin School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, NE1 7RU. Roger Pickup Biomedical and Life Sciences Division, School of Health and Medicine, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YQ, UK. Gilles Pinay School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK. Jonathan Porter Environment Agency, Starcross Laboratory, Staplake Mount, Starcross, Exeter Devon EX6 8PE, UK. Glenn Rhodes Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AD, UK. Anna Richie Catchment Science Centre, Kroto Research Institute, University of Sheffield, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, UK. Janet Riley ESI Ltd, New Zealand House, 160-162 Abbey Foregate, Shrewsbury, Shropshire, SY2 6FD, UK. Anne Robertson School of Human and Life Sciences, Roehampton University, London, SW15 4JD, UK. David Sear School of Geopgraphy, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ, UK. Brian Shields Environment Agency, Richard Fairclough House, Knutsford Road, Warrington, Cheshire WAA 1HT, UK. Jonathan Smith Catchment Science Centre, Kroto Research Institute, University of Sheffield, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, UK. John Tellam School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK. Paul Wood Department of Geography, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU, UK. </li> <li> Science Report The Hyporheic Handbook vi Acknowledgements The Hyporheic Handbook is a product of the Hyporheic Network. The Hyporheic Network is a Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) funded Knowledge Transfer Network on groundwater surface water interactions and hyporheic zone processes. The authors wish to acknowledge the support and assistance of many colleagues who have contributed to the review, production and publishing of the Handbook: Joanne Briddock, Mark Cuthbert, Thibault Datry, John Davis, Rolf Farrell, Richard Greswell, Jan Hookey, Tim Johns, Dave Johnson, Arifur Rahman. We are also very grateful for the support and efforts of the Environment Agency Science Communication department, in particular, Stuart Turner and our editor Hazel Phillips. </li> <li> vii Science Report The Hyporheic Handbook Contents 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Background and objectives of the handbook 1 1.2 Why is the groundwatersurface water interface important? 2 1.3 How can the hyporheic zone be damaged? 3 1.4 Conceptual models 4 2 Environmental management context 6 2.1 Legislative drivers 6 2.2 Legislative and management context 6 2.3 Environmental management questions 10 3 Geomorphology and Sediments of the Hyporheic Zone 16 3.1 Summary of key messages 16 3.2 Introduction 18 3.3 Long timescale impacts: valley materials and geomorphology materials 20 3.4 Basin scale geomorphological contexts 22 3.5 Reach scales 30 3.6 Site and bedform scales 31 3.7 The role of fine sediment 32 3.8 Conclusions 43 4 Water and unreacting solute flow and exchange 48 4.1 Summary of key messages 48 4.2 Introduction 48 4.3 Catchment Scale Flow 49 4.4 Reach Scale Flow 54 4.5 Sub-Reach Scale Flow 67 4.6 Other Factors 75 4.7 River Bed Sediment Permeability 76 4.8 An Overview of the Flow System in the River/Aquifer Interface Zone 78 4.9 Solute Transport 83 4.10 Towards Prediction 91 5 Biogeochemistry and hydroecology of the hyporheic zone 92 5.1 Summary of key messages 92 5.2 Chapter Scope 93 5.3 Perspectives on the hyporheic zone (HZ) 93 5.4 Processes, functions and scaling 94 6 Microbial and invertebrate ecology 108 6.1 Introduction 108 6.2 Microbial ecology of protozoa, fungi and bacteria: global scale 108 6.3 Global scale biogeochemical processes and cycles 108 6.4 Hyporheic zone as a biological entity 109 6.5 Microbial ecology in the hyporheic zone 110 6.6 Physical location of microbes 110 6.7 Biofilms 111 6.8 Microbial diversity (functional groups) 111 6.9 Decomposition under anaerobic conditions 113 6.10 Chemolithotrophy: energy via inorganic compounds 113 6.11 Bacterial Community identity 114 6.12 Fungi 115 6.13 Protozoa 115 6.14 Microbial pathogens in HZ 117 6.15 HZ is a biological entity 117 6.16 Investigating microbial ecology of HZ 118 </li> <li> Science Report The Hyporheic Handbook viii 7 Fish ecology and the hyporheic zone 123 7.1 Summary of key messages 123 7.2 Introduction 123 7.3 Salmonid spawning behaviour/process 124 7.4 Timing of spawning and incubation 124 7.5 Factors affecting embryo development 125 7.6 Research needs 135 7.7 Recommendations for management 136 7.8 Conclusions 136 8 Measurements and monitoring at the groundwater-surface water interface 137 8.1 Summary of key messages 137 8.2 Introduction 138 8.3 Designing a monitoring programme 138 8.4 Implementing a monitoring strategy 140 8.5 Conclusions 165 9 Modelling and forecasting 166 9.1 Summary of key messages 166 9.2 Review of the science 167 9.3 Conclusions 185 10 Groundwater-surface water interactions and River Restoration 190 10.1 Introduction 190 10.2 What is River Restoration? 191 10.3 Review of River Restoration 191 10.4 Scale of implementation and impact 193 10.5 The need for physical, hydrological, chemical and biological integration 193 10.6 What are the key processes used? 194 10.7 Influences of river restoration activities on GW/SW exchange 194 10.8 Flood alleviation schemes and climate change 195 10.9 River restoration actions and possible implications for GW/SW exchange 196 10.10 Reducing GW/SW exchange 207 10.11 Timescales and monitoring relative to the disturbance of the activity 209 10.12 Need for continued river management 209 10.13 Project appraisal and research needs 210 10.14 Conclusion 212 11 Recommendations for development of river management strategies and tools 213 12 Recommendations for research 218 12.1 Introduction 218 12.2 Significance of groundwater - surface water 218 12.3 Process understanding of groundwater - surface water interactions 220 12.4 Monitoring and modelling tools 221 12.5 Conclusions 222 Glossary 223 References 230 </li> <li> ix Science Report The Hyporheic Handbook List of figures Figure 1.1 Illustrative representation of the groundwater surface water interface and hyporheic zone. (Reproduced with permission of USGS). 1 Figure 1.2 Illustrative conceptual models of the groundwater surface water interface and hyporheic zone commonly assumed in differing scientific literatures (after Smith, 2005). 5 Figure 2.1 WFD requires assessment of groundwatersurface water interactions (after Environment Agency 2002). 8 Figure 2.2 Typical contaminated-site assessment using the sourcepathwayreceptor framework. Use of a compliance-monitoring borehole adjacent to the stream (A) excludes any potential attenuation at the GW-SW interface (B) (after Smith &amp; Lerner, 2008, based on Environment Agency, 2002). 10 Figure 3.1 Sediment supplies and connections in a catchment context (Sear et al., 2004). 19 Figure 3.2 Glacial limits for the Devensian in the UK (Bowen et al., 2002). 21 Figure 3.3 Complexity of valley fills: example of the River North Tyne (Lewin et al., 2005). 22 Figure 3.4 Schematic cross-section across the Lambourn valley at West Shefford showing the location of measuring points and the inferred relationship of valley floor sedimentology to local and regional groundwater flows (Grapes et al., 2006). 24 Figure 3.5 Conceptual model of three groundwater flow regimes (1-3) moving down gradient towards the R. Lambourn, southern England (Gooddy et al., 2006). 24 Figure 3.6 Zones of bedrock constriction and permeable alluvial deposits, showing deep penetration of surface water into the alluvium (Stanford and Ward, 1993). 25 Figure 3.7 Example hydraulic geometry relations for a small stream (Ashley River basin, New Zealand) defining approximate power-law downstream changes in channel width, mean depth, mean velocity and slope in relation to increasing discharge, based on an approach pioneered by Leopold and Maddock (1953). Source: McKerchar et. al., 1998). 26 Figure 3.8 Conceptual generalized stream power model proposed by Lawler (1992), now known as the CASSP (CAtchment-Scale Stream Power) model. This schematic example simulates downstream trends in gross stream power using CASSP, with coefficients of k = 0.03, m = 1.8, S0 = 0.04 and r = 0.08, and is presented in Barker et al. (2009). 28 Figure 3.9 Downstream changes in discharge (QMED: the median annual flood, i.e. 2- year return period flow), elevation, channel (floodplain) slope and gross stream power for the River Dart, Devon (after Barker et al., 2009). This new CAFES (Combined Automated, Flood, Elevation and Stream power) methodology has now been applied to 34 rivers in the UK, to produce downstream change patterns as for the R. Dart above. For eight of the 34 rivers, additional downstream trends in specific stream power (in W m-2 ) have been estimated. 29 Figure 3.10 Hyporheic flow due to changes in free water surface elevation across a step-pool sequence. 31 Figure 3.11 Subsurface flows; (a) Reach-scale surface subsurface exchange flows. (b) Micro-scale exchange flows (redd). (c) Interstitial flow paths within the gravel bed (after Grieg et al., 2007). 32 Figure 3.12 Hyporheic flow due to lateral changes in channel and bank morphology. a) hyporheic flow due...</li></ul>