important to understand how roots interface with the ecosystem because: roots found in the soil,...

Download Important to understand how roots interface with the ecosystem because: Roots found in the soil, tree canopies, hyporheic zone, etc. – determined by soil

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  • Slide 1
  • Important to understand how roots interface with the ecosystem because: Roots found in the soil, tree canopies, hyporheic zone, etc. determined by soil physical & chemical characteristics, amount of soil weathering Less weathered soils, root commonly found in the soil while in highly weathered soils rooting in soil is limited Soil chemical & physical characteristics control plant species dominance. Plants adapted to soil chemistry through roots. Symbionts and root grafting necessary for plants growing in soils with lower nutrient availabilities Treating ecosystems with a limiting nutrient may not increase total NPP, just shift allocation of C from belowground Land use legacies that alter soil nutrients can affect ecosystem recovery after a disturbance Natural disturbances are an important agent of increasing site nutrient availability
  • Slide 2
  • Detritus Plants Dissolved OM (eg, P, Si, Al) Other crystalline & non-cryst Al- Silicate PO 4 -3 exch sites Imogolite paracrystalline Al-Silicate PO 4 -3 exch sites/complex Organic exch sites /complex SOIL Solution Mineralization Uptake Mineralization Decomposition Uptake Litterfall The Links between Plants (Belowground) & Soils
  • Slide 3
  • Slide 4
  • Temperate Coniferous Forest Soil Tropical Forest Soil Roots / mycorrhizas found more than 30 meters deep Roots not just found in soils Old soils Soils low in Ca, K, N (except where N fixing trees for coffee) Roots / mycorrhizas found mainly in the soil Young soils Soil nutrient availabilities decrease with land-uses (i.e. acid precipitation)
  • Slide 5
  • Root excavation for tracking disease in Washington (photo Bob Edmonds)
  • Slide 6
  • http://www.hubbardbrook.org/research/gallery/soil/HB_115_Spodosol.jpg Leached layers where nutrient availability is low Layers that are impermeable to easy root penetration so restrict roots to surface horizons
  • Slide 7
  • Pacific silver fir tip- over, Findley Lake, Washington Root tip-over, Kenai, Alaska
  • Slide 8
  • Canada Root excavation Root growth is extensive can be 30 meters from base of the tree Roots are growing to available nutrients
  • Slide 9
  • http://green.nationalgeographic.com/environment/photos/rainforests- tropical/rhinohornbilldipterocarp.html
  • Slide 10
  • Sparse palm trees spread across the savanna of Madagascar. Photograph by Maria Stenzel http://green.nationalgeographic.com/environment/photos/savann ah/palmdottedsavannah.html Greater rheas graze in the tall savannah grass of Brazil's Pantanal. Photograph by Joel Sartore http://green.nationalgeographic.com/environment/photos/ savannah/rheasgraze.html
  • Slide 11
  • http://travel.mongabay.com/malaysia/im ages/malaysia1016.html http://travel.mongabay.com/indo nesia/images/singapore5485.ht ml http://travel.mongabay.com/ indonesia/images/singapor e5456.html OR roots do not remain in the soil
  • Slide 12
  • Apogeous roots of Tabonuco climbing up a Sierra palm to acquire stem flow nutrients, Luquillo LTER, Puerto Rico Roots in streams Nodules of nitrogen fixing tree species (e.g. Inga spp.)
  • Slide 13
  • Slide 14
  • Root - fungal mats accessing nutrients
  • Slide 15
  • Tabonuco root mat (> 40 cm deep) on the surface of the forest floor, Luquillo LTER, Puerto Rico
  • Slide 16
  • Root grafting between different species of plants and borrowing C, nutrients from other plants
  • Slide 17
  • Root rot disease transmitted through root grafts western hemlock (photo Bob Edmonds)
  • Slide 18
  • 10 year old Site Class II [HIGH SITE QUALITY] Douglas-fir, Washington (note person in photo) Person Tree height 10 year old Site Class IV [LOW SITE QUALITY] Douglas- fir, Washington (note person in photo)
  • Slide 19
  • Douglas-fir (% of Total Annual Production) 30% 18%
  • Slide 20
  • Nutrient Availability Water Availability Leaf Area Root Area Regulation point What controls how much roots are produced?
  • Slide 21
  • Oa E Bhs Oe Oi
  • Slide 22
  • Root appearance when not affected by high aluminum levels and properly functioning roots
  • Slide 23
  • Roots dying from aluminum toxicity and no longer able to take up nutrients
  • Slide 24
  • Image of roots taken in spruce forests in Germany where trees were dying from acid rain
  • Slide 25
  • Abies amabilis, WA Fine roots < 1mm diam Ca/Al ratio -< 0.2 critical, mortality 10 parts Ca and 50 parts Al = 0.2 ratio 10 Ca, 1 Al 10 Ca, 11 Al 10 Ca, 50 Al 10 Ca, 100 Al
  • Slide 26
  • Aluminum in Roots by Horizon MRT = mean residence time (yrs) of decaying roots
  • Slide 27
  • Al accumulator - foliage 500-1,120; fine roots 1320 ppm Not Al accumulator - foliage 110-260; fine roots 730 ppm
  • Slide 28
  • Wet Nitrate Deposition (kg/ha) 1995-1998 NADP/NTN Monitoring Data
  • Slide 29
  • http://www.hubbardbrook.org/research /gallery/soil/HB_115_Spodosol.jpg Spruce dominated stands with co- associates fir, birch, maple SPODOSOL
  • Slide 30
  • NY a a b b b b b a Between 1992-1998, BOLEWOOD GROWTH: N, Ca/N, Ca significantly increased in NY; N significantly increased in NH a bbb bbba aa b b 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ControlCalciumCa + NNitrogen ANPP (Mg ha yr ) Wood Foliage 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ControlCalciumCa + NNitrogen ANPP (Mg ha yr ) Wood Foliage a bb b b bb a NY a b b b a a a b b b b b b b a a NH Between 1992-1998, FOLIAGE GROWTH: N, Ca/N or Ca significantly increased in NY, NH
  • Slide 31
  • ANPP - Tree Species compared to Controls ( significant only) Picea rubens (spruce) Abies balsamea (fir) Acer spp. (maple) Betula spp. (birch) New York N saturation stage II Ca Ca + N N Vermont N saturation stage I Ca New Hampshire N saturation stage I Ca Ca + N N After 6 years treatment
  • Slide 32
  • Slide 33
  • http://www.mnwetlands.umn.edu/tour/tour_images/vege1.jpg Aerenchyma - secondary respiratory tissue or modified periderm, found in many aquatic plants and distinguished by the large intercellular spaces Invasive plants without aerenchyma not persist in these environments with high rainfall
  • Slide 34
  • http://luq.lternet.edu/research/projects/environ mental_setting_description.html#Figure1 Forests almost completely cleared in early 1900s Subtropical forests with strong legacies of agriculture i.e. fruit trees, N- fixing trees used to shade coffee plants
  • Slide 35
  • Soil characteristics SiteTotal Soil N% NO 3 - -N mg/kg/mo El Verde0.340.6 Bisley 30.291.6 Bisley 50.376.6
  • Slide 36
  • Agriculture N legacy coffee with N-fixing trees Agriculture legacy but no coffee with N-fixing trees, had houses & farms because of royal palms
  • Slide 37
  • Hurricane Georges hits Puerto Rico on September 21, 1998. Image by Dennis Chesters, Marit Jentoft-Nilsen, Craig Mayhew, and Hal Pierce, Laboratory for Atmospheres, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center from data derived from NOAA GOES-8 satellite. Image from "http://rsd.gsfc.nasa.gov/rsd/images/Georges.html".http://rsd.gsfc.nasa.gov/rsd/images/Georges.html 6 Hurricanes during ~ 10 yr study: Sept 1989 Hugo; early-mid Sept 1995 Luis & Marilyn; Jul 1996 Bertha; Sept 1996 -Hortense; Sept 1998 - Georges
  • Slide 38
  • Foliage decay < 6 months so pulse of nutrients available; however, foliage area takes several years to re-establish
  • Slide 39
  • Wood removal Wood addition Root growth increased with wood addition
  • Slide 40
  • http://luq.lternet.edu/data/lterdb09/data/CTE-photos/coqui10.JPG 1 m 2 calling area for mates at night Amount habitat increases significantly with hurricanes
  • Slide 41
  • Important to understand how roots interface with the ecosystem because: Roots found in the soil, tree canopies, hyporheic zone, etc. determined by soil physical & chemical characteristics, amount of soil weathering Less weathered soils, root commonly found in the soil while in highly weathered soils rooting in soil is limited Soil chemical & physical characteristics control plant species dominance. Plants adapted to soil chemistry through roots. Symbionts and root grafting necessary for plants growing in soils with lower nutrient availabilities Treating ecosystems with a limiting nutrient may not increase total NPP, just shift allocation of C from belowground Land use legacies that alter soil nutrients can affect ecosystem recovery after a disturbance Natural disturbances are an important agent of increasing site nutrient availability

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