the skeletal system: the appendicular skeleton. divisions of the skeletal system axial...

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The Skeletal System: The Skeletal System: The Appendicular The Appendicular Skeleton Skeleton

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Page 1: The Skeletal System: The Appendicular Skeleton. Divisions of the Skeletal System Axial skeleton—protects and supports the internal organs Axial skeleton—protects

The Skeletal System: The The Skeletal System: The Appendicular SkeletonAppendicular Skeleton

Page 2: The Skeletal System: The Appendicular Skeleton. Divisions of the Skeletal System Axial skeleton—protects and supports the internal organs Axial skeleton—protects

Divisions of the Skeletal SystemDivisions of the Skeletal System

Axial skeletonAxial skeleton—protects and supports the —protects and supports the internal organsinternal organs

Appendicular skeletonAppendicular skeleton—facilitates —facilitates movementmovement

The appendicular skeleton consists of 126 The appendicular skeleton consists of 126 bones; it includes bones of the limbs and bones; it includes bones of the limbs and the girdlesthe girdles

Page 3: The Skeletal System: The Appendicular Skeleton. Divisions of the Skeletal System Axial skeleton—protects and supports the internal organs Axial skeleton—protects

Pectoral (Shoulder) GirdlesPectoral (Shoulder) Girdles

Attach the bones of the upper limbs to the Attach the bones of the upper limbs to the axial skeletonaxial skeleton

Each consists of 2 bones: Each consists of 2 bones: clavicleclavicle and and scapulascapula

Page 4: The Skeletal System: The Appendicular Skeleton. Divisions of the Skeletal System Axial skeleton—protects and supports the internal organs Axial skeleton—protects

ClavicleClavicle

CollarboneCollarbone An s-shaped bone that articulates with the An s-shaped bone that articulates with the

manubrium of the sternum and with the manubrium of the sternum and with the scapulascapula

One of the most frequently fractured bones One of the most frequently fractured bones of the bodyof the body

Page 5: The Skeletal System: The Appendicular Skeleton. Divisions of the Skeletal System Axial skeleton—protects and supports the internal organs Axial skeleton—protects

Fig. 08.02

Page 6: The Skeletal System: The Appendicular Skeleton. Divisions of the Skeletal System Axial skeleton—protects and supports the internal organs Axial skeleton—protects

ScapulaScapula

Shoulder bladeShoulder blade A triangular-shaped flat bone that A triangular-shaped flat bone that

articulates with the claviclearticulates with the clavicle The The acromionacromion is a process of the scapula is a process of the scapula

that can be felt as the high point of the that can be felt as the high point of the shouldershoulder

The The glenoid cavityglenoid cavity is a depression of the is a depression of the scapula that articulates with the humerus to scapula that articulates with the humerus to form the shoulder jointform the shoulder joint

Page 7: The Skeletal System: The Appendicular Skeleton. Divisions of the Skeletal System Axial skeleton—protects and supports the internal organs Axial skeleton—protects

Upper LimbsUpper Limbs

Each upper limb has 30 bones: Each upper limb has 30 bones: – HumerusHumerus (1) (1)– Radius Radius (1)(1)– UlnaUlna (1) (1)– CarpalsCarpals (8) (8) – MetacarpalsMetacarpals (5) (5)– PhalangesPhalanges (14) (14)

Page 8: The Skeletal System: The Appendicular Skeleton. Divisions of the Skeletal System Axial skeleton—protects and supports the internal organs Axial skeleton—protects

HumerusHumerus

Upper arm boneUpper arm bone The longest and largest bone of the upper limbThe longest and largest bone of the upper limb Articulates proximally with the scapula and Articulates proximally with the scapula and

distally at the elbow with the radius and ulna of distally at the elbow with the radius and ulna of the forearmthe forearm

The The headhead articulates with the articulates with the glenoid cavityglenoid cavity of the of the scapulascapula

The The capitulumcapitulum articulates with the articulates with the headhead of the of the radius; the radius; the trochleatrochlea articulates with the ulna articulates with the ulna

Page 9: The Skeletal System: The Appendicular Skeleton. Divisions of the Skeletal System Axial skeleton—protects and supports the internal organs Axial skeleton—protects

Radius and UlnaRadius and Ulna

Long bones of the forearmLong bones of the forearm The ulna is longer than the radius and is located on the The ulna is longer than the radius and is located on the

“little-finger” side of the forearm“little-finger” side of the forearm The The olecranonolecranon of the ulna forms the prominence of the of the ulna forms the prominence of the

elbowelbow The radius is located on the thumb side of the forearmThe radius is located on the thumb side of the forearm The elbow joint is formed by 2 articulations:The elbow joint is formed by 2 articulations:

– The The trochlear notchtrochlear notch of the ulna with the of the ulna with the trochlea trochlea of the humerusof the humerus– The The headhead of the radius with the of the radius with the capitulumcapitulum of the humerus of the humerus

Page 10: The Skeletal System: The Appendicular Skeleton. Divisions of the Skeletal System Axial skeleton—protects and supports the internal organs Axial skeleton—protects

CarpalsCarpals

The wrist consists of 8 small bones called The wrist consists of 8 small bones called carpalscarpals

These bones are arranged in two rows of These bones are arranged in two rows of four bones eachfour bones each

In most carpal fractures, only the In most carpal fractures, only the scaphoidscaphoid carpal bone is brokencarpal bone is broken

Page 11: The Skeletal System: The Appendicular Skeleton. Divisions of the Skeletal System Axial skeleton—protects and supports the internal organs Axial skeleton—protects

MetacarpalsMetacarpals

The palm of the hand consists of 5 long The palm of the hand consists of 5 long bones called bones called metacarpalsmetacarpals

Each of these bones consists of a Each of these bones consists of a basebase, , shaftshaft, and , and headhead

The metacarpals are numbered 1 through 5, The metacarpals are numbered 1 through 5, starting with the thumbstarting with the thumb

The “knuckles” are the heads of the The “knuckles” are the heads of the metacarpalsmetacarpals

Page 12: The Skeletal System: The Appendicular Skeleton. Divisions of the Skeletal System Axial skeleton—protects and supports the internal organs Axial skeleton—protects

PhalangesPhalanges

The long bones of the fingers (digits)The long bones of the fingers (digits) There are 14 There are 14 phalangesphalanges in each hand in each hand Each Each phalanxphalanx consists of a consists of a basebase, , shaftshaft, and , and

headhead There are 2 phalanges in the thumb, or There are 2 phalanges in the thumb, or

pollexpollex, and 3 phalanges in each of the other , and 3 phalanges in each of the other four digitsfour digits

Page 13: The Skeletal System: The Appendicular Skeleton. Divisions of the Skeletal System Axial skeleton—protects and supports the internal organs Axial skeleton—protects

Pelvic (Hip) GirdlesPelvic (Hip) Girdles

Consist of 2 hip bones, called Consist of 2 hip bones, called coxal bonescoxal bones These 2 bones unite anteriorly at a joint called the These 2 bones unite anteriorly at a joint called the pubic pubic

symphysissymphysis and posteriorly with the sacrum at the and posteriorly with the sacrum at the sacroiliac jointssacroiliac joints

The 2 coxal bones and the sacrum form the The 2 coxal bones and the sacrum form the pelvispelvis; the ; the pelvis supports the vertebral column and pelvic organs and pelvis supports the vertebral column and pelvic organs and attaches the lower limbs to the axial skeletonattaches the lower limbs to the axial skeleton

In an adult, each coxal bone consists of three bones that In an adult, each coxal bone consists of three bones that fused together after birth:fused together after birth:– IliumIlium– Ischium Ischium – Pubis Pubis

Page 14: The Skeletal System: The Appendicular Skeleton. Divisions of the Skeletal System Axial skeleton—protects and supports the internal organs Axial skeleton—protects

Pelvic (Hip) Girdles (continued)Pelvic (Hip) Girdles (continued)

The ilium is the largest and most superior of the three hip The ilium is the largest and most superior of the three hip bone components; it articulates with the sacrum to form bone components; it articulates with the sacrum to form the the sacroiliac jointsacroiliac joint

The ischium is located inferior and posterior; the pubis is The ischium is located inferior and posterior; the pubis is located inferior and anterior; together, they surround the located inferior and anterior; together, they surround the obturator foramenobturator foramen, the largest foramen of the skeleton, the largest foramen of the skeleton

All three of these bones make up the All three of these bones make up the acetabulumacetabulum, a deep , a deep fossa that accepts the round head of the fossa that accepts the round head of the femurfemur

The two coxal bones meet anteriorly at a joint called the The two coxal bones meet anteriorly at a joint called the pubic symphysispubic symphysis; this joint contains a cartilage disc that ; this joint contains a cartilage disc that gives the joint flexibilitygives the joint flexibility

The pelvis of a female is wider and shallower than that of a The pelvis of a female is wider and shallower than that of a male to allow for childbirthmale to allow for childbirth

Page 15: The Skeletal System: The Appendicular Skeleton. Divisions of the Skeletal System Axial skeleton—protects and supports the internal organs Axial skeleton—protects

Lower LimbsLower Limbs

Each lower limb has 30 bones:Each lower limb has 30 bones:– Femur Femur (1)(1)– Patella Patella (1)(1)– Tibia Tibia (1)(1)– Fibula Fibula (1)(1)– Tarsals Tarsals (7)(7)– Metatarsals Metatarsals (5)(5)– Phalanges Phalanges (14)(14)

Page 16: The Skeletal System: The Appendicular Skeleton. Divisions of the Skeletal System Axial skeleton—protects and supports the internal organs Axial skeleton—protects

FemurFemur

Thigh boneThigh bone Longest, heaviest, and strongest bone in the Longest, heaviest, and strongest bone in the

bodybody Its proximal end consists of a Its proximal end consists of a head head that that

articulates with the hip bone at the articulates with the hip bone at the acetabulum; its distal end articulates with acetabulum; its distal end articulates with the tibia and patellathe tibia and patella

Page 17: The Skeletal System: The Appendicular Skeleton. Divisions of the Skeletal System Axial skeleton—protects and supports the internal organs Axial skeleton—protects

PatellaPatella

KneecapKneecap A small, triangular bone located anterior to A small, triangular bone located anterior to

the knee jointthe knee joint It is a It is a sesamoid bonesesamoid bone, which develops in the , which develops in the

tendon of the “quadriceps” muscletendon of the “quadriceps” muscle Articulates with the femurArticulates with the femur

Page 18: The Skeletal System: The Appendicular Skeleton. Divisions of the Skeletal System Axial skeleton—protects and supports the internal organs Axial skeleton—protects

Tibia and FibulaTibia and Fibula

The tibia is the shinbone The tibia is the shinbone It is the larger, medial, weight-bearing bone of the It is the larger, medial, weight-bearing bone of the

lower leglower leg At is proximal end, the tibia articulates with the At is proximal end, the tibia articulates with the

femur and fibula; at its distal end, it articulates femur and fibula; at its distal end, it articulates with the fibula and the with the fibula and the talustalus bone of the ankle bone of the ankle

The fibula is the smaller bone of the lower legThe fibula is the smaller bone of the lower leg It lies parallel and lateral to the tibiaIt lies parallel and lateral to the tibia

Page 19: The Skeletal System: The Appendicular Skeleton. Divisions of the Skeletal System Axial skeleton—protects and supports the internal organs Axial skeleton—protects

TarsalsTarsals

The ankle consists of 7 bones called The ankle consists of 7 bones called tarsalstarsals The The calcaneuscalcaneus is the largest and strongest is the largest and strongest

tarsal bone; it is located in the posterior heel tarsal bone; it is located in the posterior heel part of the footpart of the foot

The The talustalus is the uppermost tarsal bone; it is the uppermost tarsal bone; it articulates with the fibula and tibiaarticulates with the fibula and tibia

Page 20: The Skeletal System: The Appendicular Skeleton. Divisions of the Skeletal System Axial skeleton—protects and supports the internal organs Axial skeleton—protects

MetatarsalsMetatarsals

The main part of the foot consists of 5 long The main part of the foot consists of 5 long bones called bones called metatarsalsmetatarsals

Each of these bones consists of a Each of these bones consists of a basebase, , shaftshaft, and , and headhead

The metatarsals are numbered 1 through 5, The metatarsals are numbered 1 through 5, from the medial to lateral position from the medial to lateral position

Page 21: The Skeletal System: The Appendicular Skeleton. Divisions of the Skeletal System Axial skeleton—protects and supports the internal organs Axial skeleton—protects

PhalangesPhalanges

The long bones of the toesThe long bones of the toes There are 14 There are 14 phalangesphalanges on each foot on each foot Each Each phalanxphalanx consists of a consists of a basebase, , shaftshaft, and , and

headhead There are 2 phalanges in the big toe, or There are 2 phalanges in the big toe, or

halluxhallux, and 3 phalanges in each of the other , and 3 phalanges in each of the other four digitsfour digits