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SKELETAL SYSTEM PART 2 THE AXIAL SKELETON Honors Anatomy & Physiology

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Skeletal system part 2 the axial skeleton. Honors Anatomy & Physiology. Essential Question. What is the main contribution the axial skeleton makes to homeostasis?. Divisions of the Skeleton. AXIAL SKELETON Skull Cranium Face Hyoid Auditory Ossicles Vertebral Column Thorax . - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Page 1: Skeletal system part 2 the axial skeleton

SKELETAL SYSTEMPART 2THE AXIAL SKELETON

Honors Anatomy & Physiology

Page 2: Skeletal system part 2 the axial skeleton

Essential Question What is the main contribution the

axial skeleton makes to homeostasis?

Page 3: Skeletal system part 2 the axial skeleton

Divisions of the Skeleton AXIAL

SKELETON Skull

Cranium Face

Hyoid Auditory

Ossicles Vertebral

Column Thorax

APPENDICULAR SKELETON:

Pectoral Girdle Upper Limbs Pelvic Girdle Lower Limbs

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Types of Bone bones fall into 1 of 5 main types

based on shape: Long Short Flat Irregular Sesamoid

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Long Bones longer than they are wide may be slightly curved (to absorb

stress of weight at more points along the bone i.e. straight bones would fracture more easily)

consist of: shaft & variable #s of ends compact bone in diaphysis and spongy

bone in epiphysis

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Long Bones

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Short Bones somewhat cube-shaped nearly equal in length as width consist of:

spongy bone except @ surface

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Short Bones

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Flat Bones Composed of:

2 nearly parallel plates of compact bone enclosing spongy bone inside

Function: give considerable protection place for muscle attachment

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Flat Bones

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Irregular Bones complex shapes (do not fit in other

categories) vary in amt spongy bone

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Sesamoid Bones develop w/in certain tendons where

there is considerable friction, tension, & physical stress

function: protect tendon from excessive wear & tear

vary in # person to person but everyone has 2 patella which develop in quadriceps femoris tendon

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Sesamoid Bone

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Sutural Bones classified by location (w/in a suture:

a seam between 2 cranial bones) not everyone has them

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Bone Surface Markings 2 major types:1. depressions & openings

form joints or allow passage of vessels & nerves

2. processes projections or outgrowths that either

help form joints or serve as attachment points for ligaments & tendons

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Bone Surface Markings

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Bone Surface Markings-2

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Axial skeleton

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SKULL

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Skull 22 bones in 2 categories:1. Cranium

8 bones that form cranial cavity1. 1 frontal bone2. 2 parietal bones3. 2 temporal bones4. 1 occipital bone5. 1 sphenoid bone6. 1 ethmoid bone

Page 22: Skeletal system part 2 the axial skeleton

Skull 2. Facial Bones

14 bones that form the face 2 nasal bones

2 maxillae 1 mandible 2 zygomatic 2 lacrimal 2 palantine 2 inferior nasal conchae 1 vomer

Page 23: Skeletal system part 2 the axial skeleton

Skull: Cavities1. Cranial Cavity2. Nasal Cavity3. Orbits4. Paranasal Sinuses5. Middle & Inner Ear Cavities

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Cavities of the Skull

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Movable Joints of the Skull1. Mandible2. Auditory Ossicles

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Functions of Cranial Bones1. protecting brain2. stabilizing position of brain,

vessels, & nerves through attachments to the meninges

3. outer surfaces provide large areas of attachment for muscles that move parts of the head & some for facial expression

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Cranial Bones: Frontal Bone forms:

forehead upper part of eye socket most of anterior part of cranial floor in newborns: rt & lt which fuse

shortly after birth

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Frontal Bone

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Parietal Bones form greater portion of sides & roof

of cranial cavity

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Temporal Bones form inferior, lateral aspects of the

cranium & part of the cranial floor its zygomatic process forms the

lateral half of the zygomatic arch mandibular fossa: where condylar

process of mandible forms TMJ (temporal mandibular joint)

Page 31: Skeletal system part 2 the axial skeleton

Temporal Bones

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Temporal Bones external auditory meatus: ear canal mastoid: posterior & inferior to

external auditory meatus, contains “air cells” (mastoiditis: inflammation in air cells)

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Temporal Bone: Internal Surface

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Occipital Bone forms back of head & most of base

of skull foramen magnum: large hole spinal

cord passes thru, occipital condyles: articulate with

1st cervical vertebra (atlas)

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Ethmoid Bone “like a sieve” midline of anterior part of cranial

floor, anterior to sphenoid, posterior to nasal bones

cribiforme plate: forms roof of nasal cavity, the holes of the sieve where olfactory nerves pass from roof of nasal cavity to brain

crista galla: triangular process which serves as pt of attachment for meninges of brain

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Ethmoid Bone perpendicular plate: forms superior

portion of nasal cavity superior & middle nasal conchae: (or

turbinate) increase vascular & mucous membrane surface area in nasal cavities: aids in sense of smell, warms, filters & moistens air being inhaled. Filters because the turbinates cause air to swirl as a result inhaled particles strike & become trapped in mucus

Page 49: Skeletal system part 2 the axial skeleton

Maxillae = upper jaws *articulate with every bone in face

except the mandible form part of floor of orbits, parts of

nasal cavity, & most of the hard palate (bony roof of mouth)

each one has large maxillary sinus alveolar process is small arch that

contains the alveolar sockets for upper set of teeth

Page 51: Skeletal system part 2 the axial skeleton

Cleft Palate & Cleft Lip 10-12 wks gestation the palatine

processes of maxillae typically join not doing so cleft palate +/- cleft

lip speech & swallowing can be affected many ear infections reparative surgery recommended 1st

few wks of life / surgery needs to be completed by 12 – 18 mos b/4 speech: speech therapy & orthodontic care frequently necessary

Page 68: Skeletal system part 2 the axial skeleton

Intervertebral Discs

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Parts of a Vertebra Body

thicker, anterior portion, weight bearing portion

Vertebral Foramina contains spinal cord, adipose, areolar CT,

blood vessels Spinous Process

1 of 7 processes, posterior, palpable on back of body

Transverse Processes: on each side, extending laterally

Page 72: Skeletal system part 2 the axial skeleton

Typical Thoracic Vertebrae T-1 to T-12 larger &

stronger than cervical v.

distinguishing feature: articulate with ribs (facets on transverse processes of T-1 to T-10

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Ribs: 12 Pair

increase in length 1st thru 7th then decrease in length to 12th

1st thru 7th ribs (true ribs) have direct anterior attachment to sternum by strip of hyaline cartilage which contribute to elasticity of thoracic cage

8th thru 10th ribs attach to each other & then to cartilages of 7th rib

11th & 12th ribs: floating ribs

Page 87: Skeletal system part 2 the axial skeleton

Kyphoscoliosis

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THAT’S ALL FOLKS