►the zero conditional ►the first conditional ►the second conditional ►the third conditional...
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ConditionalsThe Zero ConditionalThe First ConditionalThe Second ConditionalThe Third ConditionalThe Mixed Conditionals1The Zero Conditional (Structure)The Zero Conditional sentence, like all other conditionals, consists of two clauses, an "if clause" and a "main clause".We use the same verb form in each clause of a zero conditional: the present simple tense: If Clause: If + Subject + Present Simple Main Clause: Subject + Present SimpleIf you heat water to 100 degrees, it boils.2The Zero Conditional is used to talk about things which are always or usually true scientific facts, general truths, etc.:Example: If you cross an international dateline, the time changes.Explanation: This always happens every time you cross a dateline. Example: If you dive 10 meters under water, the pressure increases to two atmospheres.Explanation: This is basically always true the pressure of 10 meters of water equals one atmosphere. Example: Phosphorus burns if you expose it to air. Explanation: This is a scientific fact you can test it in a lab.The Zero Conditional (Uses)3(note that MOST Zero Conditional sentences will mean the same if "when" is used instead of "if"): If you heat water to 100 degrees, it boils. When you heat water to 100 degrees, it boils.But If When you get this exercise right, you have a good brain.If proves that you have a good brain.When will make you have a good brain.The Zero Conditional (Using When)4Comma?! This Rule Applies to All Conditionals When the "if" clause comes first, a Comma is used:If clause + , + main clause.If you heat water to 100 degrees, it boils. When the "if" clause comes second, a Comma is NOT used:Main clause + if clause. (No Comma)Water boils if you heat it to 100 degrees.
5Lets Practice:Use the conditions and results in the box to complete the phrases below.Conditions:you've got a headache,you don't wear a crash helmet,you heat it to 100 C,she comes home very late,you leave gates open in the country,you add sugarResults:you get pink,A dog bites,Butter melts,the DVD player comes on,it scratches you,You have more chance of being killedWater boils if _______________________________.If you mix red and white, _______________________________._______________________________ if you leave it in the sun. If _______________________________, take an aspirin. If _______________________________, it tastes sweet. _______________________________ if you go near its food when it's eating. If you pull a cat's tail, _______________________________. _______________________________ if you don't wear a seat belt. If you press this button, _______________________________. Farmers get very angry if _______________________________.you heat it to 100 cyou get pinkButter meltsyou've got a headacheyou add sugarA dog bitesit scratches youYou have more chance of being killedthe DVD player comes onyou leave gates open in the country6The First Conditional sentence consists of two clauses, an "if clause" and a "main clause":We use the present simple with the If clauseWill + Infinitive with the main clause: If Clause: If + Subject + Present Simple Main Clause: Subject + Will + V. InfinitiveIf clause + , + main clause.If it rains, we will stay indoors.NB: You may use Will, Can, Shall, or May.The First Conditional (Structure)7The First Conditional is used to talk about things which are possible in the present or the future things which may happen:Example: If it's sunny, we'll go to the park.Explanation: Maybe it will be sunny that's possible.
Example: Paula will be sad if Juan leaves.Explanation: Maybe Juan will leave that's possible.The First Conditional (Uses)8Lets Practice:If Jack ______________ late again, his trainer will be furious. (to arrive)You'll be sorry if you ______________ for your exams. (to revise) We ______________ if the weather's good. (to go) If the bus ______________ on time, I won't miss the football match. (to be) If you ______________ your homework now, you'll be free tomorrow. (to do) We ______________ out if there's no food at home. (to eat) You'll find life much easier if you ______________ more often. (to smile) If it's hot, we ______________ for a swim. (to go) You'll do it better if you ______________ more time over it. (to take) If she ______________ practicing, she'll get better. (to keep) I ______________ so happy if I pass the exam. (to be) You'll be really tired tomorrow if you ______________ to bed soon. (to go) arrivesdo not revisewill goisdowill eatsmilewill gotakekeepswill bedo not go9The Second Conditional sentence consists of two clauses, an "if clause" and a "main clause":We use the past simple with the If clauseWould + Infinitive with the main clause: If Clause: If + Subject + Past Simple Main Clause: Subject + Would + V. InfinitiveIf clause + , + main clause.If it rained, we should stay indoors.NB: You may use Would, Could, Should, or Might.The Second Conditional (Structure)10The Second Conditional is used to talk about things which are unreal (not true or not possible) in the present or the future things which don't or won't happen:Example:If I were you, I would drive more carefully.(I am not you this is unreal)
Example:Mariam would be sad if Rana left.(Rana wont leave that's not going to happen)
Example:If cats had wings, they would be able to fly.(Cats don't have wings that's impossible) The Second Conditional (Uses)11Note that the "Past Simple" form is slightly different from usual in the case of Verb to BE.When there is an impossibility, we use "were" instead of "was" with any subject whether singular or plural.If I were rich, I'd buy a big house.= unlikely to be richIf he were here, he wouldnt allow that.= he is not here; he is somewhere elseThe Second Conditional (with Verb to BE)12One very important structure is omitting If and inverting the structure to take the interrogative (question) form.Normal: If + Subject + Past Simple + ComplementSubject + Would + V. InfinitiveExample:If I were you, I would study harder.Inverted: Were + Subject + ComplementSubject + Would + V. InfinitiveExample:Were I you, I would study harder.The Second Conditional (Inverted Structure)13Lets Practice:1. If Joe ___________ (be) here, he ___________ (catch) some fish for supper.2. It ___________ (be) nice if the rain ___________ (stop)!3. I ___________ (give) you a chocolate if I ___________ (have) any.4. If I ___________ (have) a better sleeping bag, I ___________ (not feel) so cold.5. If this tent ___________ (be) any smaller, one of us ___________ (have to sleep) outside!6. I ___________ (look) out for bears if I ___________ (be) you!7. If I ___________ (not be) so hungry, I ___________ (share) my beans with you.8. ___________ (be) I here, I ______________________ (help) you.werewould catchwould bestoppedcould givehadwould not feelhadwerewould sleepwould lookwerewere notcould shareWerecould / would help14Like all conditionals, the Third Conditional sentence consists of two clauses, an "if clause" and a "main clause":We use the Past Perfect Simple with the If clauseWould Have + Past Participle with the main clause: If Clause: If + Subject + Past Perfect Simple Main Clause: Subject + Would Have + V. PP If clause + , + main clause.If it hadnt rained, we could have gone out.It could have been nice if you had come on Saturday.NB: You may use Would, Could, Should, or Might.The Third Conditional (Structure)15The Third Conditional is used to talk about unreal situations in the past things which DID NOT HAPPEN in the past. It is often used to express Criticism or Regret:
Example: If you had driven more carefully, you would not have had an accident. Criticism: You had an accident because you didn't drive carefully enough.
Example: If it hadnt snowed, we could have gone skiing. Regret: It snowed, so we couldn't go skiing.The Third Conditional (Uses)16One very important structure is omitting If and inverting the structure to take the interrogative (question) form.Normal: If + Subject + Had + Past ParticipleSubject + Would Have + Past ParticipleExample:If I had studied harder, I could have passed the exam.
Inverted: Had + Subject + Past ParticipleSubject + Would Have + Past ParticipleExample:Had I studied harder, I could have passed the exam.The Third Conditional (Inverted Structure)17Lets Practice:1. He crashed his car, because he fell asleep while driving.If he ______________ asleep while driving, he ______________________ his car.2. We could go to the show, because we had enough money.If we ______________ enough money, we _______________________ to the show.3. I lost my job because I was late for work.I _______________________ my job if I ______________ late for work.4. The wind was so strong that the bridge collapsed.If the wind ______________ so strong, the bridge _______________________.5. I couldn't call Sally because I had lost her number.I _______________________ Sally if I ______________ her number.6. I couldn't tell Talha because I had not met him. (start with Had)_________ I _________ Talha, I _______________________ told him.7. I would have come on time If my car hadnt broken down. (start with Had)___________________________________________________________________.hadnt fallenwouldnt have crashedhadnt hadcouldnt have goneshouldnt have losthadnt beenhadnt beencouldnt have collapsedcould have calledhadnt lostHadcould havemetHadnt my car broken down, I would have come.18We use the Past Perfect Simple with the If clause (3rd Cond.)Would + Infinitive with the main clause (2nd Cond.) If Clause: If + Subject + Past Perfect Simple (Third Cond.) Main Clause: Subject + Would + Inf. (Second Cond.) If clause (3rd Cond) + , + main clause (2nd Cond).If Vince had taken my advice, he wouldnt be in trouble now.Vince did not take my advice in the Past. He is in trouble NOW.NB: You may use Would, Could, Should, or Might.Mixed Conditional 1 (Structure)19Mixed Conditional 1 (Uses)The Mixed Conditional 1 is used to talk