uav (unmanned aerial vehicle)

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  1. 1. [Type text] [Type text] A Seminar Report On UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) Degree of Bachelor of Engineering for the Gujarat technological University By UDIT V. PATEL B.E. III(Year) Computer Science & Engineering (5th SEM) ER. No.131123131018 Under guidance of Asst. Prof. Satish Kachhadiya Head of Dept, Computer Science & Engineering Department Pacific School of Engineering
  2. 2. [Type text] [Type text] At Pacific School of Engineering, Surat Year- 2014 PACIFIC SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING, SAKI, SURAT (GUJARAT) Certificate This is to certify that Mr. UDIT V. PATEL ER NO: 131123131018, Third Year Computer Engineering has satisfactorily completed his term work in SEMINAR for the term July-2014 to Nov2014. Seminar Title: UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) Date:
  3. 3. [Type text] [Type text] Prof. Mehul Patel Prof. Satish Kachhadiya Faculty Guide Head of Department TABLE OF CONTENTS Acknowledgement Abstract 1. Introduction 4.1. History 4.2. FAA designation and legal regulation 4.3. Historical events involving UAVs 2. Designan development consideration 4.1. Certification aspects 4.2. Degree of authority 4.3. Endurance 4.4. Detect and avoid 4.5. Hardening of the control stations 4.6. Buddy attacks 3. Classification 4. Uses 4.1 Remote sensing 4.2 Commercial aerial surveillance 4.3 Commercial and motion filmmaking 4.4 Sports 4.5 Domestic policing 4.6 Oil, gas and mineral exploration and production 4.7 Disaster relief
  4. 4. [Type text] [Type text] 4.8 Scientific research 4.9 Armed attacks 4.10 Civilian casualties 4.11 Aerial target practice in training of human pilots 4.12 Search and rescue 4.13 Conservation 4.14 Animal rights 4.15 Maritime patrol 4.16 Forest fire detection 4.17 Archaeology 4.18 Future potential 5. Advantage & Disadvantages 5.1. Advantages 5.2 Disadvantage 6. Future Scope 7 Conclusion 8. Reference
  5. 5. [Type text] [Type text] ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The satisfaction that accompanies the successful completion of this seminar would be incomplete without the mention of people whose ceaseless cooperation made it possible, whose constant guidance and encouragement crowned all efforts with success. First and foremost, I would like to thank my respected guide, Prof. Satish Kachhadiya for the valuable guidance and advice. His invaluable guidance has proved to be a key to my success in overcoming challenges that I faced during the course of the seminar and report preparation. He inspired me greatly to prepare the seminar. His willingness to motivate me contributed tremendously to my seminar preparation. I express very sincere thanks to him for showing me some examples related to the topic of my seminar. Besides, I am also grateful to the faculties of Computer Department for providing me encouragement and good facilities to prepare my seminar. I am also obliged to all my dear friends for building confidence within me and for being with me right from the first lap to the finishing line. Finally, an honorable mention goes to my lovable family for the understandings and supports they entrusted in completing the seminar. Without the help of the particulars those mentioned above, I would have faced many difficulties while preparing the seminar. I am thankful to all those people who have helped me directly or indirectly in preparing the seminar successfully.
  6. 6. [Type text] [Type text] - UDIT V. PATEL (131123131018) ABSTRACT Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are aircrafts that fly without any humans being onboard. They are either remotely piloted, or piloted by an onboard computer. This kind of aircrafts can be used in different military missions such as surveillance, reconnaissance, battle damage assessment, communicationsrelay,minesweeping,hazardous substances detection and radar jamming. However they can be used in other than military missions like detection of hazardous objects on train rails and investigation of infected areas. Aircrafts that are able of hovering and vertical flying can also be used for indoor missions like counter terrorist operations. Noahsenta dove outof the ark to investigateif the floodendedinsteadof riskinghislife bygoing himself. In the same way UAVscan be sentto investigate areaswithoutriskinghumanlives. Thisprojectis concernedwiththe developmentandcontrol of an UnmannedAerial Vehicle.The differentwaysof flyingare examinedandthe mostsuitable isselected. A vehicle isbuiltafterinvestigatingthe differentpartsthatcouldbe usedand a tool will isdevelopedfor the remote control of the aircraft.Furthermore alanguage is definedforcontrollingthe aircraftanda compilerandinterpreterare implementedforthe particular language.Finallyaninvestigationisdone onthe use of a simulatorthatwill be usedfortestingpurposes rather thanexperimentingdirectlywiththe aircraftanda simulatorisinvestigatedandcustomized accordingto the needsof thisproject.
  7. 7. [Type text] [Type text] 1. INTRODUCTION An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), commonly known as a drone and referred to as a Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), is an aircraft without a human pilot aboard. Its flight is controlled either autonomously by onboard computers or by the remote control of a pilot on the ground or in another vehicle. The typical launch and recovery method of an unmanned aircraft is by the function of an automatic system or an external operator on the ground. Historically, UAVs were simple remotely piloted aircraft, but autonomous control is increasingly being employed. They are usually deployed for military and special operation applications, but also used in a small but growing number of civil applications, such as policing and fire fighting, and non-military security work, such as surveillance of pipelines. UAVs are often preferred for missions that are too "dull, dirty or dangerous" for manned aircraft.
  8. 8. [Type text] [Type text] 1.1 HISTORY The idea of a pilotless aircraft is not a new concept. The concept of drones dates back to the mid-1800s, when Austrians sent off unmanned, bomb-filled balloons as a way to attack Venice. The drone we see today started innovation in the early 1900s, and was originally used for target practice to train military personnel. It continued to be developed during World War I, when the Dayton- Wright Airplane Company came up with the pilotless aerial torpedo that would drop and explode at a particular, preset time. The earliest attempt at a powered unmanned aerial vehicle was A. M. Low's "Aerial Target" of 1916. Nikola Tesla described a fleet of unmanned aerial combat vehicles in 1915. A number of remote-controlled airplane advances followed during and after World War I, including the Hewitt- Sperry Automatic Airplane. The first scale RPV (Remote Piloted Vehicle) was developed by the film star and model airplane enthusiast Reginald Denny in 1935. More were made in the technology rush during World War II; these were used both to train antiaircraft gunners and to fly attack missions. Nazi Germany also produced and used various UAV aircraft during the course of WWII. Jet engines were applied after World War II in such types as the Teledyne Ryan Firebee I of 1951, while companies like Beech craft also got in the game with their Model 1001 for the United States Navy in 1955. Nevertheless, they were little more than remote- controlled airplanes until the Vietnam Era. The birth of U.S. UAVs (called RPVs at the time) began in 1959 when United States Air Force (USAF) officers, concerned about losing pilots over hostile territory, began planning for the use of unmanned flights. This plan became intensified when Francis Gary Powers and his "secret" U-2 were shot down over the Soviet Union in 1960. Within days, the highly classified UAV program was launched under the code name of "Red Wagon". The 2 and 4 August 1964, clash in the Tonkin Gulf between naval units of the U.S. and North Vietnamese Navy initiated America's highly classified UAVs into their first combat missions of the Vietnam War. There are two prominent UAV programs within the United States:
  9. 9. [Type text] [Type text] One of the military and other one is Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). The militarys UAV program is overt, meaning that the public recognizes which government operates it and, therefore, it only operates where US troops are stationed. The CIAs program is clandestine. Missions performed by the CIAs UAV program do not always occur where US troops are stationed. The CIAs UAV program was commissioned as a result of the 11 September terrorist attacks and the increasing emphasis on operations for intelligence gathering in 2004.[14] This clandestine program is primarily being used in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Yemen, and Somalia. UAVs collect intelligence in these countries by loitering around their target. The CIAs first UAV program is called the Eagle Program. It was led by Duane Clarridge, the director of the Counterterrorism Centre. This program constructed the CIAs first using off the shelf technology, which included items such as garage door openers and model airplanes. Only on 26 February 1973, during testimony before the United States House Committee on Appropriations, the U.S. military officially confirmed that they had been utilizing UAVs in Southeast Asia (Vietnam). Over 5,000 U.S. airmen had been killed and over 1,000 more were either missing in action (MIA) or captured (prisoners of war/POW). The USAF 100th Strategic Reconnaissance Wing had flown approximately 3,435 UAV missions during the war at a cost of about 554 UAVs lost to all causes. In the words of USAF General George S. Brown, Commander, Air Force Systems Command, in 1972, "The only reason we need (UAVs) is that we don't want to needlessly expend the man in the cockpit." Later that same year, General John C. Meyer, Commander in Chief, Strategic Air Command, stated, "we let the drone do the high-risk flying ... the loss rate is high, but we ar


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