USING REFLECTIVE PORTFOLIOS AS A TOOL TO TEACH WRITING TO STUDENTS WITH LEARNING DISABILITIES: A PROJECT FOR PRESERVICE TEACHERS

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  • This article was downloaded by: [McGill University Library]On: 12 November 2014, At: 11:30Publisher: RoutledgeInforma Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number:1072954 Registered office: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street,London W1T 3JH, UK

    Reading & Writing Quarterly:Overcoming LearningDifficultiesPublication details, including instructions forauthors and subscription information:http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/urwl20

    USING REFLECTIVEPORTFOLIOS AS A TOOLTO TEACH WRITING TOSTUDENTS WITH LEARNINGDISABILITIES: A PROJECT FORPRESERVICE TEACHERSC. Bobbi Hansen aa University of San Diego , San Diego, California,USAPublished online: 28 Jul 2006.

    To cite this article: C. Bobbi Hansen (1998) USING REFLECTIVE PORTFOLIOS AS ATOOL TO TEACH WRITING TO STUDENTS WITH LEARNING DISABILITIES: A PROJECTFOR PRESERVICE TEACHERS, Reading & Writing Quarterly: Overcoming LearningDifficulties, 14:3, 307-317, DOI: 10.1080/1057356980140305

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  • USING REFLECTIVE PORTFOLIOS AS A TOOLTO TEACH WRITING TO STUDENTS WITH

    LEARNING DISABILITIES: A PROJECT FORPRESERVICE TEACHERS

    C. Bobbi HansenUniversity of San Diego, San Diego, California, USA

    Teacher education faculties are beginning to examine assessment choices thatare more reflective in nature. An alternative some are experimenting with is thestudent portfolio, which is gaining in popularity at elementary, middle-, andhigh-school levels. This article advocates the use of portfolios as an alternativeassessment at the collegiate level in teacher education classes. A preservicemethods class special project designed to engage teacher-trainees in reflectionsrelated to the teaching of writing in a mainstreamed classroom provides anoverview of how this process can be incorporated into a preservice educationcourse.

    The use of portfolios as an alternative to traditional assessments andgrading schemes is growing more popular at all levels of education(Valencia, 1990; Aitken, 1993; Cirincione & Michael, 1994; Ford,1994). A portfolio is a multidimensional collection of a student's workassembled in an organized fashion and represents the cognitive,affective, or psychomotor dimensions of learning. It is a body of workthat is selected both by the student and by the teacher and reflectedon by students largely through writing. Portfolios provide both tea-chers and students with a means of documenting students' progresstoward learning goals (Ford & Olhausen, 1991). Students oftenrespond to portfolios with improved motivation and attitudes (Frazier,Palmer, Duchein, & Armato, 1993).

    Special education students are especially at risk when encounter-ing more traditional forms of assessment. Performance-based andother forms of authentic assessment are seen as more compatible andsupportive of children with disabilities because they give educators aricher view of what students actually can do. As Nel Noddings (1992)remarked, "we should move away from the question, 'has Johnny

    The writer thanks Kim Jubala, a fifth-grade teacher at Lafayette ElementarySchool in San Diego, California, for her role in the inception and management of thePen-Pal Project.

    Address correspondence to C. Bobbi Hansen, University of San Diego, Alcala Park,San Diego, CA 92110, USA.

    Reading & Writing Quarterly, 14: 307-317, 1998Copyright 1998 Taylor & Francis

    1057-3569/98 $12.00 +.00 307

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  • 308 C. B. Hansen

    learned X?' to the far more pertinent question, 'What has Johnnylearned?'" (p. 179).

    Contemporary educators also perceive portfolio planning andreflection in such a positive way because it involves students in arich variety of cognitive, affective, and pragmatic work opportunities.

    At the collegiate level portfolios are just beginning to emerge asan assessment option. In schools of education, which are engaged inthe preparation of general and special education teachers, it is espe-cially important to model these newer assessment models so thatteacher candidates can experience for themselves the power thatcomes from assuming the responsibility of their own learning (Stahle& Mitchell, 1993).

    THE ROLE OF WRITING IN REFLECTIVE PORTFOLIOS

    Portfolios are part of an evolving process that includes and valuesreflection. Grant and Zeichner (1984) noted that Dewey defined theterm reflection as "behavior which involves active, persistent, andcareful consideration of any belief or practice in light of the groundsthat support it and the further consequences to which it leads."Researchers are now saying that reflection of this kind is importantfor teachers and for students alike (Brandt, 1991; Cruickshank &Metcalf, 1990; Schon, 1987).

    The writing process is emerging as a critical component in reflec-tion since most, although not all, of the contents of a portfolio arecomposed of reflective writings. Thus, the writing process oftenbecomes the vehicle by which students and teachers engage in self-reflection.

    Conversely, students' skills in writing can improve through theprocess of reflection. Brown (1994) cited several clear advantages tothe use of portfolios for teachers of writing. Among them are (1) anintegration of writing into the curriculum, (2) the provision of a clearand complete writing profile, which becomes a record of growth overtime, and (3) the recognition of divergent learning styles of students.

    For students who have learning disabilities, finding authentic pur-poses for writing is extremely important. Typical writing instructionfor these students focuses on techniques for remediating so-calledbasic skills such as spelling, grammar, and handwriting. Becauseworksheets are commonly used to provide practice in these tech-niques, students miss important connections to the use of writing in

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  • Using Reflective Portfolios to Teach Writing 309

    meaningful settings. A central assumption of many educators whoteach writing to students with learning disabilities is that the pro-duction of so-called low-level skills is a necessary prerequisite to theacquisition of composing skills (Bryson & Scardamalia, 1991).

    This view of teaching writing is being challenged by contemporaryeducators. The newer model stresses enriched writing environmentsfor all students including those with learning disabilities, and anemphasis on "writing to learn" rather than "learning to write" as anisolated practice engaged in for its own sake.

    CHANGING NEEDS IN THE PREPARATION OFGENERAL EDUCATION TEACHERS

    Educational service delivery to children with and without disabilitiesin the public schools is changing. Due to the movement toward inclu-sive classrooms, the task of teaching writing to students with learn-ing disabilities is more and more becoming the responsibility of thegeneral education teacher, albeit with support and consultation fromprofessionals in special education. The challenge for teacher educa-tion programs in colleges and universities is the preparation ofgeneral education teachers who can skillfully and competently workwith children who have learning handicaps.

    In an attempt to help preservice students gain a more completeunderstanding of the ways portfolios can be used to enhance thewriting skills of all students, including those who are learning dis-abled, a project was undertaken in a preservice methods class thatused the portfolio as a vehicle for teacher-trainees to gain insightsregarding the needs of special learners and the task of writing.

    Description of the Portfolio ProjectIn the identified preservice methods course each teacher-trainee waspaired with a fifth-grade student from an elementary school in anurban school district. The school had adopted the inclusion model forthe delivery of special education services. During the second classmeeting of the semester, teacher-trainees were assigned to a pen palvia introductory letters written by the fifth graders. The preserviceteachers chose a particular pen pal on the basis of the personal infor-mation provided by the young student. An attempt was made tomatch pen pals who had similar interests.

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  • 310 C. B. Hansen

    The preservice teachers had learned the basics of portfolio assess-ment in a previous course and were now being instructed in themethods of teaching writing skills to elementary students.The course goals established that the focus of the writing portfoliowas twofold: (1) to give the teacher-trainees insights into the com-plexities of teaching of writing to elementary-school children ininclusive classrooms, and (2) to give the teacher-trainees anopportunity to engage in the reflective writing process themselves, sothat they could practice using the process in an authentic setting. Tomeet the objectives of the course, the teacher-trainee learned to use avariety of techniques for assessing themselves and the writing ofelementary-school students. In this way, they learned through experi-ence how authentic assessment helps identify the progress and needareas of students with learning disabilities in general educationwriting classes.

    The students' portfolios had three sections. In section one, whichcontained the actual letters that they received from their student penpals, teacher-trainees were required to analyze the writing samplesand diagnose the writers' strengths and weaknesses. They then wereasked to plan appropriate lessons in writing that matched the skillneeds of their pen pals. In this way they were able to see how instruc-tion in writing needed to address specific learning goals for eachstudent. This exercise also was designed to strengthen the resolve ofnew teachers to plan appropriate writing experiences for all their stu-dents, including those diagnosed with learning disabilities.

    The second section contained reflections from their practicumexperience. A 40-hour practicum is required of all teacher-trainees inwhich they provide classroom assistance to credentialled teachers. Aspreviously mentioned, credential candidates are expected to demon-strate an understanding of how to teach writing to students ofvarying abilities and to demonstrate an understanding of the variousassessment techniques that are available to a writing teacher.

    The third section of the portfolio inclined other forms of reflectivewritings. These other writing entries were chosen by the teacher-trainees and indicated a measure of their willingness to extend theirlearning beyond our classroom and the practicum experience. Theyread widely in professional journals and in trade books about thewriting process and about special considerations when teaching tostudents with learning disabilities. They observed special educationteachers as they were engaged in writing instruction both in inclu-sive and noninclusive settings. They conducted interviews withparents of children who have learning problems. Several developedphilosophy statements for the teaching of writing. After each of these

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  • Using Reflective Portfolios to Teach Writing 311

    activities, they deepened their understandings by writing their ownreflective summary statements.

    Throughout the semester I attempted to ascertain the effectivenessof the writing portfolios for demonstrating progress toward goals. Atthe end of the semester each teacher-trainee brought his or her port-folio to a conference with the instructor and was asked to (1)comment on how the writing of a fifth-grade student evolved over thesemester and (2) talk about the organization of the portfolio and howthe writings supported his or her own reflective thinking processes.

    We all agreed that the development of a portfolio was a learningexperience that could not be measured in a standard way with singlegrade. The best evidence of this comes from the teacher candidates intheir reflective written summaries of the project. I have excerpted afew comments so that the reader may get a glimpse into the learning'sof the teacher-trainees regarding their growth in understanding howto teach writing to children in inclusive settings and their growth inthe reflective process itself.

    "The pen-pal project not only gave me an opportunity to observe thedevelopment of writing skills, it also enriched my life."

    "Exchanging letters with a young child helped me to reflect a littleon the developmental stages of writing that children go through. Mypen-pal's ability to convey thoughts through writing improved quite abit from September to December. I will remember that writing is aprocess for students and to allow time for growth to occur."

    "In this pen-pal project, even the fifth graders who had learningproblems got to participate along with the other students. The studentsreally enjoyed their writing assignments and were able to create newfriendships as a by-product of this project."

    "Through the pen-pal project I learned that authentic writing experi-ences are the best way to engage any student in the writing process.This is especially true for students who have learning handicaps. Theyimproved in their writing skills and they felt very much a part of thewhole classroom. The teacher did not need to isolate these students, butcould teach them what they needed to learn when they needed to learnit. I know I will carry this insight with me into my own teaching andtry to make all work come from relevant experiences."

    "As I went out to my practicum each week I felt I gained more con-fidence in how to teach writing to children, and at the same time, Ilearned how complex teaching is. I learned that students with learningdisabilities make the same kinds of mistakes on their papers as the stu-dents who are not identified as learning disabled. That tells me that Ican teach writing to all the students at the same time and individualizewhere necessary for children with learning disabilities."

    "The practicum helped me to sort out important learnings. I can see

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  • 312 C. B. Hansen

    from reflecting on my own entries what is essential and what is not inthe teaching of writing to children who may have special needs. Theportfolio can help young students to do the same thingto write andreflect on what they have written."

    "The practicum class has been very instructive and informative. Ihave learned that my own reflections on the teaching of writing areactually a learning record of my own growth in understanding theneeds of students."

    "The most important thing I learned by doing this portfolio is to beconsiderate of the differences in students. I had a chance to read andponder writings about children's learning styles. Being aware of achild's differences reminds me to be more patient when a studentdemonstrates a learning style different from mine."

    "Doing this portfolio has made me learn more about myself. It was anew way for me to learn. I have become more thoughtful and introspec-tive about what I hope to accomplish. I will use writing portfolios withmy students."

    "This portfolio made me think about differences in writing styles ofchildren. One of the artifacts that I decided to include is a sample of achild's writing. I learned much from analyzing the piece and conferen-cing with the child. Writing is a process and it takes special care toteach it right."

    CONCLUSIONS DRAWN FROM THE PROJECT

    The development of individual portfolios is a difficult process at best.This special project revealed to all of us that reflection via writing isa key component to ownership of course objectives for each individ-ual. The somewhat loose organization of the portfolio combined withclearly defined sections allowed for maximum individualization in thecourse and the practicum experiences. The pen-pal project and thepairing of each teacher-trainee with an elementary-school child pro-vided the capstone experience for the course and allowed each candi-date the opportunity to have a nontraditional experience of enteringthe world of a child through the magical door of the written word.The entire writing portfolio more than met its stated goals and crys-tallized learnings for everyone connected with the project.

    GUIDELINES FOR USING WRITING PORTFOLIOS INTHE CLASSROOM

    Even though the project described here was used to assist preserviceteachers in their efforts to teach writing to young students, the readermay benefit from some general information regarding guidelines for

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  • Using Reflective Portfolios to Teach Writing 313

    development of writing portfolios in any classroom, types of port-folios that can be utilized, what to include in portfolios, and somecautions regarding the judging of portfolios. Here the goal is not todescribe methods used for writing instruction, but to demonstrate thepowerful effect a writing portfolio can have on the improvement ofwriting for all learners, including those who have learning dis-abilities. In fact, the portfolio feels very safe for a student who hasdifficulties with the writing process. The portfolio is private, it is self-managing, and it demonstrates to students themselves that they arelearning how to express themselves more clearly through the writtenword.

    Portfolio GuidelinesPaulson, Paulson, and Meyer (1991) have developed guidelines tomake better use of portfolios for assessing writing.

    In the development of a writing portfolio students are offered theopportunity to learn about writing through their own writing andsubsequent reflection; therefore, the end product must containinformation that shows that a student has engaged in self-reflection.

    Students must be given the opportunity to select pieces of writingfor the portfolio, because one of the goals of portfolio assessment isto learn to value their own work and, by extension, to value them-selves as learners.

    The portfolio should contain information that illustrates growth inwriting by including a series of examples of actual writings thatshow how students' skills have improved.

    The most important information to be gleaned from the guidelinesis that instructors should keep in mind the evolving nature of port-folio assessment and ensure that students are invited to participate inthis process at every available juncture.

    Types of PortfoliosThe two most common types of portfolios used in classrooms are therepresentational and the developmental. Representational, or bestwork, portfolios are final collections of student work, selected andmanaged by the students for self-evaluation, They contain final draftsof students' writings meant to portray the best academic experiencesand professional work of the students.

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  • 314 C. B. Hansen

    Developmental portfolios contain work samples that representstudent growth over time and involve the assembling of a large col-lection of materials, documents, pictures, papers, letters, certificates,lesson plans, projects, student work samples, and audio and/or videotapes. It is the developmental portfolio that has begun to be morepopular with educators. Such artifact collections, it is believed,portray students in a more holistic manner as they achieve masteryin various competencies (Uphoff, 1989).

    Contents of PortfoliosWhile the contents of a particular portfolio is shaped by the uniqueneeds of each candidate, Kenfield (1994) suggested instructors ad-here to specific guidelines. They should contain written material,including:

    Formal writingsamples of student writing, some of which haveundergone the writing process and include multiple drafts of thepiece.

    Anecdotal writingstudent-selected journal and log entries. Writing samples from class work and homework. Student-established goals for year's academic progress. Student reflection: self-assessment of progress, attainment of goals,

    writing skills development, attitudes toward self and school.

    It is this last recommendation that should receive the primaryemphasis. For the special education student, reflection is one of thebest ways for them to be active participants in setting goals for theirown learning. Too often writing goals for special education studentsare set by others without any input at all from the identified student.

    Judging Portfolios: Cautions and Suggestions

    The more attempts there are to quantify what portfolio outcomesshould be, the more threatening portfolios may become. If the deci-sion is to rate or score portfolios, Valencia (1990) suggested the fol-lowing standards, which might provide further guidance:

    Holistic methods can be used to score writing samples. Rubrics can be established and standardized to a high degree. Students can participate in the grading process as they engage in

    self-evaluation and the selection of work for their portfolios.

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  • Using Reflective Portfolios to Teach Writing 315

    A sample rubric is shown in Figure 1 to help teachers with theoftentimes difficult task of rating a portfolio. Again, the more stu-dents are involved with the entire portfolio process, the more owner-ship they will have for the evaluation of the portfolio.

    SUMMARY

    Portfolios are an effective next rung in the ladder toward person-alizing education. They not only provide an active engagement of theparticipant in his or her learning but they offer the instructor a rareand exciting opportunity to know each student through the myriad ofwritten reflections. Kenfield (1994) captured the essence of this

    Sample Evaluation Rubric for Portfolios

    exceeds standard meets standard approaches standard does not meet standard

    4 2 2 1

    CONCEPTS:

    Demonstrates anunderstanding ofmajor ideas/concepts

    ORGANIZATION:

    Clear and well-organized;all parts support the

    whole

    HIGHER LEVEL THINKING:

    Portfolio demonstratesanalysis and synthesis;shows reflective thinking

    MECHANICS

    Appearance is accepFigure;meets project criteria

    FIGURE 1 Sample portfolio evaluation rubric.

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  • 316 C. B. Hansen

    feeling in her final advice to teachers who are considering the use ofportfolios:

    Portfolios are best used to assess growth over time; thus, thewriting entries must be a procession of evidence of student progressand versatility.

    Teachers, maintain your own writing portfolio. Share it with yourstudents. Begin to compile examples of your own growth during theyear. Share your writing, your art, your own thoughtful reflection.Be aware of the power of what you model.

    As students collect their writing samples, they must reflect onthem. They will grow through reflection, develop confidencethrough reflection, gain a sense of self as thinker and scholar and awriter.

    Don't try to implement it all at once. Start small, but have bigplans. Have an exploratory attitude. You are a teacher-researcher,a reflective practitioner, a trailblazer.

    REFERENCES

    Aitken, J. E. (1993, April). Empowering students and faculty through portfolio assess-ment. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Central States CommunicationAssociation, Lexington, KY.

    Brandt, R. (1991). Time for reflection. Educational Leadership, 48, 3.Brown, D. (1994, February). Integrating authentic assessment with social studies. Paper

    presented at the California Elementary Association, Torrance, CA.Bryson, M., & Scardamalia, M. (1991). Teaching writing to students at risk for aca-

    demic failure. In B. Means, C. Chelemer, & M. Knapp (Eds.), Teaching advancedskills to at risk students (pp. 141-167). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Cirincione, K. M., & Michael, D. (1994). Literacy portfolios in third grade: A school-college collaboration. Reading Horizons, 34, 443-164.

    Cruickshank, D., & Metcalf, K. (1990). Training within teacher preparation. In W. R.Houston (Ed.), Handbook of research on teacher education (pp. 485-492). New York:Macmillan.

    Ford, M. P. (1994, July). Establishing a portfolio culture in teacher education courses:Providing an alternative context for learners. Paper presented at the meeting of theIRA World Congress on Reading, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Ford, M. P., & Olhausen, M. M. (1991, June). Portfolio assessment in teacher educationcourses: Impact on students' beliefs, attitudes and habits. Paper presented at themeeting of the National Reading Conference, Palm Springs, CA.

    Frazier, D. W., Palmer, P. S., Duchein, M. A., & Armato, C. (1993). Preservice elemen-tary teachers' evolving perceptions of portfolio assessment. In D. J. Leu & C. K.Kinzer (Eds.), Examining central issues in literacy: Research, theory and practice.Chicago: National Reading Conference.

    Grant, C. A., & Zeichner, K. M. (1984). On becoming a reflective teacher. In C. A. Grant(Ed.), Preparing for reflective teaching (pp. 140-147). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

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  • Using Reflective Portfolios to Teach Writing 317

    Hewitt, G. (1993). New standards takes close look at portfolios. The National Councilof Teachers of English. Council Chronicle, 3.

    Kenfield, K. (1994, February). Getting ESL kids in the act. Paper presented at themeeting of the California Elementary Education Association, Torrance, CA.

    Noddings, N. (1992). The challenge to care in schools. New York: Teachers CollegePress.

    Paulson, F., Paulson, P., & Meyer, C. (1991). What makes a portfolio a portfolio? Edu-cational Leadership, 48, 660-663.

    Schon, D. A. (1987). Educating the reflective practitioner. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Stahle, D. L., & Mitchell, J. P. (1993). Portfolio assessment in college methods courses:

    Practicing what we preach. Journal of Reading, 36, 538-542.Uphoff, J. K. (1989). Portfolio development and use: The why's, how's, and what's.

    Department of Teacher Education, College of Education and Human Services.Dayton, OH: Wright State University.

    Valencia, S. (1990). A portfolio approach to classroom reading assessment. ReadingTeacher, 43, 338-340.

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