vce psychology exam revision unit 1

Download Vce psychology exam revision unit 1

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  • 1. E X A M R E V I S I O N 2 0 1 2VCE PsychologyUnit One
  • 2. Chapter 1: Nature of Psychology The roots of psychology lie inphilosophy. Can be traced back to AncientGreek philosophers such asSocrates, Plato & Aristotle. Wilhelm Wundt establishedthe first laboratory forinvestigating psychologicalphenomena in 1879.
  • 3. Chapter 1: Nature of Psychology Freud developedPsychoanalysis astreatment for mentaldisorders. Modern Psychology isbased on empiricism-gathering data usingmethodical research.
  • 4. Chapter 1: Nature of Psychology The major perspectives are: Biological Behavioural Cognitive Socio-Cultural (Big Ben Chimes Slowly) or(Big Ben Cats Stroke)
  • 5. Psychologist vs Psychiatrist Psychologists are not ableto perform medicalprocedures or prescribemedication as they are notqualified doctors likepsychiatrists.
  • 6. Some Types of Psychologists Sport Psychologist Forensic Psychologist Organisational Psychologist Educational & DevelopmentalPsychologist Counselling Psychologist Clinical Psychologist
  • 7. Chapter 2: Research Methods Population refers to the group ofpeople of interest to theresearcher. It is the group aboutwhich the researcher wishes todraw conclusions. Sample-the members of thepopulation who have beenchosen to take part ion theresearch (A subset of thepopulation)
  • 8. Some Guys Prefer IndiViduals That Rock Sample-eg Two large groups of identical members of the sample kept inthe same environmental conditions . State a specific number (of reasonablemagnitude) in each group, instead of simply describing a large group orreplication of the experiment.Group_ Divide the sample into two groups of equal size-One is theexperimental Group and One is the Control Group.I Pretest-infection of both groups with the virus against which the drug hasbeen designed. Independent Variable-One of the groups then needed to receive nofurther treatment (the control group), the other group (the trial group)receives the drug under investigation Timeafter a few days, each of the groups needs to Examined -thenumber of mice that have developed the viral disease in each group counted. Results-If the number of mice in the trial group is significantly less thanthe number in the control group, the drug has been effective.S SampleG Allocate to 2 Groups (Experimental group andControl Group)P PretreatmentIV State the Independe4nt VariableT TimeR Results
  • 9. Sampling Convenience Sample-readilyavailable without any attemptto make the samplerepresentative of thepopulation Random Sample-everymember of population has anequal chance of beingselected
  • 10. Stratified Sampling Random-Stratified Sample-involves identifying all ofthe people within eachstratum of researchinterest, then randomlyselecting samples ofproportionate size fromeach stratum
  • 11. Descriptive Research Case Study-an intensive indepth investigation of somebehaviour or event of interestin an individual, small groupor situation. Observational Study-involvescollection of data by carefullywatching and recordingbehaviour as it occurs.
  • 12. Presentation of ResultsIf you use a graph to show yourresults, you would normally graph theindependent variable (the one youchanged) on the x-axis, and the dependentvariable (what you measured) on the y-axis.When the dependent variable changeswith time, you can graph time on the x-axis and the dependent variable on they-axis.
  • 13. Continuous Data Data that can take onan infinite number ofvalues between wholenumbers. Examples:height, temperatureand time This data is presentedon a line graphGrowth of Plant024681012141 2 3 4 5Time (days)Height(cm)ControlXYZ
  • 14. Discontinuous Data (Discrete Data) Data in which thevariable can only takeone of a finite set ofvalues Columns should nottouch if data isdiscreteHeight of Plant02468101214control X Y ZFertilizerHeight(cm)
  • 15. Qualitative Data Deals with descriptions. Data can be observed but notmeasured. Colors, textures, smells, tastes, appearance, beauty, etc. Qualitative Quality
  • 16. Quantitative Data Deals with numbers. Data which can bemeasured. Length, height, weight, speed, time, temperature, ages, etc. Quantitative Quantity
  • 17. Ethics Voluntary Participation Informed Consent Deception Confidentiality Debreifing Withdrawal Rights Very Intelligent Dudes Can Do Well
  • 18. Chapter 3: The Visual Perception System Consists of a completenetwork of physiologicalstructures involved in vision. Includes eyes, sensoryreceptors (retina), neuralpathways and the visualcortex.
  • 19. Chapter 3: The Visual Perception System 1. Visual sensation: Detection or awareness of the presence oflight energy produced by stimulation of thephoto receptors on the retina. It is a physiological process. It is the same for everyone withoutdamage..
  • 20. Perception 2. Visual perception: Selection, organisation andinterpretation of visualsensations by the brain intomeaningful info. This is influenced byphysiological and psychologicalfactors, therefore is a uniqueexperience for everyone
  • 21. Response to Light The human eye is sensitive to a verynarrow band of electromagneticspectrum, this is called the visiblelight spectrum. This spectrum starts at shortwavelengths of 380nanometres (1billionth of a metre), which areviolet/blue and ends at largerwavelengths of 760nm, which areorange/red in colour.
  • 22. Anatomy of the Eye Ciliary muscle: to control the shape of thelens Iris: to control the amount of light enteringthe lens Pupil: to allow light through Lens: to converge light to form a sharpimage on the retina Cornea: to bend light towards the lens Retina: to act as a screen for the image Optic nerve: to carry signals from theretina to the brain
  • 23. Process of Sensation & Perception Reception: The process of detecting the presence of, orchanges in, light energy in the retina. Transduction: The process by which photoreceptors changeelectromagnetic energy into electrochemicalenergy. Transmission: The process of sending and receiving informationin the form of electrochemical energy along anerve pathway to the brain.
  • 24. Selection The detection and coding offeatures of a stimulus, such as size, colour andmovement. Organisation The grouping of elements tobe viewed in a meaningful way. Interpretation The process by which thewhole is given meaning. This is done bycomparing new info. with info. already storedin memory.
  • 25. Perceptual Principles Gestalt Principles: German word meaning shapeand form. T

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