Visitor Counter

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<p>`</p> <p>`</p> <p>` `</p> <p>A people counter is a device used to measure the number and direction of people traversing a certain passage or entrance per unit time. The resolution of the measurement is entirely dependent on the sophistication of the technology employed. The device is often used at the entrance of a building so that the total number of visitors can be recorded. Many different technologies are used in people counter devices, such as infrared beams, computer vision , thermal imaging and pressure-sensitive mats.</p> <p>` ` ` `</p> <p>INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVE CURRENT TECHNOLOGY FINDING ANALYSIS</p> <p>`` ` ` `</p> <p>WorkingCONCLUSION APPLICTION LIMITATION REFRENCE</p> <p>` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` `</p> <p>1.Title 2Introduction 3.Aim 4.Block Diagram 5.Technichal Detail 6.Innovation 7.Current status and development 8.Market potential 9.Application &amp; Limitations 10.References</p> <p>BLOCK DIAGRAM</p> <p>PARTS OF VISITOR COUNTER ` INFRARED SENSER(TRANSMITTER , RECEIVER) ` LM7805C IC (VOLTAGE REGULATOR IC) ` LM324N IC (COMPARATOR IC) ` DM74LS190N IC(BCD COUNTER IC) ` SN74LS47N IC(BCD TO 7-SEGMENT IC) ` 7 SEGMENT DISPLAY</p> <p>`</p> <p>IR emitter and IR phototransistor An infrared emitter is an LED made from gallium arsenide, which emits near-infrared energy at about 880nm.</p> <p>`</p> <p>The infrared phototransistor acts as a transistor with the base voltage determined by the amount of light hitting the transistor. Hence it acts as a variable current source. Greater amount of IR light cause greater currents to flow through the collector-emitter leads.</p> <p>INFRARED SENSER</p> <p>` ` ` `</p> <p>`</p> <p>Output current in excess of 1A Internal thermal overload protection No external components required Output transistor safe area protection Internal short circuit current limit Available in the aluminum TO-3 package</p> <p>LM7805C IC</p> <p>`</p> <p>` ` `</p> <p>`</p> <p>` `</p> <p>Internally frequency compensated for unity gain Large DC voltage gain 100 dB Wide bandwidth (unity gain) 1 MHz (temperature compensated) Wide power supply range: Single supply 3V to 32V or dual supplies 1.5V to 16V Very low supply current drain (700 A)-essentially independent of supply voltage Differential input voltage range equal to the power supply voltage Large output voltage swing 0V to V+ - 1.5V</p> <p>LM324N IC</p> <p>` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` `</p> <p>Features Counts 8-4-2-1 BCD or binary Single down/up count control line Count enable control input Ripple clock output for cascading Asynchronously presettable with load control Parallel outputs Cascadable for n-bit applications Average propagation delay 20 ns Typical clock frequency 25 MHz Typical power dissipation 100 mW</p> <p>DM74LS190N IC</p> <p>`</p> <p>Open collector output drives indicator directly Lamp test provision Leading /trailing zero suppression</p> <p>`</p> <p>`</p> <p>SN74LS47N IC</p> <p>`</p> <p>`</p> <p>seven-segment display, or indicator, is a form of electronic display device for displaying decimal numerals th at is an alternative to the more complex dot-matrix displays. Seven-segment displays are widely used in digital clocks, electronicmeters, and other electronic devices for displaying numerical information.</p> <p>7 SEGMENT DISPLAY</p> <p>`</p> <p>`</p> <p>` `</p> <p>A people counter is a device used to measure the number and direction of people traversing a certain passage or entrance per unit time. The resolution of the measurement is entirely dependent on the sophistication of the technology employed. The device is often used at the entrance of a building so that the total number of visitors can be recorded. Many different technologies are used in people counter devices, such as infrared beams, computer vision , thermal imaging and pressure-sensitive mats.</p> <p>`</p> <p>`</p> <p>`</p> <p>To provide the counting solution of entities by infrared beam. Accurate and precise counting can be possible through this technology. When ir beam obstructed then other part of circuitry start working of counting.</p> <p>`</p> <p>1 Technologies1.1 Tally counter 1.2 Infrared beams 1.3 Computer vision 1.4 Thermal imaging 1.5.Synthetic intelligence</p> <p>`</p> <p>`</p> <p>`</p> <p>Counters detection are useful for counting of objects or people moving along a predefined path. These may find application as visitor counters and also for counting of objects both the directions. The counter section consists of two IR LEDS, three photodiode detectors. The movement of objects including the direction of their movement is detected by the arrangement of the IR LED and photodiode detector pairs. The photodiode of each pair is mounted opposite to its corresponding IR LED fall directly on the photodiode detector. When any person or object interrupts the light path of the first IR LEDphotodiode pair, the IR signal will be interrupted from falling on IR receiver. Now when the same person/object interrupts the second pair of IR LED2 and photodiode, the signal at the second IR pair will be disturbed.</p> <p>`</p> <p>`</p> <p>` `</p> <p>` `</p> <p>This system employs multiple IR transceivers to create a count zone at ankle height. The artificial intelligence counters function in a similar way to the human brain, in other words, each event is evaluated in terms of features to determine the correct outcome i.e. count per direction. As a person passes the count zone a pattern is generated. The onboard processor extracts the features of the pattern and based on what it has been taught makes a decision regarding the event by brute force calculation.</p> <p>`</p> <p>` ` ` `</p> <p>High accuracy, in correct conditions sometimes over 98%. Directional information Flexible in customization Highly scalable when embedded in IP cameras Integration with other systems</p> <p>` ` ` ` ` ` ` `</p> <p>Accuracy can be affected by differing light levels Cannot be used with ceiling heights below 2.2m Most basic beam sensors are limited to non-directional counts Can't discern people walking side-by-side Cannot count high volume, uninterrupted traffic High potential to become blocked by people standing in an entrance or by merchandise or displays Infra-red beam counters may be negatively affected when subject to direct sunlight</p> <p>`</p> <p>` `</p> <p>http://books.google.com/books?id=jzhPAAAAMAA J, Manual of traffic engineering studies, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/People_counter"</p>