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Download 1 Designing Effective Online Collaborative Learning Environments Robert L. Jorczak Constance Pepin University of Minnesota

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  • Slide 1
  • 1 Designing Effective Online Collaborative Learning Environments Robert L. Jorczak Constance Pepin University of Minnesota
  • Slide 2
  • 2 Educational Trends Distributed Learning via the Internet aka: online, e-learning, web-based Collaborative Learning aka: cooperative, peer-to-peer, group Combination = Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL)
  • Slide 3
  • 3 What is Collaborative Learning? Peer-to-Peer Interaction & Guidance Small (2-5) group learning activities e.g., Discussion (of predefined tasks) Cooperative Learning (Johnson & Johnson) Positive interdependence (shared goals) Individual accountability Promotive interaction Group social skills Group processing (self-assessment)
  • Slide 4
  • 4 What is CSCL Discussion? Text only versus A/V conferencing Synchronous (chat) versus asynchronous (forums) Instructor guidance via task specification and discussion moderation Software application characteristics Hierarchies and threads
  • Slide 5
  • 5 Small Group Discussion Task Is online discussion for learning a good or bad idea? Are there any advantages? What are some of the disadvantages?
  • Slide 6
  • 6 Online Discussion Issues Variable online technology skills Mediation of communication (filtering) and its effect on social presence (Short et al., 1976) Discussion divergence/convergence Effects of writing on discussion Scheduling issues
  • Slide 7
  • 7 Online Skills & Tool Issues Variation in online skills: age, gender, SES
  • Slide 8
  • 8 Online Skills & Tool Issues Variation in online skills: age, gender, SES Becoming less of a problem over time Effect of application functions and interface Graphic representations, labeling, anchored discussion Recommendations: Provide training and help and start slowly Consider needs and goal when choosing an application
  • Slide 9
  • 9 Filtering & Social Presence Lack of cues (inflection, body language, etc.) may hinder communication and social presence
  • Slide 10
  • 10 Filtering & Social Presence Lack of cues (inflection, body language, etc.) may hinder communication and social presence Compensation: emoticons, chat speak, creative punctuation Social presence can and does occur in online discussion (e.g., Clark, 2000; Gunawardena, 1997; Ubon & Kimble, 2004) Recommendations: provide for self disclosure and humor (Rourke et. al, 1999)
  • Slide 11
  • 11 Divergence / Convergence Discussion goal: divergence, then convergence First, maximize competing ideas and argumentation (constructive conflict) Then, converge on a group consensus after processing Lack of diversity of ideas (lack of constructive conflict) Some groups diverge spontaneously, but not on task Rush to agreement, no divergence, premature convergence Groups do not spontaneously converge Andreissen, 2006; Andreissen et al., 2003
  • Slide 12
  • 12 Divergence / Convergence Recommendations: Increase constructive conflict (e.g., with academic controversies) (Smith, Johnson & Johnson, 1984) Promote convergence via task and scripts (reach consensus)
  • Slide 13
  • 13 Small Group Discussion Task What are advantages and disadvantages of communicating only via asynchronous text?
  • Slide 14
  • 14 Asynchronous Discussion Issues What are advantages and disadvantages? Access, non-native English speakers Interaction is slowed allowing better reflection and review (Garrison, et. al, 2000; Meyer, 2003) Writing has cognitive benefits: increased organization & deeper processing (Lapadat, 2002) Recommendations: Chat for affective goals and brainstorming Asynchronous for deeper, more thoughtful processing
  • Slide 15
  • 15 Scheduling Issues Discussion must be scheduled and coordinated
  • Slide 16
  • 16 Effective Online Discussion Comments or Questions?