5-plankton diversity - .2/23/14 1 types&of&plankton& • phytoplankton& • zooplankton& •...

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2/23/14

1

Types of Plankton

Phytoplankton Zooplankton Mixotrophic Plankton Meroplankton Holoplankton Neuston Pleuston

Types of Plankton

Phytoplankton - Autotrophs Zooplankton - Heterotrophs Mixotrophic Plankton Both Auto and Hetero Meroplankton - Part of life Holoplankton all of life Neuston near surface Pleuston above surface

Non-living plankton Viruses

Retroviruses use RNA HIV Some leukemia types

Viruses

Lysogenic viruses use DNA Bacteriophages Very important to marine ecosystem

hHps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UEKS4w9bfJg

Prokaryote Plankton (Bacteria)

Cyanobacteria

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Prokaryote Plankton (Bacteria)

Cyanobacteria Autotrophs or heterotrophs?

Prokaryote Plankton (Bacteria)

Cyanobacteria Autotrophs or heterotrophs?

Cell walls made up of pepXdoglycan with muramic acid

Prokaryote Plankton (Bacteria)

Cyanobacteria Autotrophs or heterotrophs?

Cell walls made up of pepXdoglycan with muramic acid

Nitrogen FixaXon

Eukaryote Plankton (Unicellular) Diatoms: Phylum Bacillariophyta Dinoflagellates: Phylum Dinophyta Foraminiferans: Phylum GranuloreXculosa Radiolarians: Phylum PolycysXna Ciliates: Phylum Ciliophora

Diatoms: Phylum Bacillariophyta

Autotrophs or heterotrophs? Unique Pigment: carotenoid Silica (glass) cell walls

Diatoms: Phylum Bacillariophyta

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Dinoflagellates: Phylum Dinophyta

Some Autotrophs, others heterotrophs Zooxanthellae: the photosyntheXc part of coral

Foraminiferans: Phylum GranuloreXculosa

Autotrophs or heterotrophs? Shell (test) : Calcium Carbonate Pseudopods http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9Lm9hUj2h_0

Radiolarians: Phylum PolycysXna

Autotrophs or heterotrophs? Shells: Silica (glass)

Ciliates: Phylum Ciliophora

Autotrophs or heterotrophs? Shells (lorica): sand Cilia: small hair like projecXons used for movement and capturing food

More than one nuclei

Eukaryote Plankton (MulXcellular) Crustaceans: Phylum Arthropoda, Subphylum Crustacea

GelaXnous organisms Cnidarians: Phylum Cnidaria, Class Scyphozoa, Class Hydrozoa, Class Cubozoa

Comb Jellies: Phylum Ctenophora Salps: Phylum Chordata, Subphylum Urochordata

Phylum Arthropoda

Most marine species are Crustaceans Unique traXs:

Exoskeleton of chiXn (NOT CHITON) Tagma Molt to grow

Bilateral symmetry Segmented

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Copepods

Really long first antennae

Copepods

Most abundant plankton >70%

Autotrophs or heterotrophs?

Krill

Autotrophs or heterotrophs? Shrimp-like, planktonic

Krill Swim in schools Found in polar waters

Cnidarians! Phylum Cnidaria

Radial symmetry Varying lifestyles (some benthic, some planktonic)

Asexual and Sexual reproducXon Some filter feed, most predatory

Unique traits: Cnidocytes with nematocysts

Cnidocytes hHp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6zJiBc_N1Zk

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Class Hydrozoa

Siphonophores

Class Scyphozoa (true jellies)

Class Cubozoa

Most dangerous jellies

Phylum Chordata (without backbones = protochordates)

Bilateral symmetry Endoskeleton All chordates have:

1. Hollow nerve cord 2. Pharyngeal gill slits 3. Notochord 4. Post-anal tail

Subphylum Urochordata

Tunicates, sea squirts, ascidians

Prokaryote Benthos (Bacteria)

Cyanobacteria Create stromatolites (large organic blocks that have been around for millions of years)

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