are you a good eyewitness? are you a good eyewitness?

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Are You A Good Eyewitness?

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Page 1: Are You A Good Eyewitness? Are You A Good Eyewitness?

Are You A Good Eyewitness?

Page 2: Are You A Good Eyewitness? Are You A Good Eyewitness?

ForgettingForgetting

Forgetting is a result of Forgetting is a result of either:either:

1.1. Encoding FailureEncoding Failure

2.2. Storage Decay OR Storage Decay OR

3.3. Retrieval FailureRetrieval Failure

Page 3: Are You A Good Eyewitness? Are You A Good Eyewitness?

Forgetting As Encoding Forgetting As Encoding FailureFailure

Information never enters the Information never enters the memory systemmemory system

Page 4: Are You A Good Eyewitness? Are You A Good Eyewitness?

Encoding Failure: Which Penny is Encoding Failure: Which Penny is the Real Deal?the Real Deal?

Page 5: Are You A Good Eyewitness? Are You A Good Eyewitness?

Forgetting As InterferenceForgetting As InterferenceLearning some items may disrupt Learning some items may disrupt

retrieval of other information. retrieval of other information. Sometimes new memories interfere with Sometimes new memories interfere with

storing old memories – teachers often storing old memories – teachers often forget names of former students as they forget names of former students as they learn the names of their current learn the names of their current studentsstudents

Sometimes old memories interfere with Sometimes old memories interfere with new memories – Cable channel lineup new memories – Cable channel lineup changes changes

Page 6: Are You A Good Eyewitness? Are You A Good Eyewitness?

Storage Loss: AmnesiaStorage Loss: AmnesiaAmnesiaAmnesia refers to the refers to the

loss of memory.loss of memory.Amnesiac patients Amnesiac patients

typically have losses in typically have losses in explicit memory.explicit memory.

Page 7: Are You A Good Eyewitness? Are You A Good Eyewitness?

Types of Amnesia Types of Amnesia Anterograde Amnesia:Anterograde Amnesia: type of memory loss type of memory loss

where patients are UNABLE TO FORM ANY NEW where patients are UNABLE TO FORM ANY NEW MEMORIES. Can’t remember anything that has MEMORIES. Can’t remember anything that has occurred AFTER a traumatic head injury. occurred AFTER a traumatic head injury.

Retrograde Amnesia:Retrograde Amnesia: type of memory loss type of memory loss where patients are UNABLE TO REMEMBER where patients are UNABLE TO REMEMBER PAST EVENTS. May forget everything that PAST EVENTS. May forget everything that happened BEFORE a traumatic head injury. happened BEFORE a traumatic head injury.

Page 8: Are You A Good Eyewitness? Are You A Good Eyewitness?

Revisiting Terms: Retrieval Revisiting Terms: Retrieval FailureFailure

Tip of the Tongue phenomenon:Tip of the Tongue phenomenon: when we are certain we know when we are certain we know something yet we are unable to something yet we are unable to recall it. recall it.

Relates to retrieval failure, usually Relates to retrieval failure, usually priming or external cues will help priming or external cues will help you recall the information you are you recall the information you are looking for. looking for.

Page 9: Are You A Good Eyewitness? Are You A Good Eyewitness?

Motivated ForgettingMotivated ForgettingMotivated Forgetting is the idea Motivated Forgetting is the idea

that people unknowingly revise that people unknowingly revise their history. Ex: I broke up with their history. Ex: I broke up with her; she didn’t break up with me. her; she didn’t break up with me.

What purpose might motivated What purpose might motivated forgetting serve?forgetting serve?

Page 10: Are You A Good Eyewitness? Are You A Good Eyewitness?

Motivated Forgetting As A Motivated Forgetting As A Freudian ConceptFreudian Concept

Repression:Repression: idea put forth idea put forth by psychoanalytic theorists by psychoanalytic theorists like Freud which states like Freud which states anxiety arousing thoughts, anxiety arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories can feelings, and memories can be banished from be banished from consciousness.consciousness.

Ex: child abuse, rape, incest Ex: child abuse, rape, incest may be repressed and not be may be repressed and not be able to be actively recalled.able to be actively recalled.

Page 11: Are You A Good Eyewitness? Are You A Good Eyewitness?

Freud believed Repression was Freud believed Repression was a Defense Mechanisma Defense Mechanism

Freud argued individuals often “forgot” Freud argued individuals often “forgot” traumatic incidents to protect their self traumatic incidents to protect their self concepts and to minimize external anxiety.concepts and to minimize external anxiety.

Freud argued “Forgotten” incidents are Freud argued “Forgotten” incidents are banished the “unconscious.”banished the “unconscious.”

The incidents may cause you to have The incidents may cause you to have unexplained phobias or problems, that unexplained phobias or problems, that won’t be helped until you uncover the won’t be helped until you uncover the incident. incident.

Page 12: Are You A Good Eyewitness? Are You A Good Eyewitness?

Repression and Controversy of Repression and Controversy of Child AbuseChild Abuse

In the late 1980’s a book came out called In the late 1980’s a book came out called “The Courage to Heal” which encouraged “The Courage to Heal” which encouraged people to recover memories of abuse. people to recover memories of abuse.

Following the book, “Recover Memory Following the book, “Recover Memory Therapists” arose in great numbers and Therapists” arose in great numbers and many people began reporting incidents of many people began reporting incidents of “repressed” abuse.“repressed” abuse.

Sometimes “repressed memories” were Sometimes “repressed memories” were used as evidence against individuals in used as evidence against individuals in court cases. court cases.

Page 13: Are You A Good Eyewitness? Are You A Good Eyewitness?

Defining Memory Defining Memory ConstructionConstruction

Memory Construction refers to the idea that Memory Construction refers to the idea that memories are NOT objective recordings of memories are NOT objective recordings of the actual events we experience.the actual events we experience.

Our memories are often affected by our Our memories are often affected by our pre-existing schemas and involve pre-existing schemas and involve information filtering and interpretations.information filtering and interpretations.

We can have real memories of events that We can have real memories of events that never took place or that are filled with never took place or that are filled with inaccuracy because we fill in memory gaps inaccuracy because we fill in memory gaps with plausible guesses. with plausible guesses.

Page 14: Are You A Good Eyewitness? Are You A Good Eyewitness?

Loftus VideosLoftus Videos

The Bunny EffectLost in a MallLost in a Mall

Page 15: Are You A Good Eyewitness? Are You A Good Eyewitness?

Misinformation Effect and Misinformation Effect and Memory ConstructionMemory Construction

Misinformation Misinformation Effect:Effect: incorporating incorporating misleading information misleading information into one's memory of into one's memory of an event. an event.

Children are most Children are most susceptible to the susceptible to the misinformation effect. misinformation effect.

Page 16: Are You A Good Eyewitness? Are You A Good Eyewitness?

Memory Construction Memory Construction ContinuedContinued

Source Amnesia:Source Amnesia: attributing to the wrong attributing to the wrong source an event that we source an event that we experienced, heard experienced, heard about, read about, or about, read about, or imagined (misattribution)imagined (misattribution)Ex: Reagan’s story about Ex: Reagan’s story about

WWII gunner was actually WWII gunner was actually from a movie he saw. from a movie he saw.

Hillary Clinton had the Hillary Clinton had the same occurrence during same occurrence during an election when she an election when she claimed she rode on a claimed she rode on a helicopterhelicopter

Page 17: Are You A Good Eyewitness? Are You A Good Eyewitness?

I am going to show you a list of I am going to show you a list of words. words.

Your task is to memorize the list. Your task is to memorize the list.

When I am finished I will ask you When I am finished I will ask you to recall the words by writing to recall the words by writing them down on a half sheet of them down on a half sheet of paper.paper.

Page 18: Are You A Good Eyewitness? Are You A Good Eyewitness?

BedBed

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ClockClock

Page 20: Are You A Good Eyewitness? Are You A Good Eyewitness?

DreamDream

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NightNight

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TurnTurn

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DozeDoze

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MattressMattress

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SnoozeSnooze

Page 26: Are You A Good Eyewitness? Are You A Good Eyewitness?

NodNod

Page 27: Are You A Good Eyewitness? Are You A Good Eyewitness?

TiredTired

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NightNight

Page 29: Are You A Good Eyewitness? Are You A Good Eyewitness?

ArtichokeArtichoke

Page 30: Are You A Good Eyewitness? Are You A Good Eyewitness?

InsomniaInsomnia

Page 31: Are You A Good Eyewitness? Are You A Good Eyewitness?

RestRest

Page 32: Are You A Good Eyewitness? Are You A Good Eyewitness?

TossToss

Page 33: Are You A Good Eyewitness? Are You A Good Eyewitness?

NightNight

Page 34: Are You A Good Eyewitness? Are You A Good Eyewitness?

YawnYawn

Page 35: Are You A Good Eyewitness? Are You A Good Eyewitness?

AlarmAlarm

Page 36: Are You A Good Eyewitness? Are You A Good Eyewitness?

NapNap

Page 37: Are You A Good Eyewitness? Are You A Good Eyewitness?

SnoreSnore

Page 38: Are You A Good Eyewitness? Are You A Good Eyewitness?

PillowPillow

Page 39: Are You A Good Eyewitness? Are You A Good Eyewitness?

Remember as many Remember as many words as you can. Write words as you can. Write them down on your half them down on your half

sheet of paper.sheet of paper.

Page 40: Are You A Good Eyewitness? Are You A Good Eyewitness?

Recall as many words as you can.Recall as many words as you can.

1. Bed

2. Clock

3. Dream

4. Night

5. Turn

6. Doze

7. Mattress

8. Snooze

9. Nod

10. Tired

11. Night

12. Artichoke

13. Insomnia

14. Rest

15. Toss

16. Night

17. Yawn

18. Alarm

19. Nap

20. Snore

21. Pillow

Primacy effect

Recency effect

Repetition /Rehearsal

Distinctiveness

Semantic Organization

Page 41: Are You A Good Eyewitness? Are You A Good Eyewitness?

Did you remember the word Did you remember the word sleep?sleep?