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Arterial Blood Gases Made Easy Arterial Blood Gases

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Page 1: Arterial Blood Gases Made Easy Arterial Blood Gases

Arterial Blood Gases Made EasyArterial Blood Gases

Page 2: Arterial Blood Gases Made Easy Arterial Blood Gases

Purpose of ABG• Assess degree to which lungs are

able to provide adequate oxygen & remove CO2 & degree to which the kidneys are able to reabsorb or excrete HCO3

Page 3: Arterial Blood Gases Made Easy Arterial Blood Gases

You Must Know What is Normal to be Able to Know

What is Abnormal

• pH = 7.35 to 7.45

• PaC02 = 35 to 45 mm Hg

• PaO2 = 80 to 100 mm Hg

• HCO3 = 22 – 26 mEq/l

Page 4: Arterial Blood Gases Made Easy Arterial Blood Gases

What You Must Look at to Interpret ABGs

Page 5: Arterial Blood Gases Made Easy Arterial Blood Gases

Look at Your pH• Is it normal?

• Is it high ?

• Is it low?

Page 6: Arterial Blood Gases Made Easy Arterial Blood Gases

Examples• pH = 7.36

• pH = 7.23

• pH = 7.47

• A high pH indicates alkalosis

• A low pH indicates acidosis

Page 7: Arterial Blood Gases Made Easy Arterial Blood Gases

Look at Your PaCO2• Is it normal ?

• Is it high ?

• Is it low ?

• This is the respiratory component

• An abnormality in the PaCO2 will indicate a respiratory problem

Page 8: Arterial Blood Gases Made Easy Arterial Blood Gases

Examples• PaCO2 = 40 mm Hg

• PaCO2 = 23 mm Hg

• PaCO2 = 48 mm Hg

• A high PaCO2 indicates acidity

• A low PaCO2 indicates alkalosis

Page 9: Arterial Blood Gases Made Easy Arterial Blood Gases

PaCO2• Lungs will increase or decrease

ventilation to remove the appropriate amount of CO2

• Lung compensation begins quickly

Page 10: Arterial Blood Gases Made Easy Arterial Blood Gases

Now Look at Your HCO3

• Is it normal ?

• Is it high ?

• Is it low ?

• This is the metabolic component

• An abnormality in the HCO3 indicates a metabolic problem

Page 11: Arterial Blood Gases Made Easy Arterial Blood Gases

Examples• HCO3 = 25 mEq/l

• HCO3 = 19 mEq/l

• HCO3 = 32 mEq/l

• A low HCO3 indicates acidity

• A high HCO3 indicates alkalosis

Page 12: Arterial Blood Gases Made Easy Arterial Blood Gases

HCO3• The kidneys excrete Hydrogen (acid)

& retain bicarbonate (base) to help maintain pH

• Renal compensation is slow

Page 13: Arterial Blood Gases Made Easy Arterial Blood Gases

Let’s Look at the 4 Situations that Can Occur

Page 14: Arterial Blood Gases Made Easy Arterial Blood Gases

Acidosis• Develops when:

• Excess accumulation of acid

• Decreased amount of alkali

• Can be respiratory or metabolic

Page 15: Arterial Blood Gases Made Easy Arterial Blood Gases

Metabolic AcidosisABG: Low pH (below 7.35)Decreased HCO3 (below 22)PaCo2 will be normal

Remember both the pH & HCO3 will be low

 

Page 16: Arterial Blood Gases Made Easy Arterial Blood Gases

Metabolic Acidosis• Caused by too much acid in the body

or loss of bicarbonate

• Diarrhea (loss of HCO3)

• Diabetic ketoacidosis

• Renal failure

Page 17: Arterial Blood Gases Made Easy Arterial Blood Gases

Respiratory Acidosis• ABG: • Low pH (below 7.35) • Increased PaCO2 (above 45)• HCO3 will be normal

• Remember the pH will be low & PaCO2 will be elevated (opposite)

Page 18: Arterial Blood Gases Made Easy Arterial Blood Gases

Respiratory Acidosis• Caused by acid buildup due to lungs

not eliminating CO2

• Anything that decreased respirations can cause respiratory acidosis

• Chronic respiratory disease

• CNS depression

Page 19: Arterial Blood Gases Made Easy Arterial Blood Gases

Alkalosis• Develops when:

• Excess accumulation of bicarbonate

• Loss of acid

Page 20: Arterial Blood Gases Made Easy Arterial Blood Gases

Metabolic Alkalosis• ABG:• Increase in pH (greater than 7.45)• Increased HCO3 (greater than 26)• PaCO2 will be normal

• Remember both the pH & the HCO3 will be elevated

Page 21: Arterial Blood Gases Made Easy Arterial Blood Gases

Metabolic Alkalosis• Loss of acid or increase in HCO3

• Vomiting or NG drainage (loss of Hydrogen)

• Excessive use of antacids

Page 22: Arterial Blood Gases Made Easy Arterial Blood Gases

Respiratory Alkalosis• ABG: • Increase in pH (greater than 7.45)• Decrease in PaCO2 (less than 35)• HCO3 will be normal

• Remember the pH will be high & PaCO2 will be low (opposite)

Page 23: Arterial Blood Gases Made Easy Arterial Blood Gases

Respiratory Alkalosis• Caused by too much CO2 being

excreted by the lungs

• Hyperventilation

Page 24: Arterial Blood Gases Made Easy Arterial Blood Gases

Interpreting ABGs

Page 25: Arterial Blood Gases Made Easy Arterial Blood Gases

1st Step Look at pH• Is it normal (7.35 to 7.45)

• Does it reflect acidosis ( less than 7.35)

• Does it reflect alkalosis (greater than 7.45)

• Label accordingly

Page 26: Arterial Blood Gases Made Easy Arterial Blood Gases

Next Look at PaCO2• This is the respiratory component

• Is it normal

• Does it reflect alkalosis (less than 35)

• Does it reflect acidosis (greater than 45)

• Label accordingly

Page 27: Arterial Blood Gases Made Easy Arterial Blood Gases

Next Look at the HCO3

• This is the metabolic component

• Is it normal

• Does it reflect acidosis (less than 22)

• Does it reflect alkalosis (greater than 26)

• Label accordingly

Page 28: Arterial Blood Gases Made Easy Arterial Blood Gases

Let’s Put It All Together

Page 29: Arterial Blood Gases Made Easy Arterial Blood Gases

Problems• pH of 7.33

• PaCO2 of 40 mmHg

• HCO3 of 20 mEq/L

• What does this indicate

• Break it down

Page 30: Arterial Blood Gases Made Easy Arterial Blood Gases

• pH = acidosis

• PaCO2 = normal

• HCO3 = acidosis

• An abnormal HCO3 indicates a metabolic problem

Page 31: Arterial Blood Gases Made Easy Arterial Blood Gases

Metabolic AcidosisWay to

go!!

Page 32: Arterial Blood Gases Made Easy Arterial Blood Gases

Problem• pH of 7.59

• PaCO2 of 29 mm Hg

• HCO3 of 24mEq/L

• What does this indicate

• Break it down

Page 33: Arterial Blood Gases Made Easy Arterial Blood Gases

• pH = alkalosis

• PaCO2 = alkalosis

• HCO3 = normal

• An abnormal PaCO2 indicates a respiratory problem

Page 34: Arterial Blood Gases Made Easy Arterial Blood Gases

Respiratory Alkalosis

Great Job!!

Page 35: Arterial Blood Gases Made Easy Arterial Blood Gases

Problem• pH of 7.25

• PaCO2 of 61 mmHg

• HCO3 of 26 mEq/L

• What does this indicate

• Break it down

Page 36: Arterial Blood Gases Made Easy Arterial Blood Gases

• pH = acidosis

• PaCO2 = acidosis

• HCO3 = normal

• An abnormal PaCO2 indicates a respiratory problem

Page 37: Arterial Blood Gases Made Easy Arterial Blood Gases

Respiratory AcidosisYou are doing a

great job !!

Page 38: Arterial Blood Gases Made Easy Arterial Blood Gases

Problem• pH of 7.51

• PaCO2 of 44mmHg

• HCO3 of 56

• What does this indicate

• Break it down

Page 39: Arterial Blood Gases Made Easy Arterial Blood Gases

• pH = alkalosis

• PaCO2 = normal

• HCO3 = alkalosis

• An abnormal HCO3 indicates a metabolic problem

Page 40: Arterial Blood Gases Made Easy Arterial Blood Gases

Metabolic Alkalosis

You have become an ABG pro!!

Page 41: Arterial Blood Gases Made Easy Arterial Blood Gases

You Are Doing Great

Page 42: Arterial Blood Gases Made Easy Arterial Blood Gases

Compensation• Occurs as the body begins to correct

the acid base imbalance

• pH will be normal or near normal if total compensation

• pH will be abnormal if partial compensation

Page 43: Arterial Blood Gases Made Easy Arterial Blood Gases

Compensation• Both the PaCo2 & HCO3 will be

abnormal• Respiratory imbalances are

compensated for by the renal system• Metabolic imbalances are

compensated for by the respiratory system

Page 44: Arterial Blood Gases Made Easy Arterial Blood Gases

Example• pH of 7.27

• PaCO2 of 27 mm Hg

• HCO3 of 10 mEq/l

• Note that both the PaCO2 & the HCO3 are low

Page 45: Arterial Blood Gases Made Easy Arterial Blood Gases

Let’s Break it Down• Low pH = acidosis• Low PaCO2 = alkalosis• Low HCO3 = acidosis• HCO3 corresponds with the pH• This is a metabolic problem • Metabolic acidosis with partial

compensation

Page 46: Arterial Blood Gases Made Easy Arterial Blood Gases

Problems• pH of 7.52

• PaCO2 of 47 mmHg

• HCO3 of 36 mEq/L

• What does this indicate

• Break it down

Page 47: Arterial Blood Gases Made Easy Arterial Blood Gases

• pH = alkalosis

• PaCO2 = acidosis

• HCO3 = alkalosis

• Which 2 go together

Page 48: Arterial Blood Gases Made Easy Arterial Blood Gases

Metabolic Alkalosis with Partial Compensation

You are doing great!!

Page 49: Arterial Blood Gases Made Easy Arterial Blood Gases

Problems• pH of 7.45

• PaCO2 of 50 mmHg

• HCO3 of 33 meq/L

• What does this indicate

• Break it down

Page 50: Arterial Blood Gases Made Easy Arterial Blood Gases

• pH = normal

• PaCo2 = acidosis

• HCO3 = alkalosis

• Your pH leans toward the alkalosis side

Page 51: Arterial Blood Gases Made Easy Arterial Blood Gases

Fully Compensated Metabolic Alkalosis

You have done great!!