basic of photography

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GNEK 1043 Basic Photography (Digital)En. Abbas Hassan

Muhammad Izzul Izham Bin Mohammad NordinJEC130007

Basic of Photography

The word "photography" was created from the Greek roots (phtos), genitive of (phs), "light and (graph) "representation by means of lines" or "drawing", together meaning "drawing with light".

Photo= light and graphy=painting

Several people may have coined the same new term from these roots independently. Hercules Florence, a French painter and inventor living in Campinas, Brazil, used the French form of the word, photographie, in private notes which a Brazilian photography historian believes were written in 1834.[5] Johann von Maedler, a Berlin astronomer, is credited in a 1932 German history of photography as having used it in an article published on 25 February 1839 in the German newspaper Vossische Zeitung.[6] Both of these claims are now widely reported but apparently neither has ever been independently confirmed as beyond reasonable doubt. Credit has traditionally been given to Sir John Herschel both for coining the word and for introducing it to the public. His uses of it in private correspondence prior to 25 February 1839 and at his Royal Society lecture on the subject in London on 14 March 1839 have long been amply documented and accepted as settled facts.

Photography is the science, art and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film.[1]

Typically, a lens is used to focus the light reflected or emitted from objects into a real image on the light-sensitive surface inside a camera during a timed exposure. With an electronic image sensor, this produces an electrical charge at each pixel, which is electronically processed and stored in a digital image file for subsequent display or processing. The result with photographic emulsion is an invisible latent image, which is later chemically "developed" into a visible image, either negative or positive depending on the purpose of the photographic material and the method of processing. A negative image on film is traditionally used to photographically create a positive image on a paper base, known as a print, either by using an enlarger or by contact printing.

Photography is employed in many fields of science, manufacturing (e.g., photolithography) and business, as well as its more direct uses for art, film and video production, recreational purposes, hobby, and mass communication.

Pictures

First of all we must understand different type of painting its consist painting, sketching, and photo. Painting can be done using color and brush. Sketching can be done using pencil/pen and contrast and photo using camera and light. Different medium will give different perspective to human being. Painting and sketching need a lot of creativity than photo but photo need creativity on composition.

Tools of camera: transmission of light

There are several tools that beginner must to understands about camera. Tools are image sensor, hole aperture and shutter. All this things will effect the exposure value (EV)

Types of camera

Large formatMedium formatSLR cameraPocket camera

Area in photography

Clinical-demand accuracy (investigation purpose)Advertising-Influence people to the main objectJournalism-photography to support interestFine art

Sensor

Sensor can be also known as ISO. ISO is the digital equivalent (or approximation) of film speed. If youremember buying film for a regular camera, you'd get 100 or 200 foroutdoors and 400 or 800 for indoors. The faster the film speed themore sensitive it is to light. All of this still applies to digitalphotography, but it's called an ISO rating instead.

The advantage of a low ISO is that the light in a given exposure ismore accurately represented. If you've seen photos at night, the lightsoften look like they're much brighter and bleeding into other areas ofthe photo. This is the result of a high ISOa greater sensitivity to light. High ISOs are particularly useful for picking up more detail in a darkphotograph without reducing the shutter speed or widening theaperture more than you want to, but it comes at a cost. In addition tolights being overly and unrealistically bright in your photos, high ISOsettings are the biggest contributors to photographic noise. High-endcameras will pick up less noise at higher ISOs than low-end cameras,but the rule is always the same: the higher you increase your ISO, the more noise you get.

Shutter

Adjustment of the speed (often expressed either as fractions of seconds or as an angle, with mechanical shutters) of the shutter to control the amount of time during which the imaging medium is exposed to light for each exposure. Shutter speed may be used to control the amount of light striking the image plane; 'faster' shutter speeds (that is, those of shorter duration) decrease both the amount of light and the amount of image blurring from motion of the subject and/or camera. The slower shutter speeds allow for long exposure shots that are done used to photograph images in very low light, including the images of the night sky.

Apature

Adjustment of the lens opening, measured as f-number, which controls the amount of light passing through the lens. Aperture also has an effect on depth of field and diffraction the higher the f-number, the smaller the opening, the less light, the greater the depth of field, and the more the diffraction blur. The focal length divided by the f-number gives the effective aperture diameter.

Composition

Arrange of content in the camera frame trough lens. So to capture the good composition type of lens also will effect. There are several types of lens. Different types of lens have a different perspective in photography.

Types of lens

1) Fish Eye 180 degree 15-16 mm

2) Standard Lens 47 degree 18-55 mm

3) Telephoto 10-1 degree 85-135mm

4) Wide lens 78 degree10-20mm

5) Super wide lens 100 degree12-24mm

6) Normal lens 60 degree50mm

7) Potrait50mm

8) Supertele150-600mm

9) Zoom lens70-300mm

Visual exploration

To get good composition photographer must do visual exploration. Visual exploration must be done for several time to get the best shoot for every photo. This theory was found out by En. Abbas and it call x-factor. X-factor include EV, composition and impact. This three things will bring photographer to explore photography.

PERSPECTIVE OF CAMERA/LENSERX-FACTORIMPACTAFARRANGEMENT OF CONTENTSTORY TELLINGCOMPOSITION

ISO

SHUTTER

PotraiturePotrait can be divide into two articstic or clinical example for identity card and medical study. Basic principle that beginner need to understand is lighting and subject. Different lighting will give different expression on subject.Element of portraitPose-Subject style or positionExpression-Smile, angry or seriousFeature-Add on subjectBackground-Contrast or less contrastClotch, make up formal and simpleComposition- Arrangement of subject and feature

Lighting- Hard lighting direct to the source Soft lighting using diffuser to separate the light and decrese shadow on subject.

Camera metering system

Average 100 %

Center weight 60 %

Spot 6-2 %

Exposure value

Shutter=ISO=aperture

EV=normal=0 according to metering system that we chooseAPERTURESHUTTERISOEV