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Basics of Photography

Basics of PhotographyThe 6 Things To KnowKnow your cameraHold the camera stillThe 2-second ruleTake a few moreTell a storyCapture the moodC . E . L . L .C ompositionE xposureL ensL ightWhat Makes a Good Photograph?Good CompositionSharp FocusGood LightingCorrect ExposureThe Right LensThought Behind the PictureCompositionPrinciple 1Un-clutter the picture. Zoom in.

A good photograph is a subject, a context, and nothing else. Remove any clutter that detracts from your message. Get closer -- zoom in -- and crop as tightly as possible

CompositionPrinciple 2Put subject off-centre / Rule of thirdsThe center of the frame is the weakest place -- it's static, dull, and gives no value to the context. The more you move the subject away from the center, the more relevance you give to the context

unless its a reflectionCompositionPrinciple 3 Use of frames, lines & diagonalsCreate impact by using frames and real or inferred lines that lead the viewer's eye into and around the picture

CompositionPrinciple 4 Dramatic PerspectiveCreate impact by photographing your subjects from unexpected angles. Imagine yourself as an electron spinning around the subject, which is the nucleus of an atom

ExposureApertureShutter speedISO

Aperture: General Rules and tipsA larger lens opening (f1.8-3.5) offers the following advantages: Allows you to shoot more often with just vnatural lighting helps to reduce harsh shadows and red-eye caused by flash. Allows more light to pass through, the camera will be able to choose a slightly higher shutter speed helps to reduce motion blur.Helps to reduce "depth-of-field (for effect).AperturePrinciple Affect depth of field (range of distance in focus)When shooting a landscape, as much of the photograph in sharp focus as possible (f11 to f22). In a portrait, shallower dof (f2.8-8) will isolate your subject from distracting backgrounds

Shutter speed: General Rules and tipsTo capture blur-free "action" photographs (e.g. Sports), you need to make sure the camera is using a high shutter speed, e.g.1/125th of a second or more.Less light gets through to the imager as shutter speed is increased, thus difficult to use higher shutter speeds in lower light situations. Alternatives: Allow more light to pass through the lens (larger aperture setting), the other is to increase the ISOShutter SpeedPrincipleFreezing motion (achieve the desired effect)Absolutely sharp images are not always the best. They can look static and dull. At slow shutter speeds the camera blurs the image of moving objects, and can create a more convincing image of movement.

Rules of framing /compositionRule of ThirdsDifferent Angles Low Angle & Top Angle Close Up, Mid Shot, Wide/Landscape Head Room

Composition/Framing - Rule of Thirds

Composition/Framing - Rule of ThirdsFollow the Gaze

Composition/Framing - Rule of ThirdsFollow the Direction of the MovementWhich Direction is the Elephant Moving In?

Is this Picture Following the Rule of Thirds?

Composition/Framing Different AnglesLow Angle

Top AngleComposition/Framing Different AnglesLow Angle

Composition/Framing Different AnglesTop Angle

Composition/Framing Different FramesClose Up

Mid Shot/Frame

Wide Shot or Landscape

Composition/Framing Different FramesClose Up

Composition/Framing Different FramesClose Up

Composition/Framing Different FramesExtreme Close Up

Composition/Framing Different FramesExtreme Close Up

Composition/Framing Different FramesMid Shot or Medium Shot

Composition/Framing Different FramesMid Shot or Medium Shot

Composition/Framing Different FramesWide Shot

Composition/Framing Different FramesLandscape Shot

Composition/Framing Different FramesLandscape Shot

CompositionDifferent Frames & Different Angles The different angles or the frames you choose, can make or break you picture.

The power in a picture comes from the different angles or frames you chooseComposition/Framing Head RoomSpace above the head should not too much

What Makes a Good Photograph?Good CompositionSharp FocusGood LightingCorrect ExposureThe Right LensThought Behind the PictureA Good Picture is Mostly in Sharp Focus Unless Intended to be Blurry

Good Picture is Mostly in Sharp Focus Unless Intended to be blurry

Good Picture is Mostly in Sharp Focus Unless Intended to be blurry

Good Picture Good LightingBest Natural Lighting Mornings Sunrise to 10 amEvenings 3pm to Sunset

Natural Light Timings Change According to Seasons

Avoid Taking Pictures When the Sun is Over Head

Good Picture Good LightingMake Sure

That the Light Source is Behind You

That the Light should be Falling On the SubjectGood Picture Good LightingIf the Light Source is Behind the Subject And in Front of you/camera

You will get a ---Silhouette

Good Picture Good LightingSilhouette

Good Picture Good LightingSilhouette

Good Picture Correct ExposureExposure Controlled by 3 Components

Aperture

Shutter Speed

ISOGood Picture Correct ExposureApertureControls the Amount of Light Entering the Camera Through the Aperture or the Iris of the Camera Lens and Falling on the Camera Sensor.

Good Picture Correct ExposureApertureThe aperture of the camera behaves exactly in the same way the iris of our eyes do.

When there is too much light the iris becomes SMALL or closes upWhen there is less light the iris enlarges or OPENS UPGood Picture Correct ExposureApertureVery Sunny - Small iris Higher the Number

Low Light iris opens up Lower the Number

Good Picture Correct ExposureShutter SpeedThe Speed at which the Shutter of the Camera Opens and Closes.

It controls the amount of time the light gets to fall on/read by the sensor.

Good Picture Correct ExposureShutter SpeedA High Shutter Speed is Used for Fast Moving Subjects/Objects

Good Picture Correct ExposureHigh Shutter SpeedA High Shutter Speed is Used for Fast Moving Subjects/Objects

Good Picture Correct ExposureHigh Shutter SpeedA High Shutter Speed is Used for Fast Moving Subjects/Objects

Good Picture Correct ExposureShutter SpeedA Slow Shutter Speed is Used When the Light is LOWOrWhen a Blurry Effect is Desired Good Picture Correct ExposureShutter SpeedA Slow Shutter Speed is Used When the Light is LOWOrWhen a Blurry Effect is Desired

Good Picture Correct ExposureShutter SpeedA Slow Shutter Speed is Used When the Light is LOWOrWhen a Blurry Effect is Desired

Good Picture Correct ExposureISOISO helps the camera Sensor to be more or less sensitive to light.

Usually a Higher ISO is used when the Light is Low.

Note Higher the ISO, grainier the picture. Composition/Framing Depth of FieldWhen the background is out of focus

For 2 reasonsThe focus is on the object in the frontAnd the Aperture is fully open, ie the light is low or the light entering the camera is less because of the settings you have chosen.

Composition/Framing Depth of Field

Composition/Framing Depth of Field

What Makes a Good Photograph?Good CompositionSharp FocusGood LightingCorrect ExposureThe Right LensThought Behind the PictureThe Right Lens Different Kinds of Lens

Normal LensWide Angle LensTelephoto/Tele LensZoom LensFish Eye LensMacroThe Right Lens - MacroUseful for getting the details of insects, flowers, etc.

What Makes a Good Photograph?Good CompositionSharp FocusGood LightingCorrect ExposureThe Right LensThought Behind the PictureThe Thought Behind the Picture