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  • Biosolids Management Practices and Regulatory Requirements

    Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

    Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

    Biosolids EngineeringBy Michael McFarland

    Publisher: McGraw-Hill Professional Number Of Pages: 800 Publication Date: 2000-12-20 ISBN-10 / ASIN: 0070471789 ISBN-13 / EAN: 9780070471788 Binding: Hardcover

    Book Description:

    Expert help for designing and managing a biosolids program.

    So notoriously complex and occasionally controversial that it has paradoxically reduced biosolids applications in some locales, CFR Part 503 becomes understandable, manageable, and doable with this expert guide from experienced environmental engineer Michael J. McFarland, diplomate of the American Academy of Environmental Engineers and certified Grade IV wastewater and water treatment operator.

    If you have interest in or responsibility for fulfilling the intent of Part 503, putting biosolids and organic residues to beneficial use and decreasing the burden on landfills, Biosolids Engineering can help you:

    *Control the factors in wastewater and biosolids processing that affect usability *Apply soil chemistry and physics to finding safe and appropriate uses for biosolids *Design needed hydraulic, storage, and transport systems *Ensure pathogen and vector attraction reduction *Make biosolids engineering a team effort with agricultural specialists, mining engineers, water treatment officials, and highway, transportation, and timber specialists *Apply sampling and analysis protocols for effectiveness and safety *Increase public awareness of the safety and value of biosolids applications

  • Contents

    Preface xv Acknowledgments xix

    Chapter 1. Biosol ids Management Practices and Regulatory Requirements 1.1

    1.0 Introduct ion 1.1 1.0.1 Summary Statistics tor Sewage Sludge Use and Disposal

    in the United States 1.4 1.0.2 Inst i tut ional Barriers and Liabil i ty Issues 1.6

    1.1 Regulatory Aspects to Biosol ids Management 1.7 1.1.1 R isk-Assessment Basis for the 40 CFR Part 503 Rule 1.8

    ' .2 Land Appl icat ion of Biosol ids 1.11 1.2.1 General Requirements for Lard-Appl ied Biosol ids 1.11 1.2.2 Pollutant Limits 1.13 1.2.3 Management Practices 1.20 1.2.4 Pathogen Levels in Biosol ids 1.22 1.2.5 Vector Attract ion Reduction Requirements 1.29 1.2.6 Mon i to r i rg Frequency 1.30 1.2.7 Recordkeeping 1.30 1.2.8 Report ing Requirements 1.37 1.2.9 Summary of Opt ions for Comply ing wi th Biosol ids Land-

    Appl icat ion Criteria 1.37 1.2.10 Domestic Septage 1.39 1.2.11 Liabi l i ty Issues and Enforcement Oversight 1.49

    1.3 Surface Disposal 1.50 1.3.0 Site Life and Size 1.61 1.3.1 Surface Storage of Biosol ids 1.63 1.3.2 R e g u l a t o r Requirements for Surface Disposal 1.63 1.3.3 Pollutant Limits 1.65 1.3.4 Management Practices 1.67 1.3.5 Pathogen and Vector At t ract ion Reduction Requirements 1.77 1.3.6 Frequency ol Moni tor ing 1.77 1.3.7 Recordkeeping Requirements for Surface-Disposal Sites 1.80 1.3.8 Report ing Requirements for Surface-Disposal Sites 1.81 1.3.9 Regulato'-y Requirements for Surface Disposal of

    Domestic Septage 1.81 ".4 Incineration 1.82

    1.4.1 Use of Auxi l iary Fuels 1.84 1.4.2 Biosol ids Incinerat ion Systems 1.84 1.4.3 General Incinerator Design Requirements 1.95

    vi.

  • viii Contents

    1.4.4 Requlatory Considerat ions tor Biosol ids Incineration 1.97 1.4.5 General Requirements 1.98 1.4.6 Pollutant Limits 1.98 1.4.7 Management Practices for Biosol ids Incineration 1.105 1.4.8 Monitor ing Frequency 1.107 1.4.9 Recordkeeping 1.108

    1.4.10 Report ing Requirements 1.109 1.4.11 USEPA Biosol ids Data Management System 1.109 1.4.12 Cri t ic isms of the 40 CFR Part 503 Rule 1.110

    1.5 Problems 1.111 1 6 References 1.114

    Chapter 2 Biosol ids Characteristics and Production Hates 2.1

    2.0 Introduct ion 2.1 2.1 Wastewater Quality 2.1

    2.1.1 Wastewater Solids 2.3 2.1.2 Odors 2.5 2.1.3 Organic Matter 2.5 2.1.4 Inorganic Wastewater Parameters 2.6 2.1.5 Nutrient Levels in Wastewater 2.7 2.1.6 Toxic Inorganic Compounds 2.8 2.1.7 Wastewater Pathogens 2.8

    2.2 Biosol ids Quality 2.9 2.2.1 Organic Content 2.11 2.2.2 Nutr ients 2.12 2.2.3 Metal Content 2.14 2.2.4 Pathogens in Biosol ids 2.17 2.2.5 Septage 2.19

    2.3 Biosol ids Product ion Rates 2.24 2.4 Primary Wastewater Treatment 2.27

    2.4.1 Design cf Gravity Sedimertat ion Systems 2.27 2.4.2 Primary Clarif ication Tank Design 2.51 2.4.3 Chemical Precipitation 2.58 2.4.4 Sludge Procuct ion from Primary Treatment 2.68 2.4.5 Screening 2.72

    2.5 Secondary Wastewater Treatment 2.72 2.5.1 Act ivated-Sludge Process 2.74 2.5.2 Tr ickl ing Filters 2.122 2.5.3 Rotat ing Biological Contactors 2.142 2.5.4 Combinat ion Suspended-Growth/Fixed-Fi lm Systems 2.158 2.5.5 Septage Generation and Management 2.158

    2 6 Problems 2.180 2.7 References 2.187

    Chapter 3 Biosol ids and Sludge Processing 3.1

    3.0 Introduct ion 3.1 3.1 Thickening 3.1

    3.1.1 Gravity Thickeners 3.3 3.1.2 Flotation Thickening 3.17 3.1.3 Centri fugal Thickening 3.26 3.1.4 Gravity-Belt Thickeners 3.33 3.1.5 Rotary-Drum Thickening 3.34

    3.2 Stabil ization 3.36 3.2.1 Sludge Volume Considerat ions 3.38

  • Contents ix

    3 2 2 Anaerobic Digestion 3.40 3.2.3 Aerobic Digestion 3.92 3.2.4 Autothermal Thermophi l ic Aerobic Digestion

    (ATAD) Process 3.102 3.2.5 Lime Stabil ization 3.112 3.2.6 Chlorine Oxidation 3.116 3.2.7 Vermistabil ization 3.118 3.2.8 Pasteurization 3.120 3.2.9 Sludge Irradiation 3.123

    3.2.10 Compost ing 3.128 3.3 Condi t ion ing 3.148

    3.3.1 Particle Surface Charge and Hydration 3.149 3.3.2 Particle Size 3.149 3.3.3 Compressibi l i ty 3.150 3.3.4 Sludge Temperature 3.150 3.3.5 Ratio of Volatile Solids to Fixed Sol ids (VS/FS) 3.150 3.3.6 Sludge pH 3.151 3.3.7 Chemicals Used in Sludge Condi t ioning 3.151 3.3.8 Selection of Condi t ioning Chemicals 3.163 3.3.9 Elutr iat ion 3.167

    3.3.10 Thermal Condi t ioning 3.168 3.4 Dewatering 3.171

    3.4.1 Strategy for Dewatering Process Selection 3.171 3.4.2 Dewatering Processes 3.172 3.4.3 Belt Press Filtration 3.173 3.4.4 Centr i fugat ion 3.181 3.4.5 Pressure Filtration 3.192 3.4.6 Vacuum Filtration 3.201 3.4.7 Screw Presses 3 204 3.4.8 Air-Drying Processes 3.207 3.4.9 Sand Drying Beds 3.208

    3.4.10 Paved Drying Beds 3.215 3.4.11 Vacuum-Assisted Drying Beds 3.220 3.4.12 Wedgewater Sludge Drying Beds 3.224 3.4.13 Sludge Drying Lagoons 3.227 3.4.14 Sol ids Capture dur ing Sludge Dewatering 3.227 3.4.15 Evaluating Sludge Dewatering Potential 3.228

    3.5 Heat Drying 3.230 3.5.1 General Design of Heat Dryers 3.231 3.5.2 Direct Dryers 3.232 3.5.3 Indirect Dryers 3.234 3.5.4 Infrared or Radiant-Heat Dryers 3.234 3.5.5 Humidity and Moisture Transfer 3.237

    3.6 Problems 3.248 3.7 References 3.255

    C h a p t e r 4 C o n t r o l of B i o s o l i d s Q u a l i t y 4.1

    4.0 Introduct ion 4.1 4.1 The Clean Water Act 4.1

    4.1.1 Industrial Pretreatment Discharge Standards 4.3 4 1 2 Developmert of Wastewater Discharge Limits 4.4

    4.2 Pollutant Generators of Concern 4 40 4.2.1 Industr ial Users 4.40 4.2.2 Commercial Users 4.41

  • x Contents

    4.3 Pol lut ion Prevention 4.41 4.3.1 Pol lut ion-Prevention Plans 4.44 4.3.2 Source Reduction 4.44 4.3.3 Source Reduction in the Metal Finishing Industry 4 46 4.3.4 Recycl ing 4.50 4.3.5 Product Changes 4.56 4.3.6 Pol lut ion-Prevention Resources 4.57

    4.4 Facility Inspect ions 4.59 4.4.1 Inspection Procedures 4.62

    4.5 Pretreatment Noncompl iance 4.63 4.6 Problems 4.63 4.7 References 4.67

    Chapter 5. Transport, Storage, and Facilities Design 5.1

    5.0 Introduct ion 5.1 5.1 Transportat ion of Biosol ids/Sludges 5.1 5.2 Pipeline Transport 5.3

    5.2.1 General Pipeline Design Guidance 5.15 5.2.2 Biosol ids/Sludge Pumps 5.18 5.2.3 Pumping Stations 5.35 5.2.4 Cost Estimation of Pipeline Transport Systems 5.39

    5.3 Dewatered Biosol ids/Sludge Conveyance 5.41 5.3,1 Conveyors 5.41

    5.4 Long-Distance Biosol ids/Sludge Transportat ion 5.44 5.4.1 Truck Transportat ion 5.45 5.4.2 Rail Transport 5.49 5.4.3 Barge Transportat ion 5.51

    5.5 Storage of Biosol ids/Sludge 5.52 5.5.1 Types of Storage 5.52 5.5.2 Dedicated Systems for Liquid Biosol ids/Sludge Storage 5.59

    5.6 Lagoon Systems 5.64 5.6.1 Facultative Sludge Lagoons 5.64 5.6.2 Anaerobic Liquid Sludge Lagoons 5.71 5.6.3 Sludge Drying Lagoons 5.71 5.6.4 Aerated Storage Basins 5.76

    5.7 Storage in a Drying Bed 5.77 5.7.1 Sand Drying Beds 5.78 5.7.2 Reed-Enhanced Sand Drying Beds 5.85 5.7.3 Freeze-Assisted Sa rd Drying Beds 5.88 5.7.4 Paved Sludge Drying Beds 5.96

    5.8 Storage Facilit ies for Dewatered Biosol ids/Sludge 5.102 5.8.1 Conf i red Hoppers or Bins 5.102 5.8.2 Earthen Structures for Dewatered Biosol ids/Sludge Storage 5.105 5.8 3 Unconf ined Stockpi les 5.105

    5.9 Treatment of Sidestreams f rom Biosol ids/Sludge Processing 5.106 5.9.1 Sidestream Quality 5.107

    5.10 Odor Control 5.114 5.10.1 Odors f rom Primary and Seconaary Wastewater Treatment

    Operat ions 5.115 5.10.2 Odors In Sludge Processing 5.116 5.10.3 Septage Handl ing 5.118 5.10.4 Approaches to Odor Control 5.118 5.13.5 Collect on and Treatment of Odorous Air 5.122

  • Contents xi

    5.10.6 Use of Exist ing Biological Stabil ization Processes for Odor Control 5.146

    5.10.7 Use of Odor Modif icat ion. Counteract ion, and Maskants for Odor Control 5.148

    5.11 Corrosion Control 5.149 5.11.1 Corrosion Protect ion 5.150 5.11.2 Venti lat ion and Heating 5.151

    5.12 Problems 5.151 5.13 References 5.154

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