botany department kurukshetra university m.sc. botany scheme of

of 48/48
BOTANY DEPARTMENT KURUKSHETRA UNIVERSITY M.Sc. BOTANY Scheme of Examination for session 2013-2014 in phased manner Semester – I Marks + Internal Total Assessment Paper – 101 Biology and Diversity of Lower Cryptogams 65+ 15 80 Paper – 102 Biology and Diversity of Archegoniates- I 65+ 15 80 Paper – 103 Cell and Molecular Biology 65+ 15 80 Paper – 104 Ecology and Biophysical Environment 65+ 15 80 Total 320 Semester – II Paper – 201 Plant Pathology, General Microbiology & Applied Phycology 65+ 15 80 Paper – 202 Biology and Diversity of Archegoniates – II 65+ 15 80 Paper – 203 Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics 65+ 15 80 Paper – 204 Natural Resources and Biodiversity 65+ 15 80 Practical – 205 Fungi & Plant Pathology 65+ 15 80 Practical – 206 Algae and Bryophytes 65+ 15 80 Practical – 207 Cytogenetics and Pteridophytes 65+ 15 80 Practical – 208 Ecology and Gymnosperms 65+ 15 80 Seminar – 209 Seminar 20 20 Total 660 Semester – III Paper – 301 Plant Physiology and Plant Biochemistry 65+ 15 80 Paper – 302 Plant Taxonomy and Economic Botany 65+ 15 80 Paper – 303 Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering 65+ 15 80 Paper – 304 Computer Applications and Biostatistics 40+ 00 40 Paper – 305 a) Advanced Phycology (elective) } b) Applied Mycology (elective) } c) Restoration Ecology (elective) } 65+ 15 80 d) Advanced Plant Physiology (elective) } e) Crop Improvement (elective) } Total 360 Semester – IV Paper – 401 Physiology of Plant Growth and Development 65+ 15 80 Paper – 402 Biology of Reproduction and Anatomy 65+ 15 80 Paper – 403 Plant Tissue Culture 65+ 15 80 Paper – 404 a) Advanced Phycology (elective) } b) Principles of Plant Pathology (elective) } c) Conservation Biology (elective) } 65 + 15 80 d) Plant Growth Regulators (elective) } e) Advanced Plant Molecular Biology (elective) } Practical–405 Plant Physiology and biochemistry 75+15 90 Practical–406 Taxonomy, Biotechnology and Plant Tissue Culture 90+ 20 110 Practical–407 Based on theory courses bearing paper no. 305a, b, c, d, e, and 75+ 15 90 404 a,b,c,d,e) Practical - 408 Computer applications 30 30 Seminar – 408 Seminar 20 20 Total 660 Semesters Semester-I Semester-II Semester-III Semester-IV Grand Total Grand Total 320 660 360 660 2000

Post on 12-Sep-2021

1 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

BOTANY DEPARTMENT KURUKSHETRA UNIVERSITY M.Sc. BOTANY
Scheme of Examination for session 2013-2014 in phased manner Semester – I Marks + Internal Total Assessment Paper – 101 Biology and Diversity of Lower Cryptogams 65+ 15 80 Paper – 102 Biology and Diversity of Archegoniates- I 65+ 15 80 Paper – 103 Cell and Molecular Biology 65+ 15 80 Paper – 104 Ecology and Biophysical Environment 65+ 15 80
Total 320 Semester – II Paper – 201 Plant Pathology, General Microbiology & Applied Phycology 65+ 15 80 Paper – 202 Biology and Diversity of Archegoniates – II 65+ 15 80 Paper – 203 Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics 65+ 15 80 Paper – 204 Natural Resources and Biodiversity 65+ 15 80 Practical – 205 Fungi & Plant Pathology 65+ 15 80 Practical – 206 Algae and Bryophytes 65+ 15 80 Practical – 207 Cytogenetics and Pteridophytes 65+ 15 80 Practical – 208 Ecology and Gymnosperms 65+ 15 80 Seminar – 209 Seminar 20 20 Total 660 Semester – III Paper – 301 Plant Physiology and Plant Biochemistry 65+ 15 80 Paper – 302 Plant Taxonomy and Economic Botany 65+ 15 80 Paper – 303 Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering 65+ 15 80 Paper – 304 Computer Applications and Biostatistics 40+ 00 40 Paper – 305 a) Advanced Phycology (elective) }
b) Applied Mycology (elective) } c) Restoration Ecology (elective) } 65+ 15 80 d) Advanced Plant Physiology (elective) } e) Crop Improvement (elective) }
Total 360 Semester – IV Paper – 401 Physiology of Plant Growth and Development 65+ 15 80 Paper – 402 Biology of Reproduction and Anatomy 65+ 15 80 Paper – 403 Plant Tissue Culture 65+ 15 80 Paper – 404 a) Advanced Phycology (elective) }
b) Principles of Plant Pathology (elective) } c) Conservation Biology (elective) } 65 + 15 80 d) Plant Growth Regulators (elective) } e) Advanced Plant Molecular Biology (elective) }
Practical–405 Plant Physiology and biochemistry 75+15 90 Practical–406 Taxonomy, Biotechnology and Plant Tissue Culture 90+ 20 110 Practical–407 Based on theory courses bearing paper no. 305a, b, c, d, e, and 75+ 15 90
404 a,b,c,d,e) Practical - 408 Computer applications 30 30 Seminar – 408 Seminar 20 20 Total 660
Semesters Semester-I Semester-II Semester-III Semester-IV Grand Total Grand Total 320 660 360 660 2000
Botany Department
Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra
SEMESTER – I Paper –101 Biology and Diversity of Lower Cryptogams Note: 1. Nine questions will be set in all.
2. Question No.1 which will be objective covering the entire syllabus, will be compulsory. The remaining eight questions will be set with two questions from each Unit. The candidate will be required to attempt Question-1 and four more selecting one from each section.
UNIT-I
1. General characters of fungi, their significance to human, fungal classification (Ainsworth,
1973; Hawksworth et al 1995; Alexopoulos et al, 1996), Organization of Thallus, structure of fungal cell wall composition, nutrition (saprobic, biotrophic, symbiotic), reproduction, kinds of spores.
2. Comparative study of habit, habitat, somatic organization, anomorphs and telemorphs of the member of : a) Dictyosteliomycota and Myxomycota (Dictyostellium, Physarum). Plasmodiophora, b) Chytridiomycota and Oomycota (Synchytrium, Allomyces, Pythium, Phytophthora
and Downy mildews). c) Zygomycota (Rhizopus, Mucor, Entomophthora, Harpella). d) Ascomycota (Ascocarp types, Centrum types, Protomyces, Taphrina, yeast,
Chaetomium, Claviceps, Venturia, general account of powdery mildews) e) Basidiomycota (Agraicus, Cyathus, Uromyces, Puccinia, Phragmidium, Ravenelia,
Melampsora, Ustilago, Tolyposporium, Urocystis, Neovossia and Tilletia). f) Deuteromycota (Sporulating structures, Fusarium, Curvularia, Colletotrichum,
Alternaria, Helminthosporium Cercospora).
4. Importance of fungi in different microbiological and Biotechnological processes, Role of fungi in industry (Alcohol), Medicine (Antibiotics and steroids), food (edible mushrooms).
5. Lichens: structure, reproduction and economic importance.
UNIT-III
3
6. Principles and systems of algal classification. Comparative account of algal pigments, reserve foods, flagellation, chloroplast, eyespot-their phylogenetic and taxonomic importance.
7. Economic importance of algae in terms of food, feed, uses in industries and algal biofertilisers
8. Cyanophyta: cell structure, thallus organization, hetereocyst and akinete development, their role, chromatic adaptation and reproduction, paddy soil cyanophytes and their role.
UNIT-IV
9. Chlorophyta: Range of thallus, method of reproduction, life cycles and alternation of
generation, a brief account of Xanthophyta, Bacillariophyta. 10. Phaeophyta: Range of thallus, method of reproduction, life cycles and alternation of
generation. 11. Rhodophyta: Range of thallus, method of reproduction, life cycles and alternation of
generation, post fertilization development, brief account of Bangiales and Florideae Suggested Readings: 1. Alexopoulos, C.J. Mins, C.W. & Blackwell, M. 1995: Introductory Mycology, John Willy
and Sons. Inc. 2. Becker, E.W. (1994): Microalgae - Biotechnology & Microbiology, Cambridge University
Press, Cambridge, U.K. 3. Bilgrami, K.S. & Dubey H.C. (1986): A text book of Modern Plant Pathology, Vikas, Publ
Ltd., N.Delhi. 4. Bilgrami, K.SA. & Verma R.N. (1981): Physiology of fungi, Vikas Publ. Ltd., New Delhi. 5. Biswas, S.P. & Biswas, A. 1984: An Introduction to Viruses, Vani Education Books, New
Delhi. 6. Bold, H.C. & Wynne (1985): Introduction to the Algae : Structure and Reproduction,
Prentice Hall Inc., New Jersey, USA. 7. Butler, E.J. & Jones, S.G. (1978): Plant Pathology, Periodical Expert Book Agency, New
Delhi. 8. Clifton, A. 1958: Introduction to the Bacteria. McGraw Hill Books Co. New York. 9. Dodge (1973): The fine structure of algal cells, Academic Press, New York, USA. 10. Dubey, R.C. (2005): A Text Book of Biotechnology, S Chand & Co. Ltd., New Delhi. 11. Fatma, T. (2005): Cyanobacterial and Algal Metabolism and Environmental Biotechnology,
Narosa Publihing Home, New Delhi. 12. Fay, P & C van Baalen (1987): The cyanobacteria, Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.
Amsterdam, Netherlands. 13. Fritsch, F.E. (1979): The structure & reproduction of Algae (Vol-I & II), Vikas Publishing
House Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi. 14. Graham, L.E. & Wilcox, L.W. (1999): Algae, Benjamin Cummings, USA. 15. Gupta, R. & Mukerji, K.G. (2001): Microbial Technology, APH Publ. Co., New Delhi. 16. Gupta, R.K. & Pandey, V.D. (2007): Advances in Applied Phycology, Daya Publishing
House, Daryaganj, New Delhi.
4
17. Hoek, C. Van, Mann, D.G. & Jahns, H.M. (1995): Algae: An Introduction to Phycology, Cambridge University Press, U.K.
18. Kumar, H.D. (1999): Introductory Phycology Affiliated East West Press Ltd., New Delhi. 19. Lee. R.E. (1989): Phycology, Cambridge University Press, U.K. 20. Mehrotra, R.S. & Aneja, K.R. 1990: An introduction of Mycology, New Age International
Press, N.Delhi. 21. Michael J. Pelezar, E.C.S. Chiang & N.R. Krieg, 1993: Microbiology. Tata Mc Graw Hill
Publ. New Delhi. 22. Moore-landeckar, E.J. (1972): Fundamentals of the fungi, Prentice Hall, Eaglewood, U.K. 23. Morris, I. (1986): An Introduction to the Algae, Cambridge University Press, U.K. 24. Mundukar, B.B. (1967): Fungi & Plant Diseases, Macmillion Co. Ltd., USA. 25. Prescott, L.M., Harley, J.P. & Klein, D.A. (1996): Microbiology, 3rd edition, Wm.C.Brown
Publ., USA. 26. Ronald M. Atlas, 1995: Principles of Microbiology. Mosby-Year Book, Inc. St. Louis,
Missouri, USA. 27. Sambamurty, A.V.S.S. ((2005): A text book of Algae, I.K. International, New Delhi. 28. Shubert (1984): Algae as Ecological Indicators, Academic Press, U.S.A. 29. Sumbali, G. 2005: The Fungi, Narosa Publ. House, New Delhi. 30. Trainer, F.R. (1978): Introductory Phycology, John Wiley & Sons, New York, USA. 31. Webster, J. 1985: Introduction of Fungi. Cambridge University, Press.
5
Paper 102: Biology and Diversity of Archegoniates-I Note: 1. Nine questions will be set in all.
2. Question No.1 which will be objective covering the entire syllabus, will be compulsory. The remaining eight questions will be set with two questions from each Unit. The candidate will be required to attempt Question-1 and four more selecting one from each section.
UNIT-I 1. General characteristics features of bryophytes and Classification up to order level 2. General account of structure and development of gametophyte and sporophyte of following orders: Calobryales, Marchantiales, Jungermanniales Anthocerotales
UNIT-II 3. Classification of mosses 4. General account of structure and development of gametophyte and sporophyte of following orders: Sphagnales, Andreaeales, Takakiales, Funariales Polytrichales 5. Evolution of spororphyte in bryophytes
UNIT-III 6. General characteristics of pteridophytes and classification 7. Comparative morphology and reproduction of the following:Psilophytales (Rhynia, Zosterophyllum), Psilotales (Psilotum), Lycopodiales, Lepidodendrales, Sphenophyllales,
UNIT-IV 8. Comparative morphology and reproduction of the following : Ophioglossales, Marattiales, Osmundales, Filicales, Marsileales, Salviniales Suggested Readings:
1. Parihar, N.S. 1965. An Introduction to Embryophyta Vol. I. Bryohpyta, Central Book Depot, Allahabad, India.
2. Schofield, W.B. 1985. Introduction to Bryology, Macmillan, New York. 3. Chopra, R.N. and Kumra, P.K. 1988. Biology of Bryophytes.Wiley Eastern Ltd., New
Delhi. 4. Chopra, R.N. & Bhatla, S.C. 1990. Bryophyte Development: Physiology and
Biochemistry.CRC Press, Boca Raton, USA. 5. Rashid, A. 1998. An Introduction to Bryophyta. Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd.
New Delhi. 6. Watson, E.V. 1967. The Structure and Life of Bryophytes. B.I. Publications, New
Delhi. 7. Parihar, N.S. 1977. The Biology and Morphology of Pteridophytes. Central Book
Depot. Allahabad. 8. Rashid, A. 1976. An Introduction to Pteridophyta (Diversity and Differentiation).
Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi. 9. Sporne, K.R. 1985 (reprint) The Morphology of Pteridophytes. B.I. Publications Pvt.
Ltd., Delhi.
6
Paper 103 - CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY Note: 1. Nine questions will be set in all.
2. Question No.1 which will be objective covering the entire syllabus, will be compulsory. The remaining eight questions will be set with two questions from each Unit. The candidate will be required to attempt Question-1 and four more selecting one from each section.
UNIT-I 1. Cell Wall – Cell wall composition and architecture; Biogenesis and assembly; Dynamic aspects of cell wall during growth and differentiation. 2. Cell Membranes – Structural models; Composition and dynamics; sites for ATPases, ion carriers channels and pumps, receptors; Membrane carbohydrates and their significance in cellular recognition. 3.Structure and functional significance of plasmodesmata. 4. Plant Vacuoles - Structure and function.
UNIT-II
UNIT-III
11. Nucleus – Structure and function of nuclear envelope and lamina. Chromatin organization and packaging; 12. Nucleic Acids – DNA and RNA- structure and classes; repeated DNA, unique sequences and hybridization kinetics; split genes; Transposable elements in bacteria, maize , Drosophila and yeast 13. DNA Replication: Semi-conservative, bidirectional, replication origins, replication machinery.
UNIT-IV
13. Transcription – Mechanism – initiation, elongation and termination; DNA polymerase in prokaryotes and eukaryotes 14. RNA Processing -- of mRNA, rRNA and tRNA 15. Translation – Mechanism – initiation, elongation and termination in prokaryotes 16. Genetic code – Deciphering the genetic code, characteristics. 17. Techniques – in-situ hybridization, FISH, GISH, flow cytometery and confocal microscopy.
7
Suggested Readings: 1. Alberts, B., Bray, D., Lewis, J. Raff, M. Roberts, K., and Watson J.D. 1999. Molecular Biology of
the Cell. Garland Publishing Inc., New York. 2. Brown, T.A. 1999. Genomes. John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pvt. Ltd., Singapore. 3. Buchanan, B.B., Gruissem, W. and Jones, R.L. 2000. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Plants.
American Society of Plant Physiologists, Maryland, USA. 4. Clark D. 2005, Molecular abiology, Understanding the Genetic Revolution. Elsevier Inc. C.
California. 5. Dennis, D.T. & Turpin, D.H. (1990) – Plant Physiology, Biochemistry & molecular Biology,
Longman Scientific & Technical. 6. Gustafron, J.P. 2002. Genomes.Kluwer Academic Plenum Publishers, New York, USA. 7. Henry, R.J. 1997. Practical Applications of Plant Molecular Biology Chapman & Hall, London, UK. 8. Lewin, Benjamin. 2005. Genes VIII. Oxford University Press, New York. 9. Lodish, H. Berk, A. Zipursky, S.L., Matsudaira, P., Baltimore, D. and Darnell, J. 2000. Molecular
Cell Biology. (4th Ed.), W.H. Freeman Co. New york. 10. Rawn, J.D. (1989). Biochemistry. Neil Patterson Publishing. 11. Russell, P.J. 1998. Genetics (5th Ed.) The Benjamin/ Cummings Publishing Comp. Inc. 12. Sadava, D.E. 1993 Cell Biology. Jones and Bartlet Publishers Boston, London. 13. Snustad, P. and Simmons, M.J. 2003. Principles of Genetics. (2nd Ed.). John Wiley, New York. 14. Weaver R.F., 2005, Molecular Biology, McGraw Hill International Edition.
8
Paper-104: Ecology and Biophysical Environment Note: 1. Nine questions will be set in all.
2.Question No. 1, which will be objective/short-answer type covering the entire syllabus, will be compulsory. The remaining eight questions will be set section-wise with two questions from each unit I, II, III & IV. The candidates will be required to attempt Q. No. 1 and four more selecting one question from each section.
UNIT-I
1) The Environment: Physical environment, biotic environment, biotic and abiotic interactions; Tolerance range and limiting factors, ecotypes and ecads
2) Habitat and niche: Concept of habitat and niche; niche width and overlap; fundamental and realized niche; resource partitioning; character displacement.
3) Population ecology: Concept, characteristics, population growth and regulation, species interactions—mutualism, competition, allelopathy, predation, parasitism, Life-history strategies and r-and K selection.
UNIT-II
4) Community structure and organization; Nature of communities, community structure and its attributes; species diversity, Edges and ecotones, vegetation characteristics (analytical and synthetic characters, methods of analysis.
5) Community development: concept, mechanism of ecological succession (relay floristics, and initial floristic composition; facilitation, tolerance and inhibition models); changes in ecosystem properties during succession.
UNIT-III
controlling factors); energy dynamics—trophic levels, energy flow pathways and ecological efficiencies.
7) Decomposition (mechanism, substrate quality and climatic factors); global biogeochemical cycles of C, N, P, & S, ecosystem stability (resistance and resilience).
UNIT-IV
biogeographical zones of India.
9) Global atmosphere changes: Environmental pollution, global environmental change and
its consequences (CO2 fertilization, global warming sea level rise and UV radiation).
Suggested Readings :
9
1. Botkin, D.B. and E.A. Keller (2004). Environment Science: Earth as a Living Planet,
John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York. 2. Miller (Jr.) and G. Tyler (1994) : Living in the Environment. Wadsworth Publishing
Company, Belmont, California. 3. Odum, E.P. (1983), Basic Ecology, Sanders, Philadelphia. 4. Peter H. Raven, P.H. and Berg , L. R. Berg. 2005. Environment, 5th Edition. John Wiley
& Sons Inc., New York. 5. Ramakrishnan, P.S. 2000. Ecology and Sustainable Development. National Book Trust,
India 6. Robert Ricklefs (2001). The Ecology of Nature. Fifth Edition. W.H. Freeman and
Company. 7. Singh, J.S., Singh, S.P. and Gupta, S.R. 2006. Ecology, Environment and Resource
Conservation, Anamaya Publishers, New Delhi. 8. Smith, R.L. (1996), Ecology and Field Biology, Harper Collins, New York. 9. Steffen, W., A. Sanderson, P. D. Tyson, J. Jager, P. M. Matson, B. Moore, III, F.
Oldfield, K. Richardson, H. J. Schnellnhuber, B. L. Turner, II, and R. J. Wasson. 2004. Global change and the Earth system: a Planet under Pressure. Springer-Verlag, New York, New York, USAReference books.
10. Townsend, C.R., Begon, M. and Harper, J.L. 2003. Essentials of Ecology. Second Edition. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford.
10
Paper-201:Plant Pathology and General Microbiology
Note : 1.Nine questions will be set in all. 2.Question No.1 which will be objective covering the entire syllabus, will be compulsory. The remaining eight questions will be set with two questions from each Unit. The candidate will be required to attempt Question 1 and four more selecting one from each section.
UNIT-I
1) History of plant pathogens, various levels of parasitism, effect of plant pathogens on
human affairs, classification of plant diseases. 2) Pathogenesis: Penetration and entry of plant pathogens, development inside host tissue. 3) Casual Organism, symptoms and management of: Late and early blight of potato, Downy
mildew of grapes, Green ear disease of bajra, Apple scab, Karnal bunt of wheat, Rust of wheat, Wilt of pigeon pea, Tikka disease of ground nut, Bacterial blight of paddy, Crown gall of stone fruits, TMV, Tristeza of citrus and Sandal spike.
UNIT-II
5) Structure & replication of viruses and bacteriophage; transmission & control of viruses; Isolation & purification of Plant Viruses.
6) Cyanobacteria: Salient features and Biological Importance; 7) A brief account of phytoplasma & viroids.
UNIT-III
8) Phytoplanktons: Causative factors for eutrophication and its impact; Algae as major components of phytoplanktons; Dynamics and consequences of algal blooms (Freshwater & Marine).
9) Distribution of algae in diversified habitat(terrestrial, fresh water, marine), their ecological diversity in unusual habitats( Thermal, psychrophilic, subaerial symbiotic algae)
10) Commercial potential of algae and algal products
UNIT-IV 11. Growth, culture and maintenance of microorganisms
Microbial growth and measurement, environmental factors influencing growth.
12. Control of micro organisms: Physical methods(High temperature, dry hot or hot air sterilization, moist air sterilization, low temperature, filtration, lycophilisation, Radiation), Chemical methods (Disinfectants and antiseptics)
13. Microbial interaction: Functions of symbiotic relationships, types of symbiosis, commensalism, synergism, mutualism, parasitism
11
Suggested Readings:
1. Akatsuka, I. (1994): Biology of Economic Algae, SPB Academic Publishing bv, Hague, Netherlands.
2. Alexopoulos, C.J. Mins, C.W. & Blackwell, M. 1995: Introductory Mycology, John Willy and Sons. Inc.
3. Becker, E.W. (1994): Microalgae - Biotechnology & Microbiology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.
4. Dubey,H.C. &Bilgrami, K.S. (1986): A text book of Moderm Plant Pathology, Vikas, Publ Ltd., N.Delhi.
5. Bilgrami, K.SA. & Verma R.N. (1981): Physiology of fungi, Vikas Publ. Ltd., New Delhi.
6. Biswas, S.P. & Biswas, A. 1984: An Introduction to Viruses, Vani Education Books, New Delhi.
7. Butler, E.J. & Jones, S.G. (1976): Plant Pathology, Periodical Expert Book Agency, New Delhi.
8. Carr, N.C. & Whitton, B.A. (1982): The biology of cyanobacteria. Blackwell Scientific Publ., Oxford, U.K.
9. Dodge (1973): The fine structure of algal cells, Academic Press, New York, USA. 10. Dubey, R.C. (2006): Introduction to Biotechnology, Delhi Book Trust, New Delhi. 11. Fatma, T. (2005): Cyanobacterial and Algal Metabolism and Environmental
Biotechnology. 12. Fay, P & C van Baalen (1987): The cyanobacteria, Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.
Amsterdam, Netherlands. 13. Graham, L.E. & Wilcox, L.W. (1999): Algae, Benjamin Cummings, USA. 14. Gupta, R. & Mukerji, K.G. (2001): Microbial Technology, APH Publ. Co., New Delhi. 15. Kashyap, A.K. (1994): Recent Advances in Phycology, Rastogi & Company, Meerut 16. Kaushik, B.D. (1987): Laboratory methods for Blue-green Algae, Associated Publishing
Co., New Delhi. 17. Lee. R.E. (1989): Phycology, Cambridge University Press, U.K. 18. Pelezar, M. J.; Chaing, E.C.S. & Krieg, N.R. 1993: Microbiology. Tata Mc Graw Hill
Publ. New Delhi. 19. Morris, I. (1980): The Physiological Ecology of Phytoplankton (studies in Ecology,
Vol.7), Blackwell Scientific Publ., USA. 20. Mundukur, B.B. (1967): Fungi & Plant Diseases, Pochillion Co. Ltd., USA. 21. Prescott, L.M., Harley, J.P. & Klein, D.A. (1996): Microbiology, 3rd edition,
Wm.C.Brown Publ., USA. 22. Ronald M. Atlas, 1995: Principles of Microbiology. Mosby-Year Book, Inc. St. Louis,
Missouri, USA. 23. Moore-landeckar, E.J. (1972): Fundamentals of the fungi, Prentice Hall, Eaglewood,
U.K. 24. Shubert (1984): Algae as Ecological Indicators, Academic Press, U.S.A. 25. Singh, R.P. (1990): Introductory Biotechnology, Central Book Depot, Allahabad, India. 26. Sumbali, G. 2005: The Fungi, Narosa Publ. House, New Delhi. 27. Sze, P. (1993): A. biology of the Algae, Wm. C. Brown Publishers, U.K. 28. Venkataraman, G.S. ((1969): The Cultivation of Algae, IARI, New Delhi.
12
. Paper 202: Biology and Diversity of Archegoniates -II Note : 1. Nine questions will be set in all.
2. Question No.1 which will be objective covering the entire syllabus, will be compulsory. The remaining eight questions will be set with two questions from each Unit. The candidate will be required to attempt Question 1 and four more selecting one from each section.
UNIT-I
1) Classification of gymnosperms and their distribution in India. 2) Brief account of the following families:Lyginopteridaceae, Medullosaceae,
Glossopteridaceae, Caytoniaceae. 3) General account of the following orders Cycadeoidales, Pentoxylales, Cordiatales
UNIT-II
4) Comparative account of Structure and reproduction in the following orders: Cycadales, Ginkgoales, Coniferales, Ephedrales, Welwitschiales ,Gnetales
UNIT-III
5) Cytology of bryophytes: chromosome number, sex chromosome, m chromosomes, accessory chromosomes
6) Experimental studies: Advantages of bryophytes as an experimental system; 7) A brief account of morphogenetic studies on spore germination, protonemal
differentiation and bud initiation 8) Biology of reproduction- in vitro regulation of gametangia formation: effect of physical
and chemical factors 9) Medicinal uses of bryophytes especially as a source of biologically active compounds 10) Ecological importance of bryophytes: bryophytes as indicators of pollution and minerals;
role of bryophytes in succession
UNIT-IV 11) Apogamy, apospory, significance and experimental induction 12) Heterospory and Origin of seed habit in pteridophytes 13) Modern methods of propagation of gymnosperms: somatic embryogenesis, haploids and
protoplast culture 14) Economic importance of gymnosperms
Suggested Readings:
1. Parihar, N.S. 1965. An Introduction to Embryophyta Vol. I. Bryophyta, Central Book Depot, Allahabad, India. 2. Schofield, W.B. 1985. Introduction to Bryology, Macmillan, New York. 3. Chopra, R.N. and Kumra, P.K. 1988. Biology of Bryophytes.Wiley Eastern Ltd., New Delhi. 4. Chopra, R.N. & Bhatla, S.C. 1990. Bryophyte Development: Physiology and
13
Biochemistry. CRC Press, Boca Raton, USA. 5. Rashid, A. 1998. An Introduction to Bryophyta. Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi. 6. Watson, E.V. 1967. The Structure and Life of Bryophytes. B.I. Publications, New Delhi. 7. Parihar, N.S. 1977. The Biology and Morphology of Pteridophytes. Central Book Depot. Allahabad. 8. Rashid, A. 1976. An Introduction to Pteridophyta (Diversity and Differentiation). Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi. 9. Bhatnagar, S.P. and Moitra, A. 1996. Gymnosperms, New Age International Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi. 10. Sporne, K.R. 1965. The Morphology of Gymnosperms. B.I. Publications Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi. 11. Glime, J.M and Saxena D. 1991. Uses of Bryophytes. Today and Tomorrow’s Printers and Publishers, New Delhi. 12. Richardson, D.H.S. 1981. The Biology of Mosses. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, London.
14
Paper 203– Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics Note: 1. Nine questions will be set in all.
3. Question No.1 which will be objective covering the entire syllabus, will be compulsory. The remaining eight questions will be set with two questions from each Unit. The candidate will be required to attempt Question-1 and four more selecting one from each section.
UNIT-I
1) Chromosomes – Structure of A and B chromosomes, 2) Special Chromosomes – Structure occurrence and behaviour of polytene and lampbrush
chromosomes. 3) Cell Cycle and control mechanisms 4) Linkage and crossing over – Molecular mechanism of crossing over and role of different
enzymes. Chromosome mapping, linkage groups.
UNIT-II
5) Sex determination – Chromosomes and genes in controlling type of in plants, animals, Drosophila and humans; Gene dosage compensation.
6) Structural alterations in chromosomes – Origin, meiosis and breeding behaviour of duplication, deficiency, inversion and translocation heterozygotes.
7) Variation in chromosome number – haploids, aneuploids and euploids --their origin occurrence production and effects.
UNIT-III 8) Mutations - types, isolation of mutants, molecular basis of mutations. 9) Fine structure of gene – cis-trans test, rII locus, fine structure analysis of eukaryotes 10) Genome Organization - and conjugation, transduction and transformation in
bacteria.. UNIT-IV
11) Regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes – Operon concept, lac operon regulation by
positive and negative mechanism, trp operon, regulation by negative and attenuation. 12) Regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes – 13) Transcriptional level – Regulatory sequences, nucleosome positioning, chromatin
remodeling, histone modifications 14) Post-transcriptional level - RNA splicing, RNA stability, 15) Translational level 16) Post-translational level Suggested Readings : 1. Alberts, B., Bray, D., Lewis, J. Raff, M. Roberts, K., and Watson J.D. 1999. Molecular Biology of
the Cell. Garland Publishing Inc., New York.
15
2. Lehninger, A.L. 1992. Principles of Biochemistry. Worth Publishers, New York. 3. Brown, T.A. 1999. Genomes. John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pvt. Ltd., Singapore. 4. Burns, G.W. and Bottino, P.J. 1989. The Science of Genetics, Macmillan Publishing Co. New York. 5. Clark D. 2005, Molecular abiology, Understanding the Genetic Revolution. Elsevier Inc. C.
California. 6. Gustafron, J.P. 2002. Genomes.Kluwer Academic Plenum Publishers, New York, USA. 7. Hartl D.L. 1999. Genetics Principles and analysis. (4th Ed.) Jones and Bartle, Boston. 8. Henry, R.J. 1997. Practical Applications of Plant Molecular Biology Chapman & Hall, London, UK. 9. Klug, W.S. and Cunning. M.R. 1996. Essentials of Genetics. Prentice Hall London. 10. Lewin, Benjamin. 2005. Genes VIII. Oxford University Press, New York. 11. Lodish, H. Berk, A. Zipursky, S.L., Matsudaira, P., Baltimore, D. and Darnell, J. 2000. Molecular
Cell Biology. (4th Ed.), W.H. Freeman Co. New york. 12. Rawn, J.D. (1989). Biochemistry. Neil Patterson Publishing. 13. Russell, P.J. 1998. Genetics (5th Ed.) The Benjamin/ Cummings Publishing Comp. Inc. 14. Snustad, P. and Simmons, M.J. 2003. Principles of Genetics. (2nd Ed.). John Wiley, New York. 15. Swanson, C.P., Mertz. T and Young W.J. 1981. Cytogenetics. The Chromosome in Division,
Inheritance and Evolution (2nd Ed.). Englewood Cliffs, Prentice Hall, New Jersey. 16. Weaver R.F., 2005, Molecular Biology, McGraw Hill International Edition. 17. Weaver, R.F. and Hedrick, P.W. 1997. Genetics (3rd Ed.) WMC Brown, Chicago.
16
Paper 204: Natural Resources and Biodiversity Note: 1. Nine questions will be set in all.
4. Question No.1 which will be objective covering the entire syllabus, will be compulsory. The remaining eight questions will be set with two questions from each Unit. The candidate will be required to attempt Question-1 and four more selecting one from each section.
Note:- 1. Nine questions will be set in all. 2. Question No. 1, which will be objective/short-answer type covering the entire syllabus,
will be compulsory. The remaining eight questions will be set section-wise with two questions from each unit I, II, III & IV. The candidates will be required to attempt Q. No. 1 and four more selecting one question from each section.
UNIT-I
and conservation. 2) Land resources: Land degradation and desertification; management of waste lands in
India. 3) Water resources: Pools of water and Hydrological cycles, surface water and ground
water; water-use and management 4) Environmental pollution of air, water and soil-Types, sources and effects.
UNIT-II 5) Forest resources: Forests and their importance, Non timber forest produce, forest
resources of India and forest management. 6) Types of energy resources, renewable sources of energy- wind energy, wave energy,
Energy from biomass, bioconversion technologies, energy plantation and petrocrops. 7) Ecosystem restoration and Environment impact assessment- Brief account.
UNIT-III 8) Principals of resources conservation and conservation strategies. 9) Biological diversity: importance, concept and levels biodiversity; threats to
biodiversity-habitat loss and fragmentation, exotic species, pollution, species extinctions; IUCN categories of threat.
10) Distribution and global patterns of biodiversity 11) Terrestrial and marine hotspots of biodiversity; Hotspots of biodiversity in India.
17
UNIT-IV
12) In situ conservation of biodiversity : Protected area in India—sanctuaries, national
parks, biosphere reserves. 13) Conservation of biodiversity of wetlands, mangroves and coral reefs. 14) Ex situ biodiversity conservation: principles and practices, field gene banks, seed
banks, and cryopreservation. 15) Sustainable development: concept, principles and strategies; sustainability indicators.
Suggested Readings: 1. Ball, J.B. 2001. Global forest resources: history and dynamics. In: Forests Handbook
Volume 1, Evans, J. (ed). Blackwell Science, Oxford. 2. Chape, S., Fish, L., Fox, P. and Spalding, M. 2003. United Nations list of protected areas.
IUCN/UNEP/World Conservation Monitoring Centre, Gland, Switzerland/Cambridge 3. Gopal, B. (ed.) 1987. Ecology and Management of Aquatic Vegetation of the Indian
Subcontinent. W. Junk bv. The Hague. 4. Heywood, V.(Ed.) (1995). Global Biodiversity Assessment. United Nations Environment
Programme, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K. 5. Huston, M.A. 1994. Biological Diversity: The Coexistence of Species on Changing
Landscapes. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 6. Owen,O.S., Chiras, D.D.and Reganold,J.P.1998.Natural Resource Conservation:
Management for Sustainable Future. Seventh Edition. Prentice Hall.Upper Sadle River, New Jersey.
7. Raven, P.H. and Berg , L. R. 2005. Environment, 5th Edition. John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York.
8. Singh, J.S. and Singh, S.P. 1992. Forests of Himalaya, Structure, Functioning and Impact of Man. Gyanodaya Prakashan, Nainital, India.
9. Singh,J.S., Singh,S.P. and Gupta, S.R. 2006. Ecology, Environment and Resource Conservation, Anamaya Publishers, New Delhi.
18
SEMESTER – III
Paper –301: Plant Physiology and Plant Biochemistry Note: Nine questions will be set in all. Question No.1 will be very short answer type questions covering the
entire syllabus will be compulsory. Remaining eight questions will be set section-wise with two questions from each Unit. As far as possible, each question will be sub-divided into parts and will not be essay type. The candidates will be required to attempt Question No.1 and four more selecting from each Unit. All questions carry equal marks.
UNIT-I
1) Water: Passive and active absorption of water. 2) Plant water relations: Concept and components of water potential, soil water relationship,
transpiration and factors governing transpiration, antitranspirants.
UNIT-II 3) Mineral Nutrition: Role and mode of action of micro and macro-nutrients. 4) Photosynthesis:
a) Photo-oxidation of water, cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation, photorespiration and its significance.
b) The sequence of reactions in photosynthesis, the path of carbon assimilation (C3 and C4 cycles, CAM pathway).
UNIT-III
6) Nitrogen Metabolism Biochemistry of nitrogen fixation, nitrogenase, nitrogen fixation in legumes, nitrate assimilation, ammonium assimilation ,biosynthesis of amino acids.
UNIT-IV 7) Lipid Metabolism
Fatty acid biosynthesis, Alpha and beta oxidation and conservation into carbohydrates.
8) Enzymes Structure, properties and functions of enzymes, factors affecting rates of enzymatic reactions, isozymes, allosteric enzymes.
Suggested Readings:
1. Bonner, J. and Varner, J.E. (1976). Plant Biochemistry, IIIrd Edition, Academic Press, New York and London.
2. Buchanan, B.B., Gruissem, W. and Jones, R.L. (2000). Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Plants. American Society of Plant Physiologists, Maryland, USA.
19
3. Davies, Peter J. (1995). Plant Hormones: Physiology, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 2nd Edition. Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands.
4. Dey, P.M. and Harborne, J.B. (1997), First Indian Edition, Plant Biochemistry. Academic Press, Harcourt Asia Pvt. Ltd.
5. Garrett, R.H. and Grisham, C.M. (1999). Biochemistry. Second edition. Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia.
6. Hopkins, W.G. 1995 Introduction to Plant Physiology, John Wiley and Sons. 7. Krishnamoorthy, H.N. (1993). Physiology of Plant Growth and Development. Atma Ram and Sons,
Delhi. 8. Kumar, H.D. and Singh, H.N. (1993). Plant Metabolism. Second edition, Affiliated East-West Press
Pvt Ltd. New Delhi. 9. Lehninger, A.L. (1978). Biochemistry. Kalyani Publishers, Ludhiana, India (Indian edition). 10. Lehninger, A.L, Nelson, D.L. and Co MM 1993Principles of Biochemistry Second edition, CBS
Publishers. 11. Moore, Thomas. C. (1989). Biochemistry and Physiology of Plant Hormones. Second edition
(Reprint 1994), Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi.. 12. Noggle, G.R. and Fritz, G.J. (1983). Introductory Plant Physiology, Prentice-Hall of India Pvt. Ltd.,
New Delhi, Second edition Seventh reprint, 1993. 13. Salisbury, F.B. and Ross, C.W. (1992). Plant Physiology. Fourth edition, Wadsworth Publishing Co.
Belmont, California, USA. 14. Singhal, G.S. Renger, G., Sopory, S.K., Irrgang, K.D. and Govindjee (editors) (1999). Concepts in
Photobiology: Photosynthesis and Photomorphogenesis. Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi. 15. Srivastava, L.M. (2006). Plant Growth and Development : Hormones and Environment. Academic
Press. Published by Elsevier India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi. 16. Taiz, L and Zeiger, E. (1998). Plant Physiology. Second edition. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Publishers,
Massachusetts, USA 17. Trehan, K. (1990). Biochemistry. Second edition, Wiley-Eastern Ltd., New Delhi. 18. Trivedi, P.C. (2006). Plant Molecular Physiology: Current Scenario and Future Projections.
Aavishkar Publishers, Distributors, Jaipur. 19. Weil, J.H. (1990). General Biochemistry. Sixth edition. Wiley-Eastern, New Age International
Publishers, New Delhi. 20. Wilkins, M.B. (1987). Advanced Plant Physiology, ELBS, Longman, England. 21. Zubay, Geoffrey. (1989). Biochemistry. Mc.Millan Publishing Co. New York.
20
Paper-302: Plant Taxonomy and Economic Botany Note : 1. Nine questions will be set in all.
2. Question No.1 which will be objective covering the entire syllabus, will be compulsory. The remaining eight questions will be set with two questions from each Unit. The candidate will be required to attempt Question 1 and four more selecting one from each section.
UNIT-I 1) The Species concept, Taxonomic hierarchy, Species, Genus and Family 2) Taxonomic evidence: Morphology, anatomy, palynology. 3) Taxonomic Tools: Herbarium and Floras. 4) Botanical Gardens and herbaria in India; Botanical Survey of India its organization and
role. UNIT-II
5) Salient Features of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature. 6) Systems of angiosperm classifications of Benthom and Hooker, Engler and Prantl,
Hutchinson, Cronquist, Takhtajan, Dahlgren and Thorne 7) Relative merits and demerits of these systems.
UNIT-III
8) Origin of agriculture 9) World centers of primary diversity of domesticated plants. 10) Origin, botany, cultivation and uses of cereals (wheat, rice), Sugarcane, Potato 11) Oil yielding plants (groundnut, mustard, sunflower)
UNIT-IV
12) Botany, origin, uses of important fibres (Cotton, Jute), 13) General account of important spices (Ginger, Turmeric, Cinnamon, Clove, Cardamom,
Chilies, Pepper, Fennel, Coriander, Cumin, Asafetida, Nutmeg, Mace, and Saffron), 14) General account of important medicinal plants (Aconite, Cinchona, Belladonna, Digitalis,
Glycyrrhiza, Rauvolfia, Papaver, Vasaka, Aloe and Ginseng). A brief account of major Indian Medicinal plants(Amla, Neem, Arjun, Harad, Bahera, Isabgol, Ashwagandha, Bhringraj and Senna)
15) General account of important timber, dye, gums and tannin yielding plants Suggested Readings:
1. Radford, A.E. 1986. Fundamentals of Plant Systematics. Harper and Row Publishers Inc.
2. Lawrence, G.H.M. 1951. Taxonomy of vascular plants. The Macmillan C., New York. 3. Davis, P.H. and Heywood, V.H. 1965. Principles of Angiosperm Taxonomy. D Van
Nostrand Co. , New York.
21
4. Sivarajan, V.V. 1984. Introduction to Principles of Plant Taxonomy. Oxford IBH Pub. Co., New Delhi.
5. Kochar, S.L. 1981. Economic Botany in the Tropics. Macmillan India Ltd., Delhi. 6. Hill, A.F. 1952. Economic Botany (2nd Ed.) McGraw Hill, New York. 7. Cobley, L.S. and Steele, W.M. 1976. An Introduction to the Botany of Tropical Crops
(2nd Ed.) Longmans, London. 8. Simmonds, N.W. 1976. Evolution of Crop Plants Longman, London, New York. 9. SambaMurthy, AVS and Subrahmanyam, N.S. 1989. A Text Book of Economic Botany.
Wiley Eastern Ltd.,Delhi 10. Judd, W.S.; Campbell. C.S., Kellogg, E.A. and Stevens, P.F. 1999. Plant Systematics A
Phylogenetic Approach. Sinauer Associates, Inc. Publishers, Sunderland, Massachusetts, U.S.A.
11. Schery, R.W. 1972. Plants for Man. Prentice Hall. Englewood Cliffs, N.J. USA 12. Simpson B. B. M. C. Ogorzaly 2001. Economic botany: plants of our world, 3rd ed.
McGraw-Hill, New York, New York, USA. 13. Hancock. J. F. 2004. Plant evolution and the origin of crop species. 2nd edition. CABI
Publishing, Cambridge, MA USA. 14. Radford, A. E., W. C. Dickison, J. R. Massey, C. R. Bell. 1976. Vascular Plant
Systematics Harper and Row, New York.
22
Paper 303: BIOTECHNOLOGY AND GENETIC ENGINEERING Note : 1. Nine questions will be set in all.
2. Question No.1 which will be objective covering the entire syllabus, will be compulsory. The remaining eight questions will be set with two questions from each Unit. The candidate will be required to attempt Question 1 and four more selecting one from each section.
UNIT-I
1. Techniques used in DNA Technology: Gel Electrophoresis, PFGE, Southern and Western blotting, Dot blots, slot blots, DNA chip technology; Brief account of genomics and Proteomics.
2. Isolation of genes, Sequencing of genes; Maxam & Gilberts method, Sanger’s method, Automatic Sequencers, synthesis of genes: chemical synthesis, Gene synthesizing machines.
UNIT-II
3. DNA cloning methods, using vectors (Plasmids, phages, cosmids, phagemids, transposons, artificial chromosomes, BAC, YAC, MAC), cloning in bacteria and eukaryotes, genomic and C-DNA Libraries.
4. Gene amplification by PCR: different types, DNA finger printing, molecular probes: labeling and applications.
UNIT-III
6. Transgenic plants: production of transgenic plants with respect to herbicide resistance, resistance against biotic (insects, fungal, viral) and abiotic (salinity, drought, chill) factors, male sterility and food adjunct, molecular farming, plantibodies – a brief account)
UNIT-IV
7. Yeast and algal biomass as source of single cell protein, oils and vitamins, microbial fermentation technology in food industry.
8. Plant and microbial biopesticides, bioremediation and phytoremediation.
Suggested readings 1. Bajaj, Y.P.S. 2000. Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry-44-
Transgenenic Trees, Springer Pub., New York, USA
23
2. Bajaj, Y.P.S. 2000. Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry-46-Transgenic Trees, Springer Pub., New York, USA
3. Brown, T.A. 1999 Genomes. John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pvt. Ltd., Singapore 4. Dawson, M.T. Powell, R, and L. Gannon, F.1996. Gene Technology, BIOS
Sci. Pub. Ltd., Oxford, UK. 5. Erlich, H.A.(Ed.) 1989, PCR Technology – Principles and applications for
DNA Amplification, Stockton Press, New York, USA 6. Glazer, A.N. and Nikaido, H. 1995. Microbial Biotechnology, W.H. Freeman
& Company, New York, USA 7. Glover, D.M. and Hames, B.D.(Eds.) 1995. DNA Clonning 1 – A Practical
Approach, OIRL Press, Oxford, UK 8. Gupta, P.K. 1996. Elements of Biotechnology, Rastogi & Co., Pub., New
Pub., Meerut, India. 9. Hammond, J., McGarvey, P. and Yusibov, V. (Eds.) 1999. Plant
Biotechnology – New Products and Applications, Springer Pub., New York, USA.
10. Henry, R.J. 1998. Practical Applications of Plant Molecular Biology, Chapman & Hall, London, UK
11. Keller, G.H. and Manak, M.M. 1993. DNA Probes, Mac Millan Pub. Ltd. UK. 12. Lea, P. and Leegood, R.C. 1999. Plant Biotechnology and Molecular Biology
(2nd Ed.) John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., England. 13. Lewin, B. 2005. Genes VIII,Osford University Press, Oxford, UK 14. Lindsey, K. and Jones, M.G.K. 1990. Plant Biotechnology in Agriculture,
Prentice Hall Int. Pub., London, UK 15. Malaacinski, G.M. and Freifilder, D. 1998. Essentials of Molecular Biology
3rd Ed.), Jones & Bartlett Pub., London, UK 16. Miesfield, R.L. 1999. Applied Molecular Genetics, Wiely Liss, New York,
USA. 17. Nicklin,J., Graeme-Cook, K.Paget, T. and Killington, R. 1999. Instant Notes
in Mircobiology, VIVA Books Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India 18. Purohit, S.S., Kothari, P.R. and Mathur, S.K. 1993. Basic and Agricultural
Biotechnology, Agro Botanical Pub. Bikaner, India. 19. Rehm;, H.I. and Reed, S.G. (Eds.) 1995. Fundamentals of Genetic
Engineering, Pallicut, London, UK. 20. Scragg, A. 1999. Environmental Biotechnology, Pearson Education Ltd.,
England, UK 21. Shantharam, S. and Montogomery, J.F. 1999. Biotechnology, Biosafety and
Biodiversity. Oxford & IBH Pub. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India. 22. Sheehan, D. (Ed.) 1997. Bioremediation Protocols, Humana Press, Totowa,
USA 23. Snustad, D.P. and Simmons, M.J. 2000. Principles of Genetics (2nd Ed.) John
Wiley & Sons. Inc., New York, USA 24. Trehan, K. 1990. Biotechnology, New Age INt. Pvt. Ltrd. New Delhi India. 25. Twyman, R.M. 1999. Advanced Molecular Biology, VIVA Books Pvt. Ltd.,
New Delhi, India.
Paper –304: COMPUTER APPLICATIONS & BIOSTATISTICS NOTE ;
1.. Nine questions will be set in all 2. Question No.1, which will be objective/short answer type covering the entire syllabus, will be compulsory. The remaining eight questions will be set unit-wise with two questions from each unit. The candidates will be required to attempt Question No.1 and four other selecting one question from each unit.
UNIT-I
1) Introduction to digital computers: Organization; low level and high level languages; binary number system
2) Flow charts and Programming Technique 3) Programming Languages: Introduction to programming in Q Basic and C
UNIT-II
4) Data & Database: Introduction to data structure and database concepts 5) Application Software: Introduction to MS Office software covering word processing,
spreadsheets, and presentation software; Introduction to Haward Graphics/Corel Draw 6) Computer-oriented Statistical Techniques: Frequency table of single discrete variable,
bubble sort, computation of mean, variance and standard deviation; t-test, correlation coefficient
UNIT-III
8) Internet: Introduction to internet and its applications
UNIT -IV
9) Biostatistics: Brief description and tabulation of data and its graphical representation 10) Measures of central tendency and dispersion. 11) Mean, mode, median, range, standard deviation, variance, idea of two types of errors and
level of significance, tests of significance (F & t test) ; chi-square test. 12) Simple Linear Regression and Correlation
Suggested Reading: 1. .Bioinformatics 1998. Baxevanis. 2. Bioinformatics 2000. Higgins & Taylor OUP 3. C++ from scratch. J. Liberty
25
4. How computers work, 2000. Ron White. Techmedia. 5. How the Internet work 2000. Preston Gralla. Techmedia. 6. Nucleic Acids Research 2001. Jan. Genome Database issue. 7. Practical Statistics for Experimental Biologists. (1985) Wardlaw, A.C. John Wiley and Sons.,
Inc. NY. 8. Programming in C- E. Balaguru Swamy. 9. Statistics for Biologists (1974) Campbell R.C. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 10. Statistics in Biology, Vol.1 (1967) Bliss, C.I.K, McGraw Hill, New York
26
Paper-305(a): Advanced Phycology (Elective)
Note : 1 Nine questions will be set in all. 2. Question No.1 which will be objective covering the entire syllabus, will be
compulsory. The remaining eight questions will be set with two questions from each Unit. The candidate will be required to attempt Question No. 1 and four more selecting one from each section.
Fundamentals of Phycology
UNIT-I
1) Mineral nutrition in algae with emphasis on Calcium, Iron, Nickel, Molybdenum,
Sodium and Silica. 2) Synchronous & continuous cultures and their uses; Physiology of nutrient regulated
algal growth. UNIT-II
3) Limits to algal growth in natural waters. 4) Dynamics and consequences of marine & freshwater algal blooms; Causative factors
for eutrophication and its impact on algal blooms.
UNIT-III 5) Algae in water supplies, Algal biofouling of ships & ancient monuments: its control;
Algal diseases in plants & humans. 6) Ecological aspects: Symbiosis, thermal, marine, psychrophillic, sub-aerial and paddy
field algal flora with emphasis on Cyanobacteria.
UNIT-IV
7) Influence of heavy metals & acid rain on algae: Ecological effects of uptake & accumulation of metals; Physiological & biochemical aspects, mechanism of tolerance.
8) Mechanisms of adaptation to toxicants, pesticides & salt stress.
Suggested Readings:
1. Akatsuka, I. (1994): Biology of Economic Algae, SPB Academic Publishing bv, Hague, Netherlands.
2. Becker, E.W. (1994): Microalgae - Biotechnology & Microbiology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.
3. Carr, N.C. & Whitton , B.A. (1982): The biology of Cyanobacteria Blackwell Scientific Publ., Oxford, U.K.
27
4. Dubey, R.C. (2006): Introduction to Biotechnology, Delhi Book Trust, New Delhi. 5. Fatma, T. (2005): Cyanobacterial and Algal Metabolism and Environmental
Biotechnology, Narosa Publihers. 6. Fay, P & C van Baalen (1987): The cyan bacteria, Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.
Amsterdam, Netherlands. 7. Graham, L.E. & Wilcox, L.W. (1999): Algae, Benjamin Cummings, USA. 8. Gupta, R.K. & Pandey, V.D. (2007): Advaces in Applied Phycology, Daya Publishing
House, Daryaganj, New Delhi. 9. Hoek, C. Van Den, Mann, D.G. & Jahns, H.M. (1995): Algae: An Introduction to
Phycology, Cambridge University Press, U.K. 10. Kashyap, A.K. (1994): Recent Advances in Phycology, Rastogi & Company, Meerut 11. Kaushik, B.D. (1987): Laboratory methods for Blue-green Algae, Associated Publishing
Co., New Delhi. 12. Morris, I. (1980): The Physiological Ecology of Phytoplankton (studies in Ecology,
Vol.7), Blackwell Scientific Publ., USA. 13. Prescott, L.M., Harley, J.P. & Klein, D.A. (1996): Microbiology, 3rd edition, Wm. C.
Brown Publishers, USA. 14. Shubert (1984): Algae as Ecological Indicators, Academic Press, U.S.A. 15. Singh, B.D. (1998): Biotechnology, Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi. 16. Singh, R.P. (1990): Introductory Biotechnology, Central Book Depot, Allahabad, India. 17. Sze, P. (1993): A. biology of the Algae, Wm. C. Brown Publishers, U.K. 18. Trainer, F.R. (1978): Introductory Phycology, John Wiley & Sons, New York, USA. 19. Venkataraman, G.S. ((1969): The Cultivation of Algae, IARI, New Delhi.
28
Paper – 305(b): Applied Mycology (Elective)
Note:1. Nine questions will be set in all. 2. Question No.1 which will be objective covering the entire syllabus, will be
compulsory. The remaining eight questions will be set with two questions from each Unit. The candidate will be required to attempt Question No. 1 and four more selecting one from each section.
UNIT-I
1) Primary metabolites production by fungi: industrial alcohol, organic acid, beer. 2) Secondary metabolites production by fungi: Antibiotics, steroid transformation,.
Enzymes, amino acids, growth regulators, vitamins
UNIT-II
3) Fungi as biofertilizers : Endomycorrhizae and ectomycorrhizae. 4) Fungi as biocontrol of plant pathogens and weeds. 5) Biodeterioration of materials: Paper, painted surface, wood.
UNIT-III
6) Food processing by fungi: Bread, cheese, oriental food and baker’s yeast. 7) Fungal sources of health food: Single cell protein, edible mushrooms. 8) Spoilage of food and fungal toxicity.
UNIT-IV
9) Culturing and preservation of fungi: isolation of fungi, culturing of fungi, establishing
a pure culture, aseptic technique, maintenance of culture collection, culture collection and identification centres.
10) Common culture media and sterilization techniques. Suggested Readings:
1. Alexopoulos, C.J. Mins, C.W. & Blackwell, M. (1995): Introductory Mycology, John Willy and Sons. Inc.
2. Bilgrami, K.SA. & Verma R.N. (1981): Physiology of fungi, Vikas Publ. Ltd., New Delhi.
3. Biswas, S.P. & Biswas, A. (1984): An Introduction to Viruses, Vani Education Books, New Delhi.
4. Butler, E.J. & Jones, S.G. (1976): Plant Pathology, Periodical Expert Book Agency, New Delhi.
5. Clifton, A. (1958): Introduction to the Bacteria. McGraw Hill Books Co. New York. 6. Dubey, R.C. (2005): A Text Book of Biotechnology, S Chand & Co. Ltd., New Delhi.
29
7. Bilgrami, K.S. & Dubey H.C. (1986): A text book of Modern Plant Pathology, Vikas, Publ. Ltd., N.Delhi.
8. Gupta, R. & Mukerji, K.G. (2001): Microbial Technology, APH Publ. Co., New Delhi. 9. Mehrotra, R.S. & Aneja, K.R. (1990): An introduction of Mycology, New Age
International Press, N. Delhi. 10. Michael J. Pelezar, E.C.S. Chaing & N.R. Krieg, 1993: Microbiology. Tata McGraw Hill
Publ. N. Delhi. 11. Mundukur, B.B. (1967): Fungi & Plant Diseases, Pochillion Co. Ltd., USA. 12. Prescott, L.M., Harley, J.P. & Klein, D.A. (1996): Microbiology, 3rd edition, Wm. C.
Brown Publ., USA. 13. Ronald M. Atlas (1995): Principles of Microbiology. Mosby-Year Book, Inc. St. Louis,
Missouri, USA. 14. Moore-landeckar, E.J. (1972): Fundamentals of the fungi, Prentice Hall, Eaglewood,
U.K. 15. Sumbali, G. (2005): The Fungi, Narosa Publ. House, New Delhi.
30
Paper-305(c): Restoration Ecology (Elective) Note:1. Nine questions will be set in all.
2. Question No. 1, which will be objective/short-answer type covering the entire syllabus, will be compulsory. The remaining eight questions will be set section-wise with two questions from each unit I, II, III & IV. The candidates will be required to attempt Q. No.1 and four more selecting one question from each section.
UNIT-I
and functioning of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. 2) Restoration-Terms and definitions, Importance of ecological restoration: strategies of
Restoration-Natural recovery, active restoration, rehabilitation. Restoration plan and rehabilitation measures;
3) Physical, Chemical, Biological tools of restoration.
UNIT-II
4) Community organization: The role of keystone species and mutualism. 5) Microbial diversity and ecological restoration. 6) Prevention and mitigation of invasive species; Habitant fragmentation 7) Ecosystem stability: Structural and functional stability. 8) Global change and Human impact on ecological systems 9) Climate change mitigation and Biological carbon sequestration
UNIT-III 10) Restoration of soil fertility of degraded lands: No-tillage, role of mycorrhizae, forestry
plantations, biofertilizers ; Rehabilitation of salt affected soils 11) Sustainable forestry management and agroforestry 12) Biotechnological Tools of Restoration. 13) Environmental impact and risk assessment
UNIT-IV
14) Degradation and Restoration of forest and grassland ecosystems. 15) Degradation and restoration of aquatic resources: River corridors, wetlands and lakes.
Adaptive restoration of wetlands; Waste water recycling and waste management 16) Reclamation of mining sites, Bioremediation and Phytoremediation
Suggested Readings :
31
1. Botkin, D.B. and E.A. Keller (2004). Environment Science: Earth as a Living Planet, John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York.
2. Carson, Rachel . 1962. Silent spring. Boston, Houghton Mifflin 3. Manahan, S.E. 2000. Environmental Chemistry. Seventh Edition. Lewis Publishers, New
York 4. Mitsch, W.J. and Jorgensen, S.E. (eds.) 1989. Ecological Engineering: An Introduction to
Ecotechnology. John Wiley and Sons, New York. 5. Morgan, R.K. Environmental Impact Assessment; A methodological Perspective.
Kluwer Academic Publishers, London. 6. Pierzynski, G.M., Sims, J.T. and Vance, G.F. 2000. Soils and Environmental Quality.
Second Edition. CRC press, New York. 7. Singh,J.S., Singh,S.P. and Gupta, S.R. 2006. Ecology, Environment and Resource
Conservation, Anamaya Publishers, New Delhi. 8. Bradshaw, A.D. and Chadwick, M.J. (1980). The Restoration of Land Ecology and
Reclamation f Derelict and Degraded Land Blackwell Scientific Publication, Oxford, England.
9. Pace, M.L. and Groffman, P.M. (Eds.) (1998). Success, limitations and Frontiers in Ecosystem Science, Springer Verlag, New York.
10. Packard, S. and Mutel C.F. eds. (1997). The Tall Grass Restoration Handbook, Island Press, Washington, DC.
11. Petts, G. and Calow P. Larsen, P. (1996). River Restoration a Blackwell Science, Oxford, England.
12. Urbanska, K.M. Webb, N.R. and Edwards, P.J. (1998). Restoration Ecology and Sustainable Development. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge).
13. USEPA (2000). Principles for the Ecological Restoration of Aquatic Resources. EPA 841-F-00-003. Office of Water (4501F), United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. 4pp.
32
Paper-305(d): Advanced Plant Physiology (Elective) Note : Nine questions will be set in all. Question No.1 will be very short answer type questions covering the
entire syllabus will be compulsory. Remaining eight questions will be set section-wise with two questions from each Unit. As far as possible, each question will be sub-divided into parts and will not be essay type. The candidates will be required to attempt Question No.1 and four more selecting from each Unit. All questions carry equal marks.
UNIT-I
1). Water stress: Drought, its definition and quantification, water deficit and plant
growth, physiological and biochemical functions, responses injury affected by water stress, Adaptive strategies for drought resistance. Osmotic adjustment, osmoprotectants. Water logging/ oxygen deficiency and its effects on plant growth.
UNIT-II 2) Salt and temperature stress:
Salt stress; Saline and alkaline soils, salt stress injury, mechanism of salt stress and halophytes. Temperature stress; high temperature stress, heat shock proteins, chilling and frost injury and mechanism of tolerance.
UNIT-III
3) Photosynthesis: a) The four major complexes of thylakoids. b) The path of carbon in photosynthesis (C3, C4 and CAM plants)
c) Rubisco, structure and its association with the mechanism of carboxylation and oxygenation of RUBP. d) Effect of environmental factors on photosynthetic rates. Translocation of photosynthates and its importance in sink growth.
UNIT-IV 4. Respiration:
a) Cyanide insensitive respiration: Mechanism and significance. b) Comparison between normal electron transport chain and alternate oxidase pathway of respiration. c) Glycolic acid metabolism and photorespiration. d) Glyoxylate cycle. e) Respiration in intact plants and tissues.
33
Suggested Readings: 1. Bonner, J. and Varner, J.E. (1976) Plant Biochemistry, Academic Press, New York and London (Third Edition). 2. Buchanan, B.B., Gruissem, w. and Jones, R.L. (2000). Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Plants. American Society of Plant Physiologists, Maryland, USA. 3. Cooper, T.G. (1977). Electrophoresis. In : The Tools of Biochemistry. John Wiley and Sons., New York. 4. Dey, P.M. and Harborne, J.B. (1997), First Indian edition, 2000). Plant Biochemistry. Academic Press, Harcourt Asia Pvt. Ltd. 5. Noggle, G.r. and Fritz, G.J. (1983). Introductory Plant Physiology. Prentice-Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, 2nd edition (Seventh reprint, 1992). 6. Salisbury, F.B. and Ross, G.W. (1992). Plant Physiology. Fourth Edition, Wadsworth Publishing Co. Belmont, California, USA. 7. Sawhney, S.K. and Singh, Randhir. (2000). Introductory Practical Biochemistry, Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi. 8. Solmos, T. (1977). Cyanide resistant respiration in higher plants. In : Ann. Rev. Pl. Physiol. 28: 279-297.
34
Paper 305 (e): Crop Improvement (Elective) Note: 1. Nine questions will be set in all.
5. Question No.1 which will be objective covering the entire syllabus, will be compulsory. The remaining eight questions will be set with two questions from each Unit. The candidate will be required to attempt Question-1 and four more selecting one from each section.
UNIT- I
1) Genetic Basis of Plant Breeding ; Conventional techniques of plant breeding for 2) Self pollinated crops 3) Cross pollinated crops 4) Vegetatively propagated crops 5) Hybridization in crop improvement: genetic consequences, overcoming the barriers,
inbreeding depression, handling the hybrid material . 6) Breeding for disease resistance
UNIT – II 7) Chromosome breeding; haploids, aneuploids, polyploids in plant breeding, induction of
polyploidy and applications. 8) Mutation breeding : Induced mutations, different mutagens and role of induced mutations in
crop improvement. 9) Heterosis; male sterility and hybrid production 10) Distant hybridization : Somatic hybridization , Embryo rescue
UNIT-III 11) Crop Improvement in India : History, centres, projects and achievements for improvement of
different crops: 12) Wheat, Rice, Maize, Pulses, Sugarcane, Cotton, Oil seeds 13) Crop Genetic Resources : Classification; Centres of Diversity, Genetic resource activities. 14) International Institutes/Centres of Agricultural Research
UNIT-IV 15) Molecular Breeding : Molecular markers, Construction of molecular maps, molecular
mapping of genes – monogenetic and polygenetic traits; QTL mapping 16) Marker assisted breeding – Estimation of genetic diversity, identification of crop varieties,
market aided selection, Positional cloning of genes, 17) Intellectual Property Rights and Ethical Issues – Intellectual property rights (IPR); Patents,
trade secrets, copyright, trademarks; Plant genetic resources; GATT & TRIPPS; Patenting of biological material; Plant breeders rights (PBRs) and farmers rights; Biosafety and containment practices.
35
SEMESTER – IV Paper –401: Physiology of Plant Growth and Development Note : Nine questions will be set in all. Question No.1 will be very short answer type questions covering the
entire syllabus will be compulsory. Remaining eight questions will be set section-wise with two questions from each Unit. As far as possible, each question will be sub-divided into parts and will not be essay type. The candidates will be required to attempt Question No.1 and four more selecting from each Unit. All questions carry equal marks.
UNIT-I 1. Plant Growth:
a) Growth concepts, Growth curves, Growth analysis and totipotency. b) Germination and Dormancy of seeds ; factors affecting dormancy and its regulation
by plant growth regulators and environmental factors.
2. Stress Physiology: Response of plants to abiotic stresses: abiotic stress affecting plant productivity. Basic
principles of crop improvement programme under stress.
UNIT-II 3. Plant Growth Regulators
Discovery, biosynthetic pathways, transport, influence on plant growth and mechanism of action of: a) Auxins b) Gibberellins b) Cytokinins c) Ethylene
e) Abscisic acid. UNIT-III 4. Senescence and Abscission:
a) Programmed cell death, physiological and biochemical changes associated with senescence and its regulation by plant growth regulators.
5. Tropism: Phototropism, nature of receptors, role of hormones, Geotropism and nastism.
UNIT-IV
6. Sensory Photobiology Phytochromes: mechanism of phytochrome action, photomorphogenesis and cryptochromes .
7. The Flowering Process a) Photoperiodism and its significance, importance of dark periods and phytochrome,
role of vernalization.
36
b) Nature and events during flowering, florigen concept, chemical control of flowering. Suggested Readings:
1. Audus, L.J. (1972). Plant Growth Substances. Vol.I Chemistry and Physiology. Leonard Hill, London. 2. Bonner, J. and Varner, J.E. (1976). Plant Biochemistry,IIIrd Edition, Academic Press, New York and London. 3. Buchanan, B.B., Gruissem, W. and Jones, R.L. (2000). Biochemstry and Molecular Biology of Plants. American Society of Plant Physiologists, Maryland, USA. 4. Davies, Peter J. (1995). Plant Hormones: Physiology, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 2nd Edition. Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands. 5. Dey, P.M. and Harborne, J.B. (1997), First Indian Edition, Plant Biochemistry. Academic Press, Harcourt Asia Pvt.Ltd. 6. Garrett, R.H. and Grisham, C.M. (1999). Biochemistry. Second edition. Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia. 7. Hopkins, W.G. 1995 Introduction to Plant Physiology, John Wiley and Sons. 8. Krishnamoorthy, H.N. (1993). Physiology of Plant Growth and Development. Atma Ram and Sons, Delhi. 9. Kumar, H.D. and Singh, H.N. (1993). Plant Metabolism. Second edition, Affiliated East- West Press Pvt Ltd. New Delhi. 10. Lehninger, A.L. (1978). Biochemistry. Kalyani Publishers, Ludhiana, India 11. Lehninger, A.L, Nelson, D.L. and Co MM 1993 Principles of Biochemistry Second edition, CBS Publishers. 12. Moore, Thomas. C. (1989). Biochemistry and Physiology of Plant Hormones. Second edition (Reprint 1994), Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi.. 13. Noggle, G.R. and Fritz, G.J. (1983). Introductory Plant Physiology, Prentice-Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, Second edition Seventh reprint, 1993. 14. Salisbury, F.B. and Ross, C.W. (1992). Plant Physiology. Fourth edition, Wadsworth Publishing Co. Belmont, California, USA. 15 Singhal, G.S. Renger, G., Sopory, S.K., Irrgang, K.D. and Govindjee (editors) (1999). Concepts in Photobiology: Photosynthesis and Photomorphogenesis. Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi. 16. Srivastava, L.M. (2006). Plant Growth and Development : Hormones and Environment. Academic Press. Published by Elsevier India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi. 17 Taiz, L and Zeiger, E. (1998). Plant Physiology. Second edition. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Publishers, Massachusetts, USA 18. Trehan, K. (1990). Biochemistry. Second edition, Wiley-Eastern Ltd., New Delhi. 19. Trivedi, P.C. (2005). Applied Botany. Aavishkar Publishers, Distributors, Jaipur. 20. Trivedi, P.C. (2006). Plant Molecular Physiology: Current Scenario and Future Projections. Aavishkar Publishers, Distributors, Jaipur. 21. Weil, J.H. (1990). General Biochemistry. Sixth edition. Wiley-Eastern, New Age International Publishers, New Delhi. 22. Wilkins, M.B. (1987). Advanced Plant Physiology, ELBS, Longman, England. 23. Zubay, Geoffrey. (1989). Biochemistry. Mc.Millan Publishing Co. New York.
37
Paper-402: Biology of Reproduction and Anatomy Note : 1. Nine questions will be set in all.
2. Question No.1 which will be objective covering the entire syllabus, will be compulsory. The remaining eight questions will be set with two questions from each Unit. The candidate will be required to attempt Question 1 and four more selecting one from each section.
Unit I
1. History of plant embryology 2. Male gametophyte: structure of anther, microsporogenesis, role of tapetum, 3. Pollen development, male sterility; 4. Pollen germination, pollen tube growth and guidance; pollen allergy
Unit II 5. Female gametophyte; ovule development, megasporogenesis; 6. Organization of the embryosac, structure of the embryo sac cells. 7. Pollination, Pollination mechanisms and vectors,
Unit III 8. Pollen pistil interaction and fertilization; structure of pistils; pollen-stigma interaction sporophytic and gametophytic incompatibility, double fertilization 9. Endosperm development, polyembryony; apomixis 10. Experimental Embryology: in vitro fertilization Anther, Pollen and embryo culture,
Unit IV 11. Anatomy in relation to taxonomy. 12. Anomalous secondary Structure: Anomalous secondary growth, anomalous position of cambium, abnormal behaviour of normal cambium, accessory cambium formation and its activity, extrastelar cambium, Interxylary and intraxylary phloe, presence of medullary bundles, cortical bundles, presence of exclusive phloem and xylem bundles, secondary growth in monocots. Suggested Readings: 1. Bhojwani, S.S. and Bhatnagar, S.P. 2000. The Embryology of Angiosperms (4th Ed.), Vikas Publishing House, New Delhi. 2. Shivanna, K.R. and Johri, B.M. 1985. The Angiopsrem Pollen: Structure and Function. Wiley Eastern Ltd., New Delhi. 3. Raghavan, V. 1997. Molecular Embryology of Flowering Plants. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge. 4. Johri, B.M. (ed.) Embryology of Angiosperms. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Berlin, 5. Esau, K. 1965. Plant Anatomy. John Wiley & Sons New York. 6. Fahn, A. 1967.Plant Anatomy. Pergamon Press, London, New York. 7. Eames , A.J. and MacDaniels, L.H. 1947. An Introduction to the Plant Anatomy (2nd Ed.), McGraw Book Comp., New York. 8. Eames, A. J. 1961. Morphology of Angiosperms. McGraw Hill Book Company, New York
38
Paper-403: Plant Tissue Culture Note : 1. Nine questions will be set in all.
2. Question No.1 which will be objective covering the entire syllabus, will be compulsory. The remaining eight questions will be set with two questions from each Unit. The candidate will be required to attempt Question 1 and four more selecting one from each section.
UNIT-I
1. History of Plant Tissue Culture, Basic concept, principles and scope of plant
cell and tissue culture, concepts of cellular differentiation; Totipotency; basic techniques of plant tissue culture; callus formation, organogenesis and embryogenesis.
2. Protoplast isolation, fusion and culture, somatic hybridization, hybrid selection and regeneration. Cybrids and their application.
UNIT-II
3. In vitro haploid production and its significance, Anther/Pollen culture and ovary culture; Embryo and ovule culture for wide hybridization.
4. Micropropagation: Culture of shoot tips and root tips; meristem culture and virus-free plants; Cryopreservation of plant cell and tissue cultures and establishment of gene banks.
UNIT-III
5. Somaclonal variations in plant cell cultures; mechanisms and applications in
genotype improvement. 6. Role of plant cell cultures in clonal mass multiplication, plant breeding and
secondary metabolite production.
7. Somatic embryogenesis, production of synthetic seeds, importance, limitation and their utilization.
8. Application of tissue culture in forestry and agriculture; status of tissue and cell culture technology in India.
Suggested Readings
1. Bhojwani, S.S. and Razadan, M.K. 1996. Plant Tissue Culture: Theory and
Practice ( A revised Edition), Elsevier Science Pub., New York, USA 2. Collins, H.A. and Edwards, S. 1998, Plant Cell Culture, Bios Scientific
Pub., Oxford, U.K.
39
3. Kartha, K.K. 1985. Cryopreservation of Plant Cells and Organs, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, U.S.A.
4. Razadan, M.K. 1993. An introduction to Plant Culture. Oxford & IBH Pub., Co., New Delhi, India
5. Yeoman, M.N. (Ed.) 1987. Plant Cell Culture Technology, Narosa Publ.,New Delhi, India
40
Paper-404(a): Advanced Phycology (Elective) Note : 1. Nine questions will be set in all.
2. Question No.1 which will be objective covering the entire syllabus, will be compulsory. The remaining eight questions will be set with two questions from each Unit. The candidate will be required to attempt Question No. 1 and four more selecting one from each section.
UNIT-I
organization, oxygenic & anoxygenic photosynthesis, CO2-assimilation. 3) Relationship of nitrogen assimilation with photosynthesis and carbon metabolism:
source of energy & reductants. 4) A brief account of culture techniques and media for algal research
UNIT-II
5) Uptake of nitrogenous compounds, their transport & assimilation. 6) Nitrogen fixation: nitrogenase, regulation of nitrogenase synthesis & its activity;
heterocyst & its differentiation, mechanism of N2-fixation. 7) Hydrogen metabolism.
UNIT-III
8) Algal immobilization : methods and applications 9) Algal technologies for the restoration/ maintenance of soil fertility; reclamation of
usar soils. 10) Restoration of degraded aquatic systems through algae; High rate algal ponds for the
treatment of wastewaters (activated sludge system) for the production of useful biomass & fuels.
UNIT-IV
11) Emerging areas Algal Biotechnology: Single cell proteins, algal biofertilizers 12) Algae as food, feed and uses in Industries; A brief account of commercial potentials
of algal products & their uses. 13) Biological & technical aspects for cultivation of algae. Strain improvement for the
production of nitrogenous compounds & energy-rich fuels from algae. 14) A brief account of phycological researches in India.
Suggested Readings:
1. Akatsuka, I. (1994): Biology of Economic Algae, SPB Academic Publishing bv, Hague, Netherlands.
41
2. Becker, E.W. (1994): Microalgae - Biotechnology & Microbiology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.
3. Carr, N.C. & Whitton, B.A. (1982): The biology of cyanobacteria Blackwell Scientific Publ., Oxford, U.K.
4. Dubey, R.C. (2006): Introduction to Biotechnology, Delhi Book Trust, New Delhi. 5. Fatma, T. ( 2005): Cyanobacterial and Algal Metabolism and Environmental
Biotechnology. 6. Fay, P & C van Baalen (1987): The cyan bacteria, Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.
Amsterdam, Netherlands. 7. Graham, L.E. & Wilcox, L.W. (1999): Algae, Benjamin Cummings, USA. 8. Kashyap, A.K. (1994): Recent Advances in Phycology, Rastogi & Company, Meerut 9. Kaushik, B.D. (1987): Laboratory methods for Blue-green Algae, Associated Publishing
Co., New Delhi. 10. Morris, I. (1980): The Physiological Ecology of Phytoplankton (studies in Ecology,
Vol.7), Blackwell Scientific Publ., USA. 11. Prescott, L.M., Harley, J.P. & Klein, D.A. (1996): Microbiology, 3rd edition, Wm. C.
Brown Publishers, USA. 12. Shubert (1984): Algae as Ecological Indicators, Academic Press, U.S.A. 13. Singh, B.D. (1998): Biotechnology, Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi. 14. Singh, R.P. (1990): Introductory Biotechnology, Central Book Depot, Allahabad, India. 15. Sze, P. (1993): A. biology of the Algae, Wm. C. Brown Publishers, U.K. 16. Trainer, F.R. (1978): Introductory Phycology, John Wiley & Sons, New York, USA. 17. Venkataraman, G.S. ((1969): The Cultivation of Algae, IARI, New Delhi.
42
Paper 404 (b) - Principles of Plant Pathology (Elective)
Note: 1 Nine questions will be set in all. 2. Question No.1 which will be objective covering the entire syllabus, will be compulsory. The remaining eight questions will be set with two questions from each Unit. The candidate will be required to attempt Question No. 1 and four more selecting one from each section.
UNIT-I
1. How pathogens attack plants : chemical weapons of pathogens (enzymes and toxins) 2. How plants defend themselves against pathogens: structural defense and biochemical
defense. UNIT-II
3. Plant disease epidemiology and plant disease forecasting: Importance of disease forecasting
services, methods used in plant disease forecasting. 4. Management of plant pathogens: cultural, chemical and biological methods.
UNIT-III
5. Applications of biotechnology in Plant Pathology: The use of tissue culture techniques
(callus culture, apical meristem culture and protoplast fusion), Recombinant DNA technology, use of monoclonal antibodies in plant pathology.
6. Effect of environmental factors on disease development. UNIT-IV
7. Mycotoxin producing fungi during storage and major mycotoxins produced by them. 8. Host-pathogen interaction of population level: transmission and spread of plant pathogens.
Suggested Readings:
1. Agrios, G.N. (2005): Plant Pathology, Acad. Press, Inc. California. 2. Alexopoulos, C.J. Mins, C.W. & Blackwell, M. (1995): Introductory Mycology, John
Willy and Sons. Inc. 3. Biswas, S.P. & Biswas, A. (1984): An Introduction to Viruses, Vani Education Books,
New Delhi. 4. Clifton, A. (1958): Introduction to the Bacteria. McGraw Hill Books Co. New York. 5. Mehrotra, R.S. & Aneja, K.R. (1990): An introduction of Mycology, New Age
International Press, New Delhi. 6. Mehrotra, R.S. and Ashok Aggarwal (2003): Plant Pathology, Tata Mc Graw Hill Publ.
Ltd., New Delhi. 7. Michael J. Pelezar, E.C.S. Shan & N.R. Krieg (1993): Microbiology. Tata Mc Graw Hill
Publ. New Delhi.
43
8. Ronald M. Atlas (1995): Principles of Microbiology. Mosby-Year Book, Inc. St. Louis, Missouri, USA.
9. Singh, R.S. (1990): Plant Disease, 6th Edition, Oxford, IBH Publ., New Delhi. 10. Sumbali, G. (2005): The Fungi, Narosa Publ. House, New Delhi. 11. Webster, J. (1985): Introduction of Fungi. Cambridge University, Press.
44
Paper-404(c): CONSERVATION BIOLOGY (Elective) Note:1. Nine questions will be set in all.
2. Question No. 1, which will be objective/short-answer type covering the entire syllabus, will be compulsory. The remaining eight questions will be set section-wise with two questions from each unit I, II, III & IV. The candidates will be required to attempt Q. No. 1 and four more selecting one question from each section.
UNIT-I
1) Principles and importance of conservation biology; genetic variations, natural selection, genetic drift and gene flow, minimum viable populations, genetic swamping.
2) Biodiversity: magnitude, global accumulation; levels biodiversity-species, genetic and ecosystem diversity; species diversity indices, rank abundance patterns.
UNIT-II
patterns, Terrestrial and marine hotspots of biodiversity 4) Biodiversity and ecosystem services 5) Biodiversity of wetlands, mangroves and coral reefs-A general account
UNIT-III
6) Threats to aquatic and marine biodiversity, Species extinctions, Endangered and
threatened species of India. 7) Biosphere reserves and RAMSAR sites in India 8) Approaches for biodiversity conservation: Tropical forests, wetlands and aquatic
ecosystems. 9) Biodiversity assessment and inventory
UNIT-IV
10) Major approaches to management, Indian case studies on conservation/ management
strategy (Project Tiger, Biosphere reserves) 11) Importance of genetic resources and conservation of crop genetic resources. 12) International and National efforts to conserve biodiversity : Convention on biological
diversity, CITES, Ramsar convention ; National Biodiversity strategy 13) Role of remote sensing and GIS and biodiversity conservation
Suggested Readings :
1. Chape, S., Fish, L., Fox, P. and Spalding, M. 2003. United Nations list of protected areas. IUCN/UNEP/World Conservation Monitoring Centre, Gland, Switzerland/Cambridge
45
2. Gopal, B. (ed.) 1987. Ecology and Management of Aquatic Vegetation of the Indian Subcontinent. W. Junk bv. The Hague.
3. Heywood, V.(Ed.) (1995). Global Biodiversity Assessment. United Nations Environment Programme, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.
4. Hunter (Jr.) M.L. (1996); Fundamentals of Conservation Biology, Blackwell Science. Meffe G.K. and C. Ronals Corroll (1994) Principles of Conservation Biology, Sinaur Associates, Inc., Sunderland. Massachusetts.
5. Huston, M.A. 1994. Biological Diversity: The Coexistence of Species on Changing Landscapes. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
6. Peter H. Raven, P.H. and Berg , L. R. Berg. 2005. Environment, 5th Edition. John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York.
7. Singh,J.S., Singh,S.P. and Gupta, S.R. 2006. Ecology, Environment and Resource Conservation, Anamaya Publishers, New Delhi.
8. Soule, M.E. (ed.) (1986) : Conservation Biology. The Science of Scarcity and Diversity. Sinaur Associates, Inc., Sunderland, Massachusetts.
9. Turner, M.G., Gadner,R.H. and O,Neill, R.V. 2001. Landscape Ecology: In theory and Practice, Pattern and Processes. Spinger Verlag, New York.
46
Paper-404(d): Plant Growth Regulators (Elective) Note: Nine questions will be set in all. Question No.1 will be very short answer type questions covering the
entire syllabus will be compulsory. Remaining eight questions will be set section-wise with two questions from each Unit. As far as possible, each question will be sub-divided into parts and will not be essay type. The candidates will be required to attempt Question No.1 and four more selecting from each Unit. All questions carry equal marks.
UNIT-I
1) Phytohormones a) Recent advances in the biosynthesis and regulation of cytokinins and ethylene b) Current scenario in the mechanism of action of gibberellins, abscisic acid, salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and brassinosteroids.
UNIT-II 2) Seed Physiology
a) Seed viability and seed dormancy b) Metabolism of germinating seeds. c) Environmental and hormonal control of seed dormancy and germination.
UNIT-III 3) Senescence and Abscission a) Process of induction
b) Metabolic changes. c) Role of plant growth regulators
UNIT-IV 4) Fruit Physiology
a) Climacteric and non-climacteric fruits, fruit ripening. b) Post-harvest storage of fruits - quality maintenance, physiological and biochemical studies under different kinds of storage conditions.
Suggested Readings: 1. Krishnamoorthy, H.N. (1993). Physiology of Plant Growth and Development. Atma Ram and Sons, Delhi. 2. Khan, A.A (1977). The Physiology and Biochemistry of Seed Dormancy and germination. North-Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam, New Oxford. 3. Moore. T.C. (1989). Biochemistry and Physiology of Plant Hormones. Second edition (Reprint 1994), Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi. 4. Saymour, G.B., Taylor, J.E. and Tucker, G.A. (1993). Biochemistry of Fruit Ripening. Chapman and Hall, London. 5. Stahl, E. (1965). Thin Layer Chromatography, a laboratory handbook. Academic Press, London. 6. Taiz, L. and Zeiger, E. (1998). Plant Physiology. Second edition, Sinauer Associates, Inc., Publishers, Massachusetts, USA. 7. Wilkins, M.B. (1987). Advanced Plant Physiology. ELBS-Longman, England. 8. Srivastava, L.M. (2006). Plant Growth and Development : Hormones and Environment. Academic Press. Published by Elsevier India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi. 9. Trivedi, P.C. (2005). Applied Botany. Aavishkar Publishers, Distributors, Jaipur.
47
Paper 404 (e): Advanced Plant Molecular Biology (Elective) Note: 1. Nine questions will be set in all.
6. Question No.1 which will be objective covering the entire syllabus, will be compulsory. The remaining eight questions will be set with two questions from each Unit. The candidate will be required to attempt Question-1 and four more selecting one from each section.
Note: 1. Nine questions will be set in all.
7. Question No.1 which will be objective covering the entire syllabus, will be compulsory. The remaining eight questions will be set with two questions from each Unit. The candidate will be required to attempt Question-1 and four more selecting one from each section.
UNIT-I 1) Cell membrane: Current understanding of structure, composition and dynamics; Ion pumps,
carriers and channels; Sensory physiology. 2) Cell wall: Macromolecules, architecture, cell wall dynamics during growth and
differentiation. 3) Cytoskeleton: Actin and tubulin filaments, intermediate filaments, cytoskeletal accessory
proteins; role in intracellular transport, cell division and signal transduction.
UNIT II 4) Shoot and root development: Organization of shoot apical meristem (SAM) and root apical
meristem; control of cell division in SAM/RAM and cell to cell communication; genes involved in stem cell fate determination in SAM.
5) Floral induction and development: Basic concepts of photoperiodism and vernalization; factors influencing floral induction; epigenetic control of floral induction; genetic and molecular analysis of flower development and floral organ differentiation.
6) Gametophyte development: Overview, molecular biology of pollen germination, male sterility, self incompatibility, fertilization, seed development and seed germination.
UNIT-III
8) Light control of plant development: Basic information about phytochromes, cryptochromes and phototropins; molecular mechanisms of light perception, signal transduction and gene regulation; biological clock and its control mechanisms.
UNIT-IV
48
10) Programmed cell death (PCD): Basic concepts; types of cell death; PCD in developmental programmes and stress responses; regulation of PCD; senescence-associated genes.