burbidge ucsb

Download Burbidge UCSB

Post on 03-Jun-2018

216 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • 8/11/2019 Burbidge UCSB

    1/17

    Factors Effecting Active

    Mode Choice inTransportation

    Shaunna Kay Burbidge

    University of California, Santa Barbara

    Department of Geography

  • 8/11/2019 Burbidge UCSB

    2/17

    Transportation Trends

    The Average American spends over433 hours per year, the equivalent of

    55 eight hour work days, in their car(Mackett 2003)

    The car population is now increasing

    five times faster that the humanpopulation (USDOT 1997)

    Between 1977 & 1995 the number of

    trips the average American took onfoot dropped by 21% (Active LivingNetwork 2003)

    Of trips one mile or less,approximately 70% are made byautomobile (Killingsworth 2001)

  • 8/11/2019 Burbidge UCSB

    3/17

    Public Health Trends

    In 2004 the World Health Organization(WHO) recognized excess weight as

    one of the top five health problems indeveloped nations (NIEHS 2004)

    Over 130 million Americans are

    overweight (64%) 60 million areObese (30%) (USDOH 2004)

    These conditions are known to cause heart disease, diabetes,cardio vascular disease, stroke, asthma, cancer, and depression(Blair and Powell 1994)

    In the near future obesity will pass smoking as the number onepreventable killer of Americans (WHO 2004)

    In 2000 the medical costs attributed to inactivity and obesity totaledover $117 billion dollars (The Funders Network 2003)

  • 8/11/2019 Burbidge UCSB

    4/17

    The Connection

    Over 200,000 deaths per year (25% of allchronic disease deaths) are attributed to lack

    of physical activity (Blair and Powell 2004) Moderate daily physical activity reduces the

    risk of heart disease, keeps weight undercontrol, and improves blood cholesterol (AHA

    2003)

    As little as 30 minutes of physical activity perday can lead to drastic improvements inhealth. (Surgeon Generals recommendation)

    Over $76 billion dollars per year in directmedical costs could be saved if all physicallyinactive people met current standards for

    regular moderate physical activity (Frank andEngelke 2001)

  • 8/11/2019 Burbidge UCSB

    5/17

    Active Transportation

    Walking Almost everyone is capable of walking.

    It doesnt cost a thing except calories and time

    Men who walked at a moderate intensity for atleast 30 minutes per day reduced their risk of

    coronary heart disease (Morris & Hardman1997)

    Biking More than 42 million Americans own

    bicycles and yet currently less than 1% oftrips are made by bike (NIEHS 2004)

    People who bike at least 40 km per weekcut their risk of heart disease in half (Dora1999)

  • 8/11/2019 Burbidge UCSB

    6/17

    Deterrents to Active Travel

    Personal External- Factors effecting mode choice in a personalway that are hard to modify (ex. Disabilities or handicaps)

    Personal Internal- Factors effecting mode choice that arecontrollable by policy or persuasion (ex. Attitudes, opinions, or

    values held by individuals)

    Environmental External- Environmental factors that are not easily

    controlled by policy or persuasion (ex. Topography, climate, anddistance)

    Environmental Internal- Environmental factors that can becontrolled by policy and persuasion (ex. Community design,densities, mixed uses, etc.)

  • 8/11/2019 Burbidge UCSB

    7/17

    Personal Internal

    Travel Time

    People tend to rule out active modes dueto time constraints

    Personal SafetyIf people dont feel safe walking/bikingthey wont

    Quality Facilities and Destinations

    Destinations and adequate infrastructureare key- If there is nowhere to go, and no

    paths to use, active travel will not happen

  • 8/11/2019 Burbidge UCSB

    8/17

    Environmental External

    TopographyVaried Topography = More Work

    Climate90% of individuals consider poor weather adeterrent to walking or biking

    DistanceThe most frequently sited reason for nottraveling actively

    Thresholds for Active ModesWalking = 1.5 miles Biking = 6 miles

    Average Distances for Active ModesWalking = 0.5 miles Biking = 2 miles

  • 8/11/2019 Burbidge UCSB

    9/17

    Environmental Internal

    Zoning

    Separates land uses and isoften blamed for sprawl

    Infrastructure Design

    Residential Density

    Higher Densities promote

    active travel

    Mixed Uses

    Living closer to various

    activities encourages activetravel

  • 8/11/2019 Burbidge UCSB

    10/17

    Preliminary Questions

    Are people really as inactive as other studies claim?

    What types of trips are people most likely to take using active means?

    What factors play a role in influencing the decision to travel actively?

    What kinds of people are most likely to travel actively?

    Data Source

    Sample of 1505 individuals either living or working in Centre County, PA

    CentreSim 2 day fully annotated activity diaries

    Patten and Goulias, (2004) provide complete details on the data collection

    Research Questions

  • 8/11/2019 Burbidge UCSB

    11/17

    Activity Levels of this Sample

    Level 1- Extremely active individuals that schedule daily exercise

    and walk or bike frequently (1.2%)

    Level 2-Active individuals that schedule exercise intermittentlyand walk or bike regularly (3%)

    Level 3- Moderately active individuals that dont schedule exercisebut walk or bike occasionally (6.4%)

    Level 4- Inactive individuals who are generally sedentary and rarely walk

    or bike (89.4%)

    Level 5- Captive Sedentary individuals who cannot be active due topersonal or physical limitations (not defined in this research)

    Only 6.65% of the individuals studied made any trips using an active mode

    5 Taxonomies of Physical Activity

  • 8/11/2019 Burbidge UCSB

    12/17

    Trip Purpose for Mode Choice

    44.40%11.00%1.90%0.00%0.00%21.30%1.80%To Other Mode

    0.00%2.20%1.90%0.00%0.00%0.40%4.10%Visiting

    33.30%24.60%17.30%33.33%7.10%4.10%12.60%Recreation

    0.00%1.80%1.90%0.00%0.00%0.20%3.50%Errands

    0.00%0.20%1.00%0.00%0.00%0.00%0.20%Delivery

    0.00%1.00%1.00%0.00%0.00%0.40%7.30%Escort

    0.00%0.80%1.00%0.00%0.00%0.60%1.10%Appointment

    2.80%0.20%0.00%0.00%0.00%0.20%0.90%Medical

    0.00%0.80%0.00%0.00%0.00%0.60%0.30%Refreshment

    0.00%5.90%3.80%33.33%14.30%0.40%5.00%Dining

    0.00%3.30%0.00%0.00%0.00%1.40%13.00%Shopping

    2.80%10.90%17.30%33.33%28.60%5.80%27.80%Return Home

    0.00%4.90%8.70%0.00%0.00%19.50%1.30%From School

    0.00%3.70%9.60%0.00%21.40%4.10%6.50%From Work

    0.00%0.00%0.00%0.00%0.20%0.00%0.00%Other School

    11.10%2.50%1.00%0.00%0.00%2.90%2.10%Other Work

    2.80%10.90%19.20%0.00%0.00%33.10%1.7.0%To School

    2.80%15.20%14.40%0.00%28.6%4.60%10.80%To Work

    OtherWalk/

    Jog

    BicycleMotor-cycleTaxiBusAuto.

  • 8/11/2019 Burbidge UCSB

    13/17

    Mode Choice for Trip Purpose

    4.00%42.40%0.40%0.00%0.00%19.40%34.80%To Other Mode

    0.00%9.30%0.40%0.00%0.00%0.40%89.80%Visiting

    0.60%26.90%1.00%0.10%0.10%1.10%70.30%Recreation

    0.00%8.90%0.50%0.00%0.00%0.20%90.30%Errands

    0.00%12.90%3.20%0.00%0.00%0.00%83.90%Delivery

    0.00%2.70%0.10%0.00%0.00%0.30%96.90%Escort

    0.00%11.90%0.70%0.00%0.00%2.20%85.20%Appointment

    1.00%5.20%0.00%0.00%0.00%1.00%92.80%Medical

    0.00%30.80%0.00%0.20%0.00%5.80%63.50%Refreshment

    0.00%18.70%0.60%0.00%0.30%0.30%79.90%Dining

    0.00%4.70%0.00%0.00%0.00%0.50%94.80%Shopping

    0.00%7.00%0.60%0.00%0.10%0.90%91.30%Return Home

    0.00%29.30%2.60%0.00%0.00%27.60%40.50%From School

    0.00%9.60%1.30%0.00%0.40%2.60%86.20%From Work

    0.00%33.30%0.00%0.00%0.00%33.30%33.30%Other School

    1.40%17.70%0.30%0.0%0.00%4.90%75.70%Other Work

    0.20%38.70%3.50%0.00%0.00%27.60%30.10%To School

    0.10%21.00%1.00%0.00%0.30%1.50%76.20%To Work

    OtherWalk/JogBicycleMotorcycleTaxiBusAutomobile

  • 8/11/2019 Burbidge UCSB

    14/17

    Factors Effecting Mode Choice

    Age

    Mean age for active travelers is threeyears younger than the generalpopulation-mode age is 29 yearsyounger

    For all cases age proved to be asignificant factor for mode choice (atthe .01 level)

    2238.538.63All Active

    223938.93Walk

    222934.9Bike

    ModeMedianMean

    25.000.010.100.300.66All

    Active

    100.010.100.300.59Walk

    25.000.100.500.752.01Bike

    MaxMinModeMedianMean

    Distance

    Threshold distance:

    Walk = 1.43 Miles (1.5)Bike = 5.78 Miles (6.0)

    Average Distance:Walk = 0.59 (0.5)

    Bike = 2.01 (2.0)

    Distance was significant in determiningmode choice (R2 = 0.96)

  • 8/11/2019 Burbidge UCSB

    15/17

    Latent Cluster Analysis

    Generally Younger (Between 20 & 40)

    College Educated24.9% BD, 17.0% MD, 12.2% Ph.D.

    Not Divorced, Separated or Widowed

    Small Households70.5% < 3 people in the home

    Higher Income

    57% > $50,000 & 12.3% > $100,000

    Multiple Vehicles

    65.28% had two or more automobiles

    Driving Ability

    86.5% have a valid drivers license

    What Does an Active Traveler

    Look Like?

  • 8/11/2019 Burbidge UCSB

    16/17

    Transportation allows individuals the opportunity to increasephysical activity and promote an active lifestyle

    There are numerous deterrents to active transportation andsome can be controlled through planning and design

    Active mode choice is impacted by trip purpose with activemodes most likely being utilized for recreation and travel towork and school

    Age and distance both have a significant e