change as an organization process

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  • DCE 5632
    Organizational Change & Development


    Change As An Organization Process


    Dr Khairuddin B. Idris

    Group Member:

    Zulhilmi Sham B. Mohd Noor GS27893

    Nurul Aishah Bt. Musa GS28101

    Shaaheda Bt. Mat AriffGS27780

  • Definition of Change

    Change is the continuous adoption of corporate

    strategies and structures to changing external

    conditions.(Colin, 1990)

  • Types Of Change

    Organizational Development : This is the more gradual and evolutionary approach to change. It bases on the assumption that it is possible to align corporate objectives with the individual employees objectives.Reengineering : This is known as corporate transformation or business transformation.
  • Theories of Planned Change

    Lewins Change Model
  • 1) Unfreezing

    - Reducing those forces maintaining the organizations

    behavior at its current level.

    - Focus is to create the motivation to change.

    - Process of psychological disconfirmation.

    - Involve creating ways to reduce barriers to change.

    2) Movement

    - Shifts the behavior of the organization, department or individuals

    to a new level.

    - Involves intervening in the system to develop new behaviors,

    values & attitudes through changes in organizational structure &


    3) Refreezing

    - Change is stabilized by helping employees integrate the changed

    behaviors or attitude into their normal ways of doing things.

    - Giving employees the chance to exhibit new behaviors, which are

    then reinforced.

  • Action Research Model
  • Focuses on planned change as a cyclical process in which initial research about the organization provides information to guide subsequent action.Objective :

    - help organizations implement planned change & develop more general knowledge that can be applied to other settings

    Trends in the application of action research include movement from smaller subunits of organizations to total systems & communities.
  • Positive Model
  • Focuses on what the organization is doing right.Has been applied to planned change primarily through a process called appreciative inquiry (AI).AI encourages a positive orientation to how change is conceived & managed.
  • Resistance to change

    People and Organizations resist changes from both internal and external sources and planned and unplanned changeManagers reactionSee resistance as a problemTreat it coercivelyAdded resistanceSee resistance as a signalPeople need more information, or better treatmentGather insights from people

  • Sources of Resistance to Change

    Individual Resistance

    * Perception

    * Personality

    * Habit

    * Threats to power

    and influence

    * Fear of the unknown

    * Economic reasons

    Organizational Resistance

    * Organization design

    * Organizational culture

    * Resource limitations

    * Fixed investments

    * Interorganizational


    Resistance to Change

  • Employee Readiness for Change

    Source: Adapted from Zeira, Y., and Avedisian, J. Organizational planned change: Assessing the

    chances for success. Organizational Dynamics, Spring 1989, 37.

    Perceived Personal Risk from Change

    Level of Dissatisfaction

    with the Current






    High readiness

    for change

    Moderate to


    readiness for change

    Low readiness

    for change

    Moderate to


    readiness for change

  • Forces for


    Resistance to Change

    Direct Costs

    Fear of the Unknown

    Breaking Routines

    Incongruent Systems

    Incongruent Team Dynamics

  • Minimizing


    to Change









    Minimizing Resistance to Change

    Source: Adapted with permission from Cummings, J.G., and Worley, C.G. Organization Development

    and Change, 6th ed. Cincinnati: South-Western, 1997, 154.

  • Change Management Activities

  • 1) Motivating Change

    # Creating Readiness for Change

    - sensitive the organization to pressure for change.

    - identify gaps between actual and desired states.

    - convey credible positive expectations for change.

    # Overcoming Resistance to Change

    - provide empathy and support.

    - communicate.

    - involve member in planning and decision making.

    2) Creating a Vision

    - Describes the core purpose & values that guide the organization as well as envisioned future toward which change is directed.

    3) Developing Political Support

    - organization can be seen ad loosely structure coalitions of individual s and groups having different preferences & interest

  • 4) Managing the Transition

    - Beckhard & Harris pointed that the transition may be quite different from the current state of the organization & consequently require special management structures & activities.

    5) Sustaining Momentum

    # Activities to sustain momentum:-

    - provide resources for change.

    - build a support system for change agents.

    - develop a new competencies and skills.

    - reinforce new behaviors.

    - stay the course.

  • Strategies Of Organizational Change

    Six ways:

    Individual change strategies

    Techno structural strategies

    Data-base strategies

    Organizational development

    Violent and coercive strategies

    Nonviolent yet direct action strategies

  • Key Element Of Successful Change

    Committed and active participation of leadershipCulture changeEnergetic involvement of an empowered and educated work forceEffective communication and measurementAligning human resource systems with the goals and objectives of change
  • Definition of Organizational Development

    Burkes Definition of OD

    OD is a planned process of change in an organizations culture through the utilization of behavioral science technology, research and theory.

    Beckhards Definition of OD

    OD is an effort (1) planned, (2) organization-wide, and (3) managed from the top, to (4) increase organization effectiveness and health through (5) planned interventions in the organizations processes using behavioral science knowledge.

    Beers Definition of OD

    OD is a system-wide process of data collection, diagnosis, action planning, intervention, and evaluation aimed at: (1) enhancing congruence between organizational structure, process, strategy, people, and culture; (2) developing new and creative organizational solutions; and (3) developing the organizations self renewing capacity.

    It occurs through collaboration of organizational members working with change agent using behavioral science theory, research, and technology.


  • Organization Development is.

    a system-wide application and transfer of behavioral science knowledge to the planned development, improvement, and reinforcement of the strategies structure, and process that lead to organization effectiveness.

  • The Organization Development Process

  • Explanation

    OD process begins when an organization recognizes that a problem exist. (when leadership has a vision of a better way and wants to improve the organization)Once the decision is made to change the situation, the next step is to assess the situation to fully understand it. The type of change desired would determine the nature of the intervention. Interventions could include T & D and team interventions
  • Once the intervention is planned, it is implemented.Relevant data that gathered would be determined by the change goals. For example, if the intervention were training and development for individual employees or for work groups, data to be gathered would measure changes in knowledge and competencies.
  • Why Is OD Process Important

    It will give impact achievement towards organizational goalsIncreasing trend to maximize an organization's investment in its employeesOrganizations need to "work smarter" and apply creative ideasEmployees expect more from a day's work customers demand continually improving quality
  • What is Organization Process???

    The systematic way a

    company defines,

    organizes and implements its operations through the stages of the product life cycle

  • Organizational Process Framework

  • Flow activities are the routines and activities that effect the flow of tangible and intangible resources into, within and out of the organization.Conversion activities are the routines and activities that combine or change the form of input resources.
  • Step Of Organization Process

  • Conclusion

    Change is one of organization development process. Change is important for company development. Company development is important to ensure company survival.



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