chapter 1 communication & intercultural competence
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Communication & Intercultural Competence
Chapter SummaryThe Technological ImperativeThe Demographic ImperativeThe Economic ImperativeThe Peace Imperative
The Technological ImperativeFive Aspects of Technology Related to Culture1. Increase in Information 2. Increased Contact with People who Differ (Global Village)3. Increased Contact with People who are Similar
The Technological ImperativeFive Aspects of Technology Related to Culture4. Identity, Culture, and Technology Technology changes how we think about ourselves and our identity management. 5. Access to Communication Technology
The Technological ImperativeMobility and its Effect on CommunicationMobility in our society places us in physical contact with more people. U.S. families move more often than ever.Mobility changes the individuals involved.Young adults are more mobile than other generations.Many families relocate as a result of divorce or economic reasons.Slide *
The Demographic ImperativeThere are two sources for recent and future changes in the U.S. population: Changing U.S. DemographicsChanging Immigration Patterns
The Demographic ImperativeChanging U.S. DemographicsThe U.S. population is increasingly nonwhite and multiracial.Nonwhite populations and ethnic diversity are particularly prevalent and increasing in the South and West. (New Majority)The U.S. workforce is increasingly older and female.
The Demographic ImperativeChanging Immigration PatternsImmigration and Economic Classes A. Rigidity of economic class structureB. Income gap between rich and poor
The Demographic ImperativeChanging Immigration Patterns5. Demographic Diversity A. Differences in worldviews often lead to prejudices and stereotypes. B. A better metaphor today than the melting pot may be a "salad" or a "tapestry," which recognizes that each group will retain its own characteristics and yet contribute to the whole.
The Demographic ImperativeChanging Immigration Patterns5. Demographic Diversity (cont.)C. Diversity can be a positive force providing linguistic richness, culinary variety, new resources to meet social challenges, as well as domestic and international business opportunities.
The Economic ImperativeThe Global MarketThe recent trend toward globalization means that the U.S. economy is increasingly connected to those of other countries. Unfortunately, many American companies spend little time learning how to do business in other countries. The economy is increasingly dominated by multinational corporations. Slide *
The Economic ImperativeThe Global MarketDomestic diversity also motivates businesses to be attentive to cultural differences.
The Peace ImperativeContact among different groups has often led to disharmony.
Other conflicts are tied to economic disparities coupled with the influence of U.S. technology and media.
It is also important to recognize the role of historical, political, religions, and economic contexts. Slide *
The Self-Awareness ImperativeStudying intercultural communication helps us understand our own cultural identity and the similarities and differences that exist around the world. Slide *
A. Communication is a symbolic interpretive, transactional, contextual process in which people create shared meanings.
1. Communication is symbolic: symbols represent shared meanings.
2. Communication is interpretive: people interpret the symbolic behaviors of others
a. Communication requires understanding sufficient to accomplish the purposes of the participants.b. Communication does not require agreement among the participants.
B. There are six characteristics of communication
3. Communication is transactional: people work together to create meanings between themselves. a. Actional views hold that communication is a linear, one-way flow of ideas. b. Interactional views hold that senders should adapt persuasive messages to their receivers. c. Transactional views of communication emphasize the shared creation of messages and meanings.
4. Communication is contextual: contexts frame communicative events.
a. The physical context: the actual location of the interactants. b. The social context: expectations about behaviors within specific settings. c. The interpersonal context: expectations about behaviors in specific social relationships.
5. Communication is a process that includes people, relationships, activities, objects, and experiences that are dynamic rather than static.
6. Communication involves shared meanings that are invented and co-created between and among the participants.
1. a small number of people, e.g. couples, families, and friends; 2. people interact exclusively with one another and can choose those with whom they interact; 3. messages adapted to specific others, and participants can assess message understanding and interpretation; and 4. immediate interpretations as messages are being created.
C. Interpersonal communication is comprised of:
III. The Challenge of Communicating in an Intercultural World A. There is no choice but to live in an intercultural world. 1. Work, school, neighborhoods, personal relationships, and families are all becoming intercultural 2. Personal satisfaction will depend upon one's ability to communicate competently across cultures.
1. Negative consequences include increased doubt, reduced level of predictability about others, and increased discomfort and tensions in interacting with others who are different.
2. Positive consequences include increased opportunities and experiences.
B. Consequences of living in an intercultural world