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  • Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

    PowerPoint Lectures for

    Biology: Concepts & Connections, Sixth Edition Campbell, Reece, Taylor, Simon, and Dickey

    Chapter 17

    Lecture by Joan Sharp

    Plants, Fungi, and the

    Colonization of Land

  • Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

    Introduction: Plants and Fungi—A Beneficial Partnership

     Plants and fungi colonized land together

     Mycorrhizae, mutually beneficial associations of plant roots and fungi hyphae, enabled plants to colonize land

    – Mycorrhizal fungi absorb water, phosphorus, and other minerals from soil and make them available to the plant

    – The sugars produced by the plant nourish the fungus

  • PLANT EVOLUTION AND DIVERSITY

    Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

  •  500 million years ago, the algal ancestors of plants formed a green carpet on the edge of lakes and coastal salt marshes

     Green algae called charophytes are the closest living relatives of plants

    17.1 Plants have adaptations for life on land

    Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

  • 17.1 Plants have adaptations for life on land

    Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

     Land plants are a clade, defined by a set of derived characters

    – Alternation of haploid and diploid generations

    – Walled spores produced in sporangia

    – Male and female gametangia

    – Multicellular, dependent sporophyte embryos

  • 17.1 Plants have adaptations for life on land

    Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

     Life on land offered new opportunities

    – Unlimited sunlight

    – Abundant CO2

    – Initially, few pathogens or herbivores

  • 17.1 Plants have adaptations for life on land

    Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

     Challenges of terrestrial life

    – Maintaining moisture within cells

    – Obtaining resources from soil and air

    – Supporting body in air

    – Reproducing and dispersing offspring without water

  • Spores

    Flagellated sperm

    Stem Leaf

    Seed

    Pollen

    Leaf

    Fern Stomata; roots anchor plants, absorb water; lignified cell walls; vascular tissue; fertilization requires moisture

    Roots

    Stem

    Roots

    Pine tree Stomata; roots anchor plants, absorb water; lignified cell walls; vascular tissue; fertilization does not require moisture

    Moss Stomata only on sporophytes; primitive roots anchor plants, no lignin; no vascular tissue; fertilization requires moisture

    Spores

    Flagellated sperm

    Leaf

    Stem

    Roots

    Flagellated sperm

    Vascular tissue

    Key

    Holdfast (anchors alga)

    Alga Water supports alga. Whole alga performs photo- synthesis; absorbs water, CO2, and minerals from water.

  • Flagellated sperm

    Stem

    Leaf

    Fern Stomata; roots anchor plants, absorb water; lignified cell walls; vascular tissue; fertilization requires moisture

    Roots

    Moss Stomata only on sporophytes; primitive roots anchor plants, no lignin; no vascular tissue; fertilization requires moisture

    Spores

    Flagellated sperm

    Leaf

    Stem

    Roots

    Flagellated sperm

    Vascular tissue

    Key

    Holdfast (anchors alga)

    Alga Water supports alga. Whole alga performs photo- synthesis; absorbs water, CO2, and minerals from water.

    Spores

  • Leaf

    Seed

    Pollen

    Stem

    Roots

    Pine tree Stomata; roots anchor plants, absorb water; lignified cell walls; vascular tissue; fertilization does not require moisture

    Vascular tissue

    Key

  • 17.1 Plants have adaptations for life on land

    Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

     In all plants, the zygote develops into an embryo while attached to and nourished by the parent plant

     Plants are embryophytes, with multicellular, dependent embryos

  • Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

    17.2 Plant diversity reflects the evolutionary history of the plant kingdom

     Four key adaptations for life on land distinguish the main lineages of the plant kingdom

    – Dependent embryos (characteristic of all plants)

    – Lignified vascular tissues

    – Seeds

    – Flowers

  • Ancestral green alga

    Origin of land plants (about 475 mya)

    1

    Origin of vascular plants (about 425 mya)

    2

    Origin of seed plants (about 360 mya)

    3

    Mosses

    Lycophytes (club mosses, spike mosses, quillworts)

    Pterophytes (ferns, horsetails, whisk ferns)

    Gymnosperms

    Angiosperms

    Millions of years ago (mya)

    500 450 350 300400 0

    Liverworts

    Hornworts

  • ALTERNATION OF GENERATIONS

    AND PLANT LIFE CYCLES

    Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

  •  The haploid gametophyte produces gametes (eggs and sperm) by mitosis

     Fertilization results in a diploid zygote

     The zygote develops into the diploid sporophyte, which produces haploid spores by meiosis

     Spores grow into gametophytes

    17.3 Haploid and diploid generations alternate in plant life cycles

    Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

  • Haploid (n)

    Diploid (2n)

    Key Gametophyte plant (n)

    Gametes (n)

    Sperm

    Egg

    Mitosis

  • Haploid (n)

    Diploid (2n)

    Key Gametophyte plant (n)

    Gametes (n)

    Sperm

    Egg

    Fertilization

    Zygote (2n)

    Mitosis

  • Haploid (n)

    Diploid (2n)

    Key Gametophyte plant (n)

    Gametes (n)

    Sperm

    Egg

    Fertilization

    Zygote (2n)

    Sporophyte plant (2n)

    Mitosis

    Mitosis

  • Haploid (n)

    Diploid (2n)

    Key Gametophyte plant (n)

    Gametes (n)

    Sperm

    Egg

    Fertilization

    Zygote (2n)

    Sporophyte plant (2n)

    Meiosis

    Spores (n)

    Mitosis

    Mitosis

  • Haploid (n)

    Diploid (2n)

    Key Gametophyte plant (n)

    Gametes (n)

    Sperm

    Egg

    Fertilization

    Zygote (2n)

    Sporophyte plant (2n)

    Meiosis

    Spores (n)

    Mitosis

    Mitosis

    Mitosis

  •  Gametophytes make up a bed of moss

    – They produce eggs and flagellated sperm in gametangia

    – Sperm swim through water to the egg

     The zygote develops within the gametangium into a mature sporophyte, which remains attached to the gametophyte

    – Meiosis occurs in sporangia at the tips of the sporophyte stalk

    – Haploid spores are released from the sporangium and develop into gametophytes

    17.4 Mosses have a dominant gametophyte

    Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

  • 17.4 Mosses have a dominant gametophyte

    Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

    Animation: Moss Life Cycle

    17_04MossLifeCycle_A.html 17_04MossLifeCycle_A.html

  • MaleHaploid (n)

    Diploid (2n)

    Key Gametophytes (n)

    Female

    Sperm (n)

    Egg (n)

    Fertilization

    Female gametangium

    1

    1

  • MaleHaploid (n)

    Diploid (2n)

    Key Gametophytes (n)

    Female

    Sperm (n)

    Egg (n)

    Fertilization

    Female gametangium

    1

    1

    2

    Zygote (2n)

  • MaleHaploid (n)

    Diploid (2n)

    Key Gametophytes (n)

    Female

    Sperm (n)

    Egg (n)

    Fertilization

    Female gametangium

    1

    1

    2

    Zygote (2n)Sporophyte (2n)

    3 Mitosis

    and development

    Sporangium

    Stalk

  • MaleHaploid (n)

    Diploid (2n)

    Key Gametophytes (n)

    Female

    Sperm (n)

    Egg (n)

    Fertilization

    Female gametangium

    1

    1

    2

    Zygote (2n)Sporophyte (2n)

    3 Mitosis

    and development

    Sporangium

    Stalk

    4

    Meiosis

    Spores (n)

  • MaleHaploid (n)

    Diploid (2n)

    Key Gametophytes (n)

    Female

    Sperm (n)

    Egg (n)

    Fertilization

    Female gametangium

    1

    1

    2

    Zygote (2n)Sporophyte (2n)

    3 Mitosis

    and development

    Sporangium

    Stalk

    4

    Meiosis

    Spores (n)

    5 Mitosis and

    development

  • 17.5 Ferns, like most plants, have a dominant sporophyte

    Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

     Fern gametophytes are small and inconspicuous

    – They produce flagellated sperm that swim to the egg and fertilize it to produce a zygote

    – The zygote initially develops within the female gametangia but eventually develops into an independent sporophyte

     Sporangia develop on the underside of the leaves of the sporophyte

    – Within the sporangia, cells undergo meiosis to produce haploid spores

    – Spores are released and develop into ga

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