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Chapter 4: Roman Civilization

Chapter 4: Ancient RomeEtruscan InfluenceArchitectureEtruscan TemplesSteps only on one side.Deep front porch.Enclosed area (cella) is divided into three rooms.

Etruscan InfluenceArchitectureEtruscan TombsTwo types:Corbeled domesRock cut chambers forming rectangular rooms.They were made with tufa, a type of stone that hardens when exposed to the air.

Etruscan InfluenceArchitectureEtruscan TombsThey tended to replicate home-life.Men and women appeared to be equal in status.

Etruscan InfluenceEtruscan SculptureCapitoline She-WolfThis was a bronze sculpture created ca. 500 B.C.E.The twins, Romulus and Remus, were later added by the Romans.

The Roman RepublicSocial StructureClassesPatricians: land-owning aristocrats.Plebeians: poor class.SlavesCommonly captured in war.Also debtors.

The Roman RepublicSocial StructurePietas is the total obedience to the father of the household.Government, in regard to class, was supposed to work in the same fashion.Patricians were the adults when compared to the plebeians.

The Roman RepublicSocial StructureThe patricians also were patrons in some cases.If they favored a particular art, they would support the artist, becoming their patron.

The Roman RepublicMilitary ExpansionPunic WarsIt began over the ownership of Sicily.The war was fought against the African city-state, Carthage.

The Roman RepublicMilitary ExpansionPunic WarsThe Carthaginians were descended from the Phoenicians.The Latin term for Phoenician is Punic.

The Roman RepublicMilitary ExpansionJulius CaesarHe conquered Gaul, modern France.He manipulated the Roman Senate into declaring him dictator for life.

The Roman RepublicMilitary ExpansionJulius CaesarHe was later assassinated on March 15, 45 B.C.E.This led to a civil war that led to the downfall of the Roman Republic.

The Roman RepublicRoman ArtThey copied the Greeks.They focused on larger than life images.They also displayed real people as opposed to mythical and perfect figures.They also created imagines, death-masks.

The Roman RepublicRoman ArtArchitectureComposite order were columns in which they combined the acanthus leaves and the volutes.Corinthian columns were commonly used in Rome.Engaged columns were aesthetic columns that had no structural support.

The Roman RepublicRoman ArtArchitectureEngineering AdvancesConcreteThe ArchThe Dome

The Roman RepublicRoman ArtArchitectureEngineering AdvancesThe Aqueduct which brought fresh water to Rome from mountains seven miles away.Road construction.

The Roman RepublicRoman LiteratureCatullus wrote love poems.Plautus and Terence both wrote comedic-dramas.

CatullusPlautusTerenceThe Roman EmpireOctavian Caesar (r. 27 B.C.E-14 C.E.)He was Julius Caesars adopted son and nephew. He ended the civil war, avenging his uncle, and eventually became the Augustus.

The Roman EmpireOctavian CaesarHis administration and conquest would develop the Pax Romana or Roman Peace.Within the empire, trade and the economy were escalated.

The Roman EmpireThe Decline of the EmpireRome would experience approximately 170 years of successful emperors.However, with the rise of Commodus, the empire began to slowly crumble.

The Roman EmpireThe Decline of the EmpireEmperor Diocletian divided the empire into a tetrarchy which helped to prolong the downfall of Rome.

The Roman EmpireThe Decline of the EmpireEmperor ConstantineHe restored the empire.However, he moved the capital to Byzantium, which became known as Constantinople.This move would save the Eastern Empire (Byzantium) but destroy the Western Empire.

The Roman EmpireThe Decline of the EmpireRomulus AugustulusHe was the child emperor.He was deposed by the Goth, Odovacer in 476 C. E.This brought the official end of the Western Roman Empire.

The Roman EmpireMusic of the EmpireIt was loud and aggressive (militaristic).InstrumentsTubaHydraulos (water power organ)

The Roman EmpireArchitecture of the EmpireRoman Forum was the center of city life and resembled the Greek agora.

The Roman EmpireArchitecture of the EmpireColosseum was an amphitheatre (amphi = both and theatre = semicircle) used for sporting events.

The Roman EmpireArchitecture of the EmpirePantheon It has an interior circular room and is dedicated to all the gods.

The Roman EmpireArchitecture of the EmpirePantheon The top has an oculus (eye) that allows light in.Coffers are the square indentation that were overlaid with gold, reflecting light into the interior.

The Roman EmpireSculptures of the EmpireAugustus of Primaporta

The Roman EmpireSculptures of the EmpireAra Pacis (Altar of Peace)First real use of perspective in sculpting.

The Roman EmpireSculptures of the EmpireColumn of TrajanRoman columns were built to celebrate victories.

The Roman EmpireSculptures of the EmpireEquestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius

The Roman EmpireSculptures of the EmpireThe Head of CaracallaOne of the first sculptures to show stress.Pupils and irises carved.Brow is contracted and the head furrowed.

The Roman EmpireSculptures of the EmpireThe Head of ConstantineShown as both mystical and majestic.

The Roman EmpireSculptures of the EmpireThe Arch of Constantine

The Roman EmpirePaintings of the EmpireThe only type of paintings to survive were murals (wall paintings).First Style: The wall is given the illusion of marble.

The Roman EmpirePaintings of the EmpireSecond Style (cubiculum): creates open spaces using perspective, which is inconsistent.

The Roman EmpirePaintings of the EmpireThird Style: is ornamental or ornamented with an emphasis on monochromic.RedBlackWhite

The Roman EmpirePaintings of the EmpireFourth Style: is a blending of all three previous styles.

The Roman EmpireStoicism of the EmpireThe two main adherents of stoicism in the empire were Epictetus and Marcus Aurelius.

Epictetus

Marcus AureliusThe Roman EmpireHistorians of the EmpireSallust He wrote about the corruption of Roman politics.

The Roman EmpireHistorians of the EmpireLivy He wrote Romes most extensive history.

The Roman EmpireHistorians of the EmpireTacitus He analyzed the decline of political freedom and the increasing role of dynastic power.

The Roman EmpireLiterature of the EmpireVirgilHe wrote The Aeneid, a Roman epic recounting the founding of the city and its history.

The Roman EmpireLiterature of the EmpireGaius LuciliusHe was one of the best known satirists (this was the only new contribution the Romans made to writing).

The Roman EmpireLiterature of the EmpireHoraceHe was well known for his odes (lyrical poems).

The Roman EmpireLiterature of the EmpireOvidHe was wrote witty and ironic poems.

The Roman EmpireLiterature of the EmpireSenecaHe wrote revenge tragedy.

The Roman EmpireLiterature of the EmpirePetroniusHe created a realistic picture of the manners, luxuries, and vices of the age.